Yono Class / Ghadir Class Midget Submarine
In 2005 Iran announced it would start production of its first indigenous submarine. Iran on 11 May 2005 officially launched the production of its first locally built submarine, a craft capable of operating stealthily, state-run television reported. Defence Ministry spokesman Mohammad Imani was quoted as saying "the enemy would not be able to detect the submarine." He did not elaborate. One submarine had already been built and was shown on television, cruising at sea level. The Defence Ministry had commissioned an unspecified number of the craft that's been dubbed "Ghadir."
The hull was launched in 2006. In 2007 the Iranian navy unveiled a submarine, named the Qadir (also written Ghadir), first of a number of planned midget submarines of the Yono class. Some observers suggested that the Qadir was otherwise similar to the North Korean Yugo boats, leading observers to suggest that this was an Iranian design based heavy on that class. But the Ghadir was 50% longer than the Yugo, and in fact resembled the North Korean Sang-O Class coastal submarines.
Iranian authorities asserted that the Qadir was an entirely Iranian design, and that the vessel could launch anti-ship missiles. Such a capability would have required the installation of more advanced systems into the submarine or the operation in concert with other vessels capable of guiding any such missiles. The Qadir does have provisions for mounting a Swimmer Delivery Vehicle (SDV), a type of craft that Iran has also developed.
Iran described the Ghadir as a "light" submarine, meaning it is smaller than the attack subs used by the United States. Iran has provided very little information about the craft, including its dimensions or the size of its crew.
The Shi'a celebrate the Eid al-Ghadir on 18 Dhu al-Hijja in the Islamic calendar, the day when Prophet Muhammad appointed Ali for the caliphate. Ghadir is a site in the Arabian Peninsula holy to Shias, the overwhelming majority of Iran's 69 million people. On 18th Zilhajjah of the year 10 A.H. (10 March 632 CE), after completing the last pilgrimage the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) along with the Muslims set out of Makkah. On their way back the Muslims reached a place called Ghadir-e-khumm. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) said: "He (Ali) is the mawla (i.e., has prior right to and superior authority over the lives) of all those of whom I am mawla. O Allah, love him who loves him (Ali) and hate him who hates him." The "day of Ghadeer" is particularly specified for helping deserving people."
The submarine, which is capable of operating in the Persian Gulf and Oman seawaters, can launch both missiles and torpedoes at the same time, the television reported, without specifying the range of the projectiles. In December 2004, Iran announced the production of a line of stealth torpedoes that could be launched from helicopters, ships or submarines. Iranian officials have repeatedly said the Islamic Republic will defend itself should the United States or archrival Israel initiate any aggression. Pressure has mounted on Iran recently with suspicion over its nuclear program which Washington suspects is aimed at building unconventional weapons, a charge Iranian officials vehemently deny.
OSgeoint noted in October 2011 that "a review of satellite imagery on 22 March 2005 shows Iran breaking ground on what will be the Defense Industries Organizationís Ghadir (SSC) submarine fabrication-maintenance shop at Bandar-e-Abbas. By 10 February 2008, imagery shows the majority of the construction, including the base for the wharf and the transverse table, complete while a gantry crane is waiting to be assembled. Imagery from 9 June 2009 confirms the maintenance-fabrication shop operational but also suggests the facility was being utilized at a much earlier date."
In November 2007 Iran claimed to have built a small submarine equipped with sonar-evading technology, saying the craft had been launched in the Persian Gulf. The navy chief, Adm. Habibollah Sayyari, was quoted by state television as saying the new Ghadir-class submarine is the second Iranian-built underwater craft outfitted with "state-of-the-art electronic equipment." He said it took 10 years to build.
Iran's Naval Submarine fleet will be equipped with a new domestically manufactured submarine, the senior Iranian navy commander said in August 2008. Rear Admiral Habibollah Sayyari said that Iranian technicians have used indigenous technology to build the new submarine. He did not specify the class of the new submarine. Iran's Navy currently operates Ghadir and Nahang (meaning whale in Persian) submarines. According to Rear Adm. Sayyari, the Ghadir submarine is equipped with the latest military and technological equipments.
On 26 November 2008 the Commander of the Islamic Republic Army's Navy Rear Admiral Habibollah Sayyari said that in next 15 days another Ghadir class submarine would be delivered to the Navy. Sayyari told reporters after touring IRNA head office that the submarine has been designed and built by Marine Industries Organization. He said moreover, a light submarine will join the Navy's fleet on the Navy Day. He added that once the submarines join the Navy, its deterrent power deep inside the sea will increase dramatically. This would mark possibly the fouth submarine in this class.
Reportedly being mass produced [reportedly at a cost of $18 million each], the first of this class, Ghadir, has been paraded for the press. Although usually described as a mini-submarine, it is rather larger than Iran's other mini-subs. The Ghadir, with a displacement estimated at between 120 tons and 500 tons, is probably better described as a coastal or littoral submarine, similar in concept to the Italian Sauro class though significantly smaller. Photographs indicate it has a pair of bow torpedo tubes which appear to be 21" allowing them to fire typical heavyweight torpedoes. It could thus serve as a launch platform for the infamous Shkval rocket torpedo, which has been transfered to Iran.
The Iranian navy has commissioned and acquired two Ghadir-class diesel-electric submarines to enhance Iranian naval operations in waterways such as the Persian Gulf, according to Iranís state TV. The miniature submarines took about 18 months to build, Times of Israel reported 29 NOvember 2018, citing a report carried on Iranian state television. Both underwater boats were constructed inside Iran, which began producing the Ghadir-class subs around 2005. The subs are equipped with sonar-evading technology and underwater-launched cruise missiles, Times of Israel notes. The mini subs, sometimes called midget subs, displace fewer than 120 metric tons of water.
According to video of a ceremony inducting the submarines into the Iranian navy, Adm. Mojtaba Mohammadi said the sub beside him was the 14th Iranian-made submarine to join the country's navy. While it's not clear how many submarines there are in the Iranian fleet in total, the Times of Israel said it was believed there were 12 light submarines and a trio of Russian-made underwater boats.
Strategy Page noted 30 November 2018 that "One was newly built (over 18 months) while the other underwent a ten-month refurbishment. That would make 22 of these in service although there have been reports that some have been lost due to accidents at sea. After ten years of trial and error, they produced the first 120 ton Ghadir (Qadir) class vessels in 2005. By 2012 Iran claimed to have 21 of these small diesel-electric subs but no new ones were produced until recently. Some of the Ghadirs have undergone upgrades or refurbishment."
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|