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Indonesia History - Janggala - 1042-1222

Janggala was an ancient kingdom of Java, in the country of the proper Javanese nation. Javanese authorities are not agreed as to the time when this kingdom, of great reputation in Javanese story, flourished. One manuscript places it in the year corresponding with that of Christ, 818, and another in 1082, the discrepancy arising, it seems, from a confusion of two different polities. Its locality, or at least that of its capital, was the modern province of Surabaya, a district of which, strewed with ancient relics, still retains the name.

So much of the native accounts as relate to the period anterior to the establishment of the empire of Jang'gala, in the ninth century, is confused, obscure, contradictory, and interpolated with the fabidous and heroical histories of continental India; but from that epoch they correspond essentially, and from the subversion of Paganism (AD 1475) they arc circumstantial, and claim attention, not only as illustrative of the character of the people, but as historical records of the transactions of the times.

Omitting the records of many centuries relating to the reigns and successions of the Hindu princes, which give a much greater antiquity to Java than has been supposed, comes the reign of Dewa Kasoema, who is said to have established the kingdom of Jang'gala, and built its capital about the year 846. Its ancient site is still to be seen in the forests near the modern city of Soerabaja. It is related of Dewa Kasoema that he sent his four sons and one daughter to India, to be instructed in the worship of Brahma, and when they returned he divided his kingdom among his sons; consequently, at his death, Java was separated into four sovereignties. Panji, the grandson of this prince, became the favorite hero of a celebrated Javanese romance, which furnishes characters for one of the most popular dramatic performances of the country. The Javanese still revere his memory, and with pride allege that he introduced the wearing of the kris into all the countries over which he reigned, and that these are now determined by the inhabitants wearing that weapon thrust into the belt behind.

By another account, the kingdom of Jang'gala was founded about 921 AD by Ddwa Kasuma, a descendant of Sawela Chala, who is said to have sent his children to India to be educated. The reign of his eldest son Ami Luhur, who married an Indian princess, was celebrated for the extensive intercourse which then took place with foreign nations. On his death he was succeeded by his son Panji.who became, says Sir Stamford Raffles, the "most renowned hero of Javan story." He visited the island of Bali and introduced the kris into the islands further east, which then acknowledged his supremacy. One of his rivals was a prince of Celebes, who subjugated the neighboring islands and afterwards established himself on Sumatra in the county since called Pal6mbang. Panji was also called Si Malayu, which means a wanderer, and it is supposed by some writers that the Malayans derived their name from that source.* Sir Stamford Raffles remarks that during that period "some government was established in the other islands of the archipelago, in which a similarity of religion, character and usages prevailed."

The names of places are of more interest to the antiquary. The name of the island of Madura is from Madhura, the present Muttura of Upper Hindustan, so celebrated as a place of pilgrimage. Ayugya, the name of the capital of one of the native princes of Java, is a corruption of Ayudhya, the name of the kingdom of the demigod Rama. This is the word which we write Oude. Indrakila is the name of an ancient kingdom of Java, and means "the bolt of Indra." Indramaya, the name of a place on the northern coast of Java, and in the country of the Sundas, means "the illusion of Indra." Indrapura, a place on the western coast of Sumatra, signifies "the city of Indra." Talaga is the name of a district of Java in the country of the Sundas, and is a corruption of the Sanskrit taraga, "a pond," which it takes from a lake within it. Janggala, the name of an ancient kingdom of Java in the country of the Sundas, means "a thicket."

It is said that in times long past the sage Mpu Bharada divided the land of Java into the kingdoms of Janggala and Panjalu (Kediri), with the purpose of settling a dispute between two brothers over the right to royal succession. The division was created magically, by means of holy water sprinkled out of a jar from the sky. The story of the division of Java by the sage Mpu Bharada is of course well known, and refers to the reign of King Airlangga in the 11th century.

The famous 'Calcutta Stone', dating from AD 1041, describes a terrible calamity which befell the East Javanese kingdom of Isana in the early years of the 11th century. A rebellion incited by a jealous vassal king resulted in the destruction of the capital of Watugaluh. In AD 1016, King Dharmawangsa of East Java suffered a crushing defeat. According to reports preserved from the time, the whole of Java looked like a 'sea of fire'. Dharmawangsa and most of his followers were killed. Only the young Airlangga, who was aged about 16 at the time, managed to escape unharmed.

Airlangga, as the closest surviving relative to Dharmawangsa, emerged to take over the throne in about 1020. The early part of his reign was spent putting down rebellions and securing the borders of his kingdom. Among his successful military campaigns were those against King Wishnuprabhawa of Wuratan, King Wijaya of Wengker, as well as the subjugation of a powerful queen in the south. In 1032 Airlangga attacked and defeated the ruler of Wurawari, who is believed to have been responsible for the earlier destruction of the old capital of Isana.

During the reign of King Erlangga both East Java and Bali enjoyed a lucrative trade with the surrounding islands, directly relating to a period of artistic advancement and mastery. Parts of the Mahabarata epic were translated and re-interpreted to conform closer to an East Javanese philosophy and view of life, and it was from this era that East Java inherited much of its treasure of temple art. By the end of Airlangga's reign, in the mid 11th century, the kingdom which he had established is believed to have stretched from Pasuruan in the east, to present day Madiun in the west.

Towards the end of his life, Airlangga was faced with the problem of succession. The rightful heir, the princess Sanggramawijaya, refused the throne, preferring to live her life as a hermit. She is traditionally associated with the legend of Dewi Kilisuci and the cave of Selomangleng at Kediri. Airlangga's realm was, as a result, eventually divided between two of his sons, giving rise to the separate kingdoms of Janggala and Kediri.

Contrary to Airlangga's hopes, however, these two kingdoms became bitter rivals, a condition which was to last for more than two centuries. Initially, Janggala was the more prominent, but at the turn of the 12th century Kediri came to the forefront. Kediri was to become the dominant power until the rise of Singosari in the early 13th century.

The empire of Mendang Kamulan and its race of princes becoming extinct, the kingdoms which rose up and succeeded to it were: Janggala (with Ami Luhur as prince) Kediri (with Lembu Ami Jaya as prince), Ngarawan (with Lembu Ami Sesa as prince), Singa Sari (with Lembu Ami Lueh as prince). These kingdoms were afterwards united under Panji Suria Ami Sesa, the son of Ami Luhur. Panji Suria dying, he was succeeded by his song Panji Lalean, who removed the seat of government from Janggala to Pajajaram in the year 1200 (1273 p.d.). Kuda or Maisa Lalean (the successor of Panji) reunited the separate authorities (at Browerno, Singasari and Kediri) under the supremacy of Janggala, but seeing his eastern kingdom dismembered (by the intrigues of Baka, his minister), he (in consequence of pestilence and the eruption of the Vulcan Klut) left his capital, to found a new kingdom in the west.

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