Oerlikon GDF 35mm AAA
The Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon is a towed anti-aircraft gun made by Oerlikon Contraves (renamed as Rheinmetall Air Defence AG following the merger with Rheinmetall in 2009). The system was originally designated as 2 ZLA/353 ML but this was later changed to GDF-001. It was developed in the late 1950s and is used by around 30 countries. The system uses 35 mm auto cannons, which were originally designated 353 MK and are now designated as the KD series. The same KD series 35 mm cannons are used in the Leopard tank based Gepard and Type 74 tank based Type 87SPAAG and T-55 based Marksman self-propelled anti-aircraft guns. The system could be paired with the off-gun Super Fledermaus fire control radar, which in the late 1970s was upgraded to the Skyguard system.
In 1980 an upgraded model, the GDF-002 was produced, which featured an improved sight, and the ability to be directed by an off-gun digital control system. A few years later a third version of the system was being produced, the GDF-003, which was broadly similar to the GDF-002, but included some enhancements like self-lubricating weapons and integrated protective covers.
In 1985 a further upgraded model was produced, the GDF-005, which was introduced, featuring the Gunking 3D computer-controlled sight with an integrated laser range-finder and digital control system. The guns are usually transported by a 5-tonne 6x6 truck. The ammunition containers are on each side of the cradle and rotate with it. Each fully-loaded ammunition container holds 56 rounds. The ammunition is reloaded in seven-round clips from the reloading container and passed through the upper mount trunnions to the cannon. The sighting equipment consists of a MBDA sight Type GSA Mark 3, a ground target sight mounted on the MBDA sight housing and an optical alignment sight. The target range is the only parameter to be adjusted in action on the MBDA sight.
This twin-barrel 35mm gun has an Fire Control Unit Skyguard that detects and tracks air targets up to 20km and computes firing data. The first prototype of this was completed in 1959 under the designation 1 ZLA/353 MK, which was renamed GDF-1. In 1980, the GDF-002 model was introduced. More then 2,000 guns were produced and sold in approximately 30 countries.
A typical battery of GDF would consist of two 35mm anti-aircraft twin guns, each with a power supply unit and fire control unit. The guns are controlled by a single Skyguard fire control radar. During a regular mission the 35mm guns are controlled by a fire control unit, but they can also be operated in local mode by the gunner and the two gun loaders, where the gunner is using a joystick for control and a sight for aiming. A hand pump is also fitted and when it is used the weapon can be brought into action in 5 minutes.
GDF-006 - retrofitting of GDF-001 versions; -002; -003 by the AHEAD anti-missile system. The system was created around a new cluster projectile with a radar fuse coupled to a 3-dimensional radar, on the signal of which the projectile was detonated at a certain point in front of the target and 152 tungsten submunitions were fired towards the target. GDF-007 is an analogue of the previous version, but based on the GDF-005.
The AHEAD (Advanced Hit Efficiency And Destruction) line of projectiles forms the so-called “fragmentation cloud” in the shape of a cone, once in which, the target suffers multiple damage and is almost guaranteed to be destroyed. AHED ammunition can be successfully used to combat small unmanned aerial vehicles, as well as lightly armored ground equipment. Upon reaching a design point located approximately in 10 – 30 m from the target, the remote detonator explodes an expelling charge that destroys the outer shell of the projectile and pushes the striking elements.
As reported by Jane's International Defense Review in Christopher F. Foss's article "Rheinmetall Air Defense preps GDF-009 AAG for production", in 2017 Rheinmetall Air Defense, which is the Swiss division of the Rheinmetall concern since 2000, announced the creation of an 35-mm paired towed anti-aircraft artillery Oerlikon GDF-009. This product is a new modification of the 35-mm anti-aircraft guns of the GDF series, manufactured with the 1961 of the year and purchased no less than the 36 countries. For the first time, the design was shown to the public at the IDEF-2015 exhibition, which took place in May 2015 in Istanbul. To date, its external has changed significantly, although the installation has retained the design of previously produced serial versions of this system (GDF-001. GDF-002, GDF-003, GDF-005 and GDF-007).
In service are two 35-mm automatic guns Oerlikon KDC with a speed of 550 rounds per minute on the barrel. The fire is fired with standard Oerlikon 35 x 228 mm shells for various purposes. Ammunition - 280 shots, including 112 ready to fire. As indicated, the GDF-009 is capable of firing AHEAD programmable projectiles, although this "requires some modification of a ballistic computer." A feature of this modification is not powered by a generator, but from a battery pack mounted in the nose of a four-wheel mast. It is charged from an external source. The fire control is made by the Oerlikon Skyguard 3, located on the sight, with radar, electro-optical and laser channels. One MSA controls two fire installations. In this case, the optional GDF-009 in the GDF-009 EO version can be equipped with an electron-optical round-the-clock tracking system for Chess Dynamics’s goal, represented as a stabilized circular viewing module with thermal imaging, electron-optical and laser channels.
In the GDF-009 TREO modification, unlike the previous versions, the GDF-009 can be equipped with its own fire control system located on the installation - in the GDF-009 EO modification, an electronic-optical round-the-clock tracking system for the company's target is installedChess Dynamics in the form of a stabilized circular view module equipped with thermal imaging, electro-optical and laser channels. In the GDF-009 TREO modification, an X-band target detection and tracking radar with an additional electronic-optical unit is also installed. The radar is capable of detecting air targets at a distance of up to 50 km.
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