Type 214 / Type 209PN
The Type 214 Submarine is being built for export by Kockums and HDW and will use two AIP (Air Independent Propulsion) systems - Fuel Cell and Stirling. Germany, Greece, Indonesia, Portugal and South Korea plan to use various derivatives of the Type 214.
The Type 214 submarines are equipped with air independent propulsion (AIP) and flank array sonar (FAS). AIP can extend the underwater operation period of the diesel-powered submarines to five to six times longer than that of conventional submarines. For military applications, the advantages of an extremely quiet power source confer great tactical benefits and the current disadvantages of relatively low output compared to its size and weight mean that the first large units are in underwater systems.
The latest additions to the German shipbuilder HDW's highly successful Type 209 family of submarines, the Type 212 (ordered by Germany and Italy), the Type 214 (ordered by Greece), and the Type 800, are all fuel cell powered. A submarine that uses fuel cells rather than a diesel engine to recharge its batteries produces much less sound while doing so, and consequently the effective detection range of many of the current passive acoustic sonobuoys is reduced.
PEM (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) fuel cells are known for their efficient conversion of hydrogen (as fuel) and oxygen into electrical energy. Optimised for the specific requirements in submarines they are the key component for the generation of electrical energy in future conventional submarines with increased operational range during silent run built by the shipyard HDW. Siemens developed and manufactured two different types of PEM fuel cell modules, one type for the German and Italian U 212 submarines and the other one for the U214 submarine respectively, as they will be used by the Hellenic and the South Korean navy.
The Hellenic Navy (HN) embarked on a new construction submarine program, and contracted with the German firm for the Type 214 submarine. In October 1998, the government announced its decision to procure up to four Type 214 SSKs. Its eight Glavkos-class SSKs remain operational. In February 2000 the Skaramangas Shipyards signed an agreement with Ferrostaal Essen and HDW Kiel for the building of three Type 214 submarines, with an option for the construction of one more. The total cost of the contract for the submarines comes to 430 billion drachmas, with offset benefits for Greek industries amounting to some 76 billion drachmas, or 19 percent of the contract. Work began on the first submarine at the Kiel shipyard 12 months later, with a delivery date of 60 months. The second sub was to be delivered in 85 months' time. The first Type 214 submarine was set for delivery to Greece in 2005.
As part of the overall program, the HN has a requirement for a heavyweight torpedo. A team of USN and Raytheon personnel visited Greece in November 2000 to brief the MK 48 MOD 6 ADCAP and the possibility for a more economical commercial alternative. A USN position on this alternative solution (the MK48 MOD6AT) was staffed in the submarine community. The alternative would become a team effort, led by Raytheon, with participation by Northrup Grumman and the USN. The main Greek opposition New Democracy party (ND) accused the government of non-transparent practices in awarding the submarine contracts.
In early November 2000 the ROK Defense Ministry picked the German firm Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW) and its Type 214 submarine as the foreign contractor for the next-generation "KSS-II" submarine project to supply three 1,800 ton-class submarines to the Navy by 2009. South Korea selected the German company's Type 214 submarine over the French Scorpene submarine because the Germans offered a better price and parts supply. The South Korean Government had abandoned plans to acquire three Kilo-Class 636 second-hand submarines from Russia, as part-payment for an outstanding loan of $1.75 billion. Valuing the submarines at $1.1 billion after inspection, the Korean team concluded the boats did not meet quality requirements.
In late November 2000 the ROK Defense Ministry selected Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. (HHI) for the 1.27 trillion-won ($1.12 billion) project to build submarines with the German firm's technology and design. Hyundai Heavy, a shipbuilding arm of the giant Hyundai Group, outbid rival Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Ltd. to team up with HDW. Hyundai Heavy won the contract as it offered lower prices and was in better financial shape than Daewoo Shipbuilding. Daewoo Shipbuilding had enjoyed a virtual monopoly in the South Korean submarine industry until early 1999, when the Defense Ministry allowed Hyundai to participate in the KSS-II submarine project. By acquiring technology from foreign contractors, the ROK Defense Ministry had hoped to design its own submarines by 2010.
A pair of new portugese Class Type U-209PN were delivered by TKMS Kiel to the Portugese navy in 2009-2010. The submarines have a combined diesel-electric and fuel cell propulsion system. Equipped with ultra-modern sensors and an integrated Command and Weapon Control System, it is optimally suited to its future reconnaissance and surveillance tasks. The contract for the two submarines was signed in 2004 between the Portuguese State and the German Submarine Consortium (GSC). Two new German Class 209 submarines -- one named Tridente, the other Arpao ("Harpoon") -- give the Portuguese Navy the capacity for defense and law enforcement patrol. It should be noted that Portugal caused increases in the price by specifying upgrades to the base 209 design, with features from the newer Class 214 submarines.
As of 2012 a total of 22 Type 214 submarines had been contracted: 02 Portugal, 04 Greece, 10 South Korea, 06 Turkey.
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