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Malta - Politics

Two parties (or movements as they prefer to call themselves) dominate Maltas polarized and evenly divided politics -- the Nationalist Party, led by Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi, and the Malta Labor Party. The Nationalist Party Government applied in 1990 to join the EU and received a positive European Commission Opinion in 1993. The Labour Government of 1996-1998 froze, but did not withdraw, the membership application. The Nationalist Party reactivated it on their return to office in 1998. EU accession negotiations were completed in December 2002. A referendum in March 2003 was won by those in favor of EU membership.

Although the referendum in 2003 on EU membership gave the Nationalist Party (PN) government a mandate to proceed with ratifying the treaty for accession to the EU in May 2004, the opposition continued to insist that it would take Malta out of the Union if it won the election in 2004, and so the government called an early election.

On 12 April 2003 the Nationalist Party retained power for 5 years with over 51% of the vote, which decisively closed the EU debate. This decisive election victory enabled Fenech Adami to sign the Accession Treaty in Athens in April 2003. Following the election, the Malta Labour Party, which had won 30 seats, decided to end its opposition to EU membership, thus ending a long and intense period when political activity was focused on one issue.

In March 2004, soon after Edward Fenech-Adamis 70th birthday, he retired as Prime Minister and was replaced by Lawrence Gonzi. In March 2004 Fenech Adami was elected President of Malta by Parliament and assumed office on 4 April 2004. He replaced Professor Guido de Marco for a 5-year term.

In 2008 the Malta Labor Party renamed itself simply the Labor Party (Partit Laburista (PL)) and chose a new leader, former European Parliament member Joseph Muscat. Elections invariably generate a widespread voter turnout; in March 2008 the turnout was 93%. The margin between the two parties is so narrow that a 52% share of the votes is considered a "landslide" for the winning party. In the March 2008 elections, the Nationalist Party won reelection with 49.3% of the vote, earning it 35 seats, while the Labor Party received 48.8% of the vote (and 34 seats). While the two main parties dominate, two other parties were on the ballot in 2008, Alternative Demokratika (Green Party) and Azzjoni Nazzjonali (National Action--which since then has altered its role from a political party to an organization); neither managed to secure a seat in parliament.

In April 2009, at the end of President Fenech-Adamis five-year term, Dr George Abela was unanimously elected President by parliament. The second round of European Parliament elections, held in June 2009, resulted in the election of the two incumbent Nationalist Party members of parliament (MPs) and three candidates for the Labor Party, including two incumbent MPs, as well as the possibility of a fourth candidate, once Malta gets the sixth seat in the European Parliament.

On 10 December 2012 the government lost its one-vote majority and was unable to enact its 2013 budget. Parliament was dissolved in January 2013 and an election called. In March 2013 the government won the general election with an "overwhelming" majority. PL secured 39 seats, with 54.8 per cent of votes cast, and PN 30 seats with 43.3 per cent. Turnout was again 93 percent.

During the election campaign, the PN, which had otherwise governed without interruption since 1987, ran on the government's record, stating that it had managed to avert the economic turmoil affecting other euro zone countries in the Mediterranean. The government generated a dynamic economy, reduced taxes, got rid of cancer-causing energy sources, improved social benefits and students stipends, given long-overdue rights, broken all employment records in employment and foreign investment among other notable achievements while retaining a healthy majority. The MLP promised to reduce electricity prices by 25% and to tackle corruption.

In April 2014, at the end of President Abelas five-year term, Marie Louise Coleiro Preca was unanimously elected President by parliament.

Events (factual or alleged) since the outbreak of the Panama Papers had shaken the very core of the countrys moral fiber, placing at risk the serenity of a stable and mature democracy. Developments in early 2017 implicated the prime minister himself in huge secretive money transfers in personal bank accounts.

Contempt of the president remains punishable by one to three months imprisonment or a fine. It is also a criminal offense to offend public morality, propriety, or decency. The law also criminalizes speech that promotes hatred on grounds of gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, color, language, ethnic origin, religion or belief, or political or other opinion. There are daily and weekly newspapers in English, including The Malta Independent, The Malta Independent on Sunday, The Times, The Sunday Times, The Malta Business Weekly and Malta Today, and daily and weekly papers in Maltese. The principal newspapers in Maltese have political affiliations, for example In-Nazzjon (daily) and Il-Mument (weekly) with the Nationalist Party, and L-Orizzont (daily) and It-Torca (weekly) with the General Workers Union.

Television Malta is a public channel, which began broadcasting in 1962, and Radio Malta has provided public radio since the mid- 1930s. Other TV channels and radio stations are owned by the political parties, the Roman Catholic Church or commercial broadcasters. Net TV is owned by the Nationalist Party and Super One TV by the Partit Laburista (Labour Party). Cable TV was introduced in 1992 and many households have satellite receivers. Virtually all households have at least one TV set. Digital radio broadcasting was launched in 2008. It is also possible to receive the broadcasts of Italian radio and TV in Malta.

In the face of the Egrant allegations, on 01 May 2017 Prime Minister Joseph Muscat called a snap election saying that the corruption allegations risked undermining the economy. The media frenzy during election month culminated with a showdown between the two Party leaders during a debate broadcast live on Xarabank, which was preceded by the publication of the leaked FIAU reports. While Busuttil seemed to have the political edge, Muscat came out on top - memorably calling Busuttil a 'chicken' when he refused to support outright the Egrant allegations made by Caruana Galizia. A general election was held on 03 June 2017, nine months before the due date. Prime Minister Joseph Muscat declared victory in Malta's snap election after preliminary results showed his Labour Party heading towards a second mandate. A sample count of ballots showed Labour having a majority of more than 30,000 votes, equivalent to nearly 10 percent of the electorate.

"It is clear that the people have chosen to stay the course," said Muscat, who called the snap vote to counter allegations of corruption against his wife and some of his political allies. Simon Busuttil, the leader of the opposition Nationalist Party, made a telephone call to Muscat to concede defeat in Saturday's election.

During the election campaign, Muscat promised continuity and greater wealth for a country that has the lowest unemployment rate ever at 4.1 percent - the third lowest in Europe - and in 2016 registered a budget surplus for the first time in three decades.

The snap June 2017 General Election delivered a landslide result for the Partit Laburista (PL), with an even stronger popular mandate than 2013 (55 per cent) - the likes of which a Maltese political party had not seen since 1947. And yet, others would describe the very same country as a shady jurisdiction run by a cabal that has twisted the institutions of the state to serve its purpose and would stop at nothing - not even murder - to protect its interests.

Prime Minister Joseph Muscat announced the change 02 May 2017. Muscat said he had spoken with President Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca and would be asking her to dissolve parliament. Muscat said that the country was "showing the first signs of suffering from uncertainty", in an allusion to the Opposition's tactics in the wake of the Egrant saga. Muscat veered from triumph - "we have become the envy of Europe" - to scorn, saying his rival, PN leader Simon Busuttil, had a "weak character" and had that his thirst for power meant he had no problem dragging Malta's name through the mud. the Labour Party was gearing up for an election and getting its candidates ready, after internal surveys showed the party enjoyed a 17,000 majority over the Nationalist Party.

Marlene Farrugia's Partit Demokratiku agreed to contest the general election under the Nationalist Party banner on ballot papers, but its candidates distinguish themselves as pertaining to the 'Orange Party'.

Journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia was brutally assassinated by a car bomb on 16 October, shortly after leaving her home in a rental car, bringing international media attention, along with European Parliament President Antonio Tajani, to the island. With a nation seemingly resigned to the fact that the case would remain unsolved, on 4 December 2017 Prime Minister Joseph Muscat announced that 10 men had been arrested at a warehouse in Marsa in connection with the murder, with the publication of the video of the arrest courting significant controversy after critics claimed that the exercise felt more like a marketing ploy.

Dr George Vella is the tenth President of the Republic of Malta, by virtue of a Parliamentary Resolution passed on 7th March 2019 by the House of Representatives. Malta's new President, George Vella, assumed office on 04 April 2019. A medical doctor by profession, Dr. Vella served twice as foreign minister, from 1996 to 1998 and from 2013 to 2017. He is a member of the Maltese Labour Party and was a member of parliament for almost three decades. As the sole nominee he was elected by the Maltese parliament as 10th President, succeeding Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca.

The 76-year-old is also likely to support the left-leaning policies of the prime minister. Vella is a long-standing Labour stalwart, coming from the heart of Labours stronghold in Zejtun, and having served both the Labour Party as its deputy leader for more than a decade and the Labour government, twice as Foreign Minister, first under Alfred Sant in the 1990s and more recently under Muscat.

Before his nomination as President of the Republic, Dr Vella served as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Malta (2013-2017). During this term he developed and broadened the extent of Maltas foreign policy by leading high-level delegations to countries across the globe. Among his regular appointments, Dr Vella represented Malta at the Foreign Affairs Council of the European Union, where his involvement on Mediterranean-related issues was very visible.

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