CapacitÓ Nazionale di Proiezione dal Mare (CNPM)
National Sea-based Projection Capability
The CapacitÓ Nazionale di Proiezione dal Mare [National Capacity for Projection from the Sea] Joint Integrating Concepts (JIC-001) that defines the criteria for the establishment of the specific joint capacity package. The need to have a projection from the capacity of national sea is closely linked to the characteristics of the geo-strategic framework, characterized by the sudden transformation of risk varied in threat. This has prompted the creation of a high readiness capacity, able to reach in a short time also remote places on the planet.
The heart of the project is based on two elements of maneuver consisting of the Navy's San Marco Regiment and the Army's Serenissima Regiment, to which would be added a series of capacity packages made available from time to time by the different armed forces. The full development of the National Capacity of Projection from the Sea also relies on the completion of different operating units in ground and naval, air and also requires some programming joint training activities. Operation Litani and Offshore 2007 were both were testbeds for new National Sea-based Projection Capability, a joint body of the Ministry of defence and in gestation since 2005. Purpose of this organization is to establish high structures that acting autonomously and readiness for the long term, can reach areas even at long distances.
In view of the implementation of the concept of "joint sea-based projection", the project for the creation of an amphibious "Joint Task Group", (complete with Headquarters for the "Task Group" and the "Landing Force"), to be used as a "Joint Initial Entry Force" or "Joint Rapid Response Force" has already been initiated. The fundamental units forming the Amphibious Battle-group undergo a process of integration in both training and operations and are taken from the Navy's "San Marco" Regiment and the Army's "Serenissima" Regiment, both appropriately reinforced in the areas of Fire and Engineering Support (CS) and Combat Service Support (CSS). This endowed the Italian Armed Forces with a disembarkation force at the level of a light infantry Brigade.
In the "Strategic Concept" document, approved and distributed at the beginning of 2005, the Chief of Staff of the Italian Defense, identified the long-term goal of realizing a military instrument of quality, endowed with operational capabilities that meet the requirements of the global security context, balanced in its components and financially sustainable. The Defense white paper "Investing In Security - Transforming the Italian Military" published in early 2006, articulated the CapacitÓ Nazionale di Proiezione dal Mare construct, which is described in Joint Integrating Concept - JIC #1, of the same title.
The Defense white paper "Investing In Security - Transforming the Italian Military" notes : "Based on experience and considering the high volatility and unpredictability of future scenarios, there is a preliminary requirement to develop a military tool able to respond to a wide and diversified range of contingencies and, as such, balanced in its capabilities. A second consolidated requirement is to create a deployable force, or one equipped with significant expeditionary capabilities. During the Cold War the Military was essentially static, out of the need to face a known threat on national territory, coming from a clearly-defined direction. Today the opposite is true. Whether we oppose a threat, prevent a crisis, enforce or maintain the peace, or lend relief to populations, operations will take place outside of the national territory, thus compelling military forces to be intrinsically expeditionary."
The National Sea-based Projection Capability must allow the military Forces to conduct operations such as initial entry of a Landing Force into a hostile or uncertain environment as part of a "Forcible Entry" with the goal of carrying out the assigned mission. Such a Landing Force can also constitute an enabling factor for the entry of additional sea-based assets, according to the concept of "sea-basing". This concept, to be developed in a multinational or coalition context ("coalition sea-basing"), provides for the establishment at sea of the resources necessary to sustain an operation outside the area, in order not to have to depend on the consensus and/or support of third Countries.
The development of a Sea-based Projection Capability requires a joint preparation and a joint training of units belonging to different services, in particular the Land Component and the Naval Component. The cornerstone of the operation is a Landing Force at the Brigade level, capable of carrying out the full spectrum of the operations requested for projected Amphibian Forces, as well as of developing the capacity to operate as "Entry Force Battlegroup".
An expeditionary force, in addition to the capability to deploy complete packages of units to distant areas on short notice, must the capable to sustain them in the theatre ensuring personnel rotation, equipment efficiency, and communication, intelligence, C2, logistic and in-theatre mobility support. The expeditionary nature of a force is traditionally associated with amphibious units but it has now become a prerequisite for the entire military instrument.
In this situation, Italy initiated the transformation of its National military instrument to "expeditionary" by creating a series of national and multinational initiatives aimed in that direction. The national capacity for sea screening should allow the instrument to lead national military operations that envisage the insertion in hostile environment, uncertain or permissive of a Landing Force, as part of a "forcible entry" (combined use in time and space of "airborne" - if needed - amphibious and "airmobile" conquest/control "Amphibious Objective Area") to perform a predetermined mission.
This "Landing Force" can serve as a premise for the insertion of additional structures from the sea, according to the concept of "rapid deployment" seabasing (and use of the "Joint Combat Power" from the sea, continuing to provide support, the support and protection of structures to a "Joint Expeditionary Force"in the absence of either land in "Joint Operations Area"), to develop a multinational or coalition.
The core of this "Joint Expeditionary Force" consists of a "Landing Force" (based on "San Marco" and "Serenissima" regiments) able to activate all the functions of Combat, Combat Support and Combat Service Support, thanks to the integration of existing capacity within the national military instrument. In order to confer the indispensable address per process of education and training "joint" of the elements that make up the "national" Landing Force, the Center of Amphibious Integration [Centro di Integrazione Anfibia - CIA] was formed, based in BRINDISI, the under the command of the Comando delle Forze da Sbarco - COMFORSBARC [Commander of Landing Forces].
Using the Cavour as the Italian aircraft carrier will free up the Garibaldi for amphibious protection duties, using its capabilities in the national sea protection body "CapacitÓ Nazionale di Proiezione dal Mare (CNPM)" until a new amphibious ship comes into service.
NATO Joint Sea Basing (NJSB) provides the Alliance with another option for the deployment, employment, sustainment and re-deployment of a mission tailored joint force package utilizing a combination of seaborne platforms, strategic sealift and tactical airlift/sealift to rapidly project and sustain multinational forces wherever needed. Simply stated, specified land, air and sea component forces are deployed utilizing existing seaborne platforms resident within NATO member nations' inventory in conjunction with available strategic sealift assets from the commercial market. Correspondingly, sea basing provides the NATO force commander with a capability to exercise command and control and/or the projection of military and logistics capabilities from seaborne platforms.
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