Finland Army History - World War
World War II began in early September 1939, when Germany invaded Poland. On October 5, Finland received an invitation to Moscow to discuss "important issues of mutual interest". During the negotiations, additional exercises were held in Finland. The troops were grouped along the Karelian Isthmus and north of Ladoga up to the Arctic Ocean. The focus of the group was on Kannaks, as the Soviet Union was thought to be the most heavily attacked there.
At the end of October, the Soviet Union began to concentrate its troops on Finland's eastern border. Negotiations between the countries broke down on 13 November. Two weeks later, the Soviet Union fired Mainila shots that marked the start of the Winter War. On the heel, the Finnish defense forces had to withdraw immediately to the main station. However, the Soviet Union's strong initial struggle gradually subsided, and in the second phase of the war the Finns succeeded in causing the Red Army considerable losses.
The strait was the subject of a stationary war until the end of January 1940. As the war progressed, power relations became increasingly unfavorable to the Finns. The new Soviet invasion, which began on 1 February, tired the Finns. Feelings of peace began in February. With the peace of March 13, the Soviet Union gained 40,000 km2 of new land and about 10 percent of Finland's national property.
After the war, it was considered that the country had a single army that, due to lack of resources, had been unable to stop the advancement of the enemy. This was the starting point for the reorganization of Finland's defense. A new peacetime organization was introduced in August 1940. The Army consisted of five army units, consisting of 12 brigades, a brigade brigade and a cavalry brigade. The troops were grouped at the border from Virolahti to Savukoski.
The Salpa station was built on the eastern border and the Harparskog station was built in Hankoniemi. Military material was replenished as orders placed during the war arrived. Finnish industry made new and refurbished old weapons.
Assistance against the eastern neighbor was again sought abroad. When Sweden did not seem to find support, the eyes turned to Germany. The cooperation began with transit traffic and the purchase of weapons in the autumn of 1940. The Germans planned Finland to participate in Operation Barbarossa. As a result of the negotiations, German troops, warships and aircraft arrived in Finland at the beginning of June 1941. When Operation Barbaro began on June 22, 1941, German troops also attacked the Soviet Union from Finnish territory. On June 25, the Red Army responded by bombing Finnish airports and settlements. In the evening, Prime Minister Rangell said on the radio that Finland was at war with the Soviet Union again.
When the Finns launched an attack on the Soviet Union, the aim was not only to recapture the lost territories but also to eliminate the attack bases behind the old border. In early September, Finns arrived at the old border at Kannas and crossed it. War began on the cove. In December, Mannerheim halted an attack on the Maaselä Strait in East Karelia after Aunus had been captured along the Sound and Syväri. The Continuation War was fought for more than three years. During this, the initiative passed to the Soviet troops. However, Finland succeeded in stopping the Soviet counterattack.
At the beginning of 1944, the defeat of the Germans in the war began to seem obvious. The Finns also had to reassess their situation. Feelings of peace began, but the terms of peace given seemed unacceptable.
Stalin decided to resolve the fate of Finland with arms. The Soviet major offensive against Kannas began on June 9 and forced the Finns to retreat. However, the attacks were stopped at Kannas and north of Ladoga. The war turned around at the end of June, when the Red Army had to concentrate its troops on other fronts. Finland was once again seen as a good opportunity to massage the peace.
The conditions for peace in the Soviet Union had eased, and a treaty was signed in Moscow on 19 September 1944. Under the terms of the Paris Peace Treaty of 1947, the border of Moscow was restored, Petsamo was surrendered and Porkkala was leased to the Soviet Union. Finland also undertook to disarm the German troops left behind and to pay $ 300 million in war compensation.
According to the treaty, the army also had to be brought to peace. It identified 34,000 men as the strength of the Armed Forces. The Navy could have 4,500 men and its ships could sink a maximum of 10,000 tonnes. The Air Force was limited to 3,000 men and 60 fighter aircraft. Bombers and submarines had to be scrapped.
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