Indonesia History - The Spread of Indian Civilization
|Sunda / Pajajaran||669||1579|
|Mataram / Medang [Sanjaya]||752||1045|
Javanese, the language of Indonesia, is a member of the Malayo-Polynesian linguistic family. Malay is also a widely known trade language. Java has been the focal area within Indonesia where wet-rice sawah cultivation and inland urban-based kingdoms arose over 1,500 years ago, in contrast to the dry-rice and sparsely settled areas of Outer Indonesia.
During the early centuries AD, elements of Indian civilization, especially Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism, were brought to Sumatra and Java and stimulated the emergence of centralized states and highly organized societies. Scholars disagree on how this cultural transfer took place and who was involved. Apparently, traders and shippers, not just Indian but Indonesian as well, were primarily responsible. Small indigenous states existed in the coastal regions of western Indonesia at a time when Indian Ocean trade was flourishing.
But, unlike the Islamic culture that was to come to Indonesia nearly 1,000 years later, India in the first centuries AD was divided into a rigid caste hierarchy that would have denied many features of Indian tradition to relatively low-caste merchants and sailors. Historians have argued that the principal agents in Indianization were priests who were retained by indigenous rulers for the purpose of enhancing their power and prestige. Their role was largely, although not exclusively, ideological.
In Hindu and Buddhist thought, the ruler occupied an exalted position as either the incarnation of a god or a bodhisattva (future Buddha). This position was in marked contrast to the indigenous view of the local chief as merely a "first among equals." Elaborate, Indian-style ceremonies confirmed the ruler's exalted status. Writing in Sanskrit brought literacy to the courts and with it an extensive literature on scientific, artistic, political, and religious subjects.
Javanese temple complexes of the 13th to 15th centuries were mainly built of brick, constructed especially between AD 1260 and AD 1450. Many of these are found along the Brantas River, which begins near Malang, then flows west past Blitar, then north through Kediri, then northeast to the sea at Surabaya. These four areas (Malang, Blitar, Kediii, and Surabaya) each contain concentrations of temples of this period. Malang and Kediri were capitals of rival kingdoms [known mainly from inscriptions and Chinese sources] which were unified in AD 1222 to form the kingdom of Singasari.
Some writers are skeptical about the role of priests because high-caste Brahmins would have been prohibited by Brahmanic codes from crossing the polluting waters of the ocean to the archipelago. Some must have gone, however, probably at the invitation of Southeast Asian courts, leading to the hypothesis that Hinduism may indeed have been a proselytizing religion.
In the early nineteenth century, the British faced mutinies by their high-caste Indian troops who refused to board ships to fight a war in Burma. Perhaps such restrictions were less rigid in earlier times, or the major role in cultural diffusion was played by Buddhists, who would not have had such inhibitions.
Although the culture of India, largely embodied in insular Southeast Asia with the Sanskrit language and the Hindu and Buddhist religions, was eagerly grasped by the elite of the existing society, typically Indian concepts, such as caste and the inferior status of women, appear to have made little or no headway against existing Indonesian traditions.
Nowhere was Indian civilization accepted without change; rather, the more elaborate Indian religious forms and linguistic terminology were used to refine and clothe indigenous concepts. In Java even these external forms of Indian origin were transformed into distinctively Indonesian shapes. The tradition of plays using Javanese shadow puppets (wayang), the origins of which may date to the neolithic age, was brought to a new level of sophistication in portraying complex Hindu dramas (lakon) during the period of Indianization. Even later Islam which forsakes pictorial representations of human brings, brought new developments to the wayang tradition through numerous refinements in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries.
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