The conspiracy theory of the "great replacement" was laid out by the infamous far-right ideologue Renaud Camus in his book "Le Grand Remplacement". Camus offers an extreme interpretation of Samuel Huntington's "clash of civilisations", arguing that Europe faces a Muslim invasion which will lead to "change of civilisation". This idea has spread beyond Europe and reached as far as North and South America, India, Australia, etc. And while this theory in some places has also acquired anti-Semitic tinges - such as in the US, where in 2017 a far-right march chanted "Jews will not replace us!" - Israel has actively encouraged belief in it.
During a 2015 speech, Dutch MP Geert Wilders, who is well known for his Islamophobia, said: "There is nothing wrong with preserving our own Judeo-Christian civilization. That is our duty […] Look at Israel, learn from Israel; Israel is an island in a sea of Islamic barbarism. Israel is a beacon of freedom and prosperity in a region of Islamic darkness. Israel refuses to be overrun by jihadists. So should we."
Austrian Vice-Chancellor and leader of the far-right Freedom Party Heinz-Christian Strache, who has called for "zero immigration" and putting "an end to the policy of Islamisation" in Austria, has visited Israel a number of times in recent years and supported moving the Austrian embassy to Jerusalem.
Italy's interior minister, Matteo Salvini, who has been linked to the German Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamization of the Occident (PEGIDA), chose to launch his electoral campaign for the Italian elections during a 2016 visit to Israel, where he declared: "Israel embodies the perfect balance of different realities, while ensuring law and order. It surely is a role model for security and anti-terrorism policies." Two years later, Salvini won enough votes to form a coalition government with the populist Five Star movement.
Salvini's electoral success, along with Strache's in Austria and Viktor Orban's in Hungary, have brought far-right ideas into European governance. In countries across Europe, South and South-east Asia and the Americas, where the far right has failed to make it to the government, it has still managed to push national politics to the right.
Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo told CNN on 20 January 2015 that her city intended to sue Fox News after it broadcast interviews asserting that there are “no-go zones” in the French capital where police and non-Muslims fear to tread. Hidalgo’s comments come despite an apology from Fox news following its incendiary interview with “National Security expert” Nolan Peterson in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo attacks, in which he claimed that certain districts of Paris were comparable with Baghdad.
Fox was also shamed by residents of the English city of Birmingham which another self-proclaimed expert on Islamist groups in Europe, Steve Emerson, an American whose website describes him as a leading authority on Islamic extremist networks, told the news network was “totally Muslim” and that “non-Muslims simply don’t go in." He also said that the failure to deal with Muslim fundamentalists meant that “Europe was finished”.
A 2011 census showed that 21 percent of Birmingham is Muslim. A similar number said they had no religion at all, while just under half identified themselves as Christian. British Prime Minister David Cameron was so taken aback by Emerson's bizarre claims he said he thought it must be April Fools' Day, adding: "When I heard this, frankly I choked on my porridge. This guy is clearly a complete idiot."
After bashing Fox News and Louisiana governor Bobby Jindal for spreading misinformation about Muslim “no-go zones” in cities across Europe, CNN had to admit that it also promoted the fiction unquestioned in its coverage in the wake of the Charlie Hebdo massacre in Paris.
The Quranic text tells the Muslims: "Fight those among the ‘People of the Book’ who do not believe in Allah and the Last Day, who do not forbid what Allah and His Messenger have forbidden and do not profess the true religion, till they pay the poll-tax out of hand and submissively." Dominant Muslim society managed non-Muslim minorities as dhimma. Christians and Jews received the right to worship and retain their own religious customs in exchange for the jizya, a head tax.
At the Battle of Tours in October 732 [the traditional dating, the battle may actually have been fought in 733 or 734] , Charles “the Hammer” Martel rallied his Frankish forces for a final stand against the Moorish thrust into France. The battle of Tours or Poitiers has often been represented as an event of the first magnitude in the world's history, because after this the penetration of Islam into Western Europe was finally brought to a standstill at the Pyrennes.
Of Tours, Gibbon remarked that the Muslim's " ... victorious line of march had been prolonged above a thousand miles from the rock of Gibraltar to the banks of the Loire; the repetition of an equal space would have carried the Saracens to the confines of Poland and the Highlands of Scotland: the Rhine is not more impassable than the Nile or Euphrates, and the Arabian fleet might have sailed without a naval combat into the mouth of the Thames. Perhaps the interpretation of the Koran would now be taught in the schools of Oxford, and her pulpits might demonstrate to a circumcised people the sanctity and truth of the revelation of Mahomet. From such calamities was Christendom delivered..."
In the east, Poland had been obliged to become tributary to the Ottoman Porte. On 12 September 1683, was decided the question whether the crescent of Islam or the cross of Christ was to wave on the spires of Vienna. John Sobieski, general of the Crown, defeated the Turks, and delivered his country from tribute. Sobieski's victory over them, in a great battle fought near Vienna, was considered such a protection to the western world that in later times the great Polish soldier's shield was transferred to the heavens. Scutum Sobieski, Sobieski's Shield, is a small constellation formed by the Polish astronomer Hevelius, in honor of John Sobieski, king of Poland. It contains 8 Stars, of which only two are so large as the fourth magnitude.
The term "Eurabia" is a word seldom heard in the United States but is popular in Europe. Dearbornistan is a euphemism, like Eurabia and Londonistan. Eurabia was the name of a journal published in the mid-1970s by the European Committee for Coordination of Friendship Associations with the Arab World. It refers to a future when indigenous Europeans will be surpassed in numbers by immigrant and native-born Moslems. At that point, a Moslem population will have the ability to achieve two goals that are not mutually exclusive: numerically overwhelming the existing indigenous European population and the development of partnerships/alliances with their countries of origin in North Africa and the Middle East. This would not only isolate the United States as a world power, but would also create conditions that would undermine Israel's existence as a state.
Second- and third-generation Muslims in Europe were often unfamiliar with their families, own traditions, since the first generation often focused on blending into their adopted societies and making ends meet. This left second- and third-generation European Muslims with a vague sense that they were Muslim, but without an understanding of what this meant in practice. This "spiritual vacuum," coupled with a sense of secular alienation (as evidenced in the October 2005 riots among non-Muslim and Mulsim immigrants in France) provided prime targets for extremist recruiters.
In her book Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis, Bat Ye’or describes Eurabia asEurope’s evolution "… from a Judeo-Christian civilization, with important post-Enlightenment secular elements, into a post-Judeo-Christian civilization that is subservient to the ideology of jihad and the Islamic powers that propagateit. Eurabia designates a new entity – with political, economic, religious, cultural, and media components – superimposed on Europe by powerful governmental lobbies..."
In America Alone: The End of the World as We Know It, author Mark Steyn sees a larger phenomenon that threatens society today: the rapid disintegration of Western culture against a rising tide of global Islamism. In his self-described “doomsday book with a twist,” Steyn warns his readers that “much of what we loosely call the Western world will not survive the 21st century, and much of it will effectively disappear within our lifetimes, including many if not most European countries.” Clearly not above hyperbole, Steyn predicts a new Islamic caliphate blossoming in European soil, a “Eurabia” populated by self-segregating and increasingly radicalized young Muslims.
Only a small percentage of the world’s Muslim population resides in Europe or is expected to, even by 2050. But Islamic populations are young, they tend to have more children than nativess, and they have relatives back home who would like to join them. In France, the Muslim population has been estimatedat 8.5 percent of the national total. The Muslim working-age population might rise from 9 percent of France’s total in 2010 to 13 percent in 2025, reaching 17 percent by 2050. The percentage of Germany’s working-age population of Islamic ancestry might rise from 4 percent in 2010 to 6 percent in 2025, and 11 percent in 2050.
These historical developments began in the 1960s when several western European nations, pressed for additional low-skilled labor, entered into an understanding with predominantly Moslem states--particularly Turkey, Morocco, and Algeria--to attract "guest workers." Although it was initially understood that these workers would return to their home countries after a decade or so in the host country, most stayed and brought their families to join them. Subsequently, the birth rate among Moslem immigrants dramatically outpaced that of the European norm. This brought the Moslem population in Europe from a few hundred thousand to what some estimate as 20 million as of 2012.
Milli Gorus (National View) was established in Turkey in 1969 by Necmettin Erbakan for the sake of restoring the Sharia to Turkey. It is perhaps the largest independent Muslim movement in Europe and espouses an activist Islamist politics. It is said to be affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood. It had 26,500 dues paying members in Germany, and claimed to have 210,000 dues-paying members in Europe as a whole. Many of its members left for Europe where they found greater religious - and political - freedom. The movement has moderated some of its positions in recent years, in part because it recognizes that it has little choice in view of German security concerns and in part because it has lost some of its steam with the decline of Erbakan and his political parties in Turkey. Nonetheless, Milli Gorus~ continues to adhere to an interpretation of Islam that is uncompromising and militant in spirit, if not in practice. German school-teachers complain that the group brainwashes its members and seeks to construct a parallel society of Muslims.
In the future "Eurabia," radical Moslems would seek to establish theocratic states based in extremist Moslem tenets. Attempts at accelerating this evolution are likely to be marked by increases in violent incidents that are already occurring in a number of European countries. Although such a development is not likely to occur in the United States, it will challenge the United States' global interests.
The Canadian Muslim journalist and author, Irshad Manji at an Aspen Institute Berlin conference, was frank in assessing both the nature and extent of Muslim extremism in Europe: "We Muslims, even in the West, are routinely raised to believe that because the Koran comes after the Torah and the Bible (historically and chronologically), it is the final and therefore perfect manifesto of god’s will. The Koran, we are taught, does not lend itself to the inconsistencies and ambiguities and outright contradictions and, God forbid, human editing like those earlier scriptures.
Mainstream Muslims believe, as an article of faith, that the Koran is not like any other scripture. It is the summit of the holy books. This is a supremacy complex, which even moderate Muslims share. And this supremacy complex is dangerous because when abuse happens under the banner of Islam, most Muslims do not yet know how to debate, dissent, revise or reform. That’s because we have not yet been introduced to the possibility, let alone the virtue, of asking questions about out holy book. ... Islamist terrorists are expert in quoting the Koran for their purposes. To question them, it is widely felt, is to question the Koran itself, and that is off limits."
The US National Intelligence Council estimated in 2008 that the increasing political strength of Muslim minority populations in NATO countries would grow, with 25–30 million Muslims in Western Europe by 2025. The impact seems particularly acute in Britain. The expectation among defence analysts in Washington is that there will be an inverse relationship between the political power of the Muslim community and the state's reliability as an alliance partner.
By 2010 some 15 to 20 million Muslims resided permanently in Western Europe, which has led some observers to speak of a veritable "revolution". Others suggest that "mutation" might be a better term than "revolution", the possibility that Muslims will dominate all of Western Europe (creating "Eurabia") is remote. Discrimination against Muslims undoubtedly exists, but other factors contribute to the difficulty of integration - including construction of a separate identity that reinforces an ethnic fracture within European society.
A minority population with a radically different religion and fecundity than the majority population is causing profound political, economic, social and cultural change. Several scenarios are possible. Whether an ageing Europe is able to integrate its Muslim populations and re-assert heretofore dominant political principles, economic practices and cultural beliefs or Europe's Muslims integrate indigenous Europeans into the dhimmitude of Eurabia identified by Bat Ye'or remains to be seen.
For the first time in modern history, Muslims are arguing over a three sided debate regarding whether their role in Europe is to: integrate into European society; ghettoize themselves, keeping separate from their European hosts; or convert Europe to Islam — the Islamization of Europe as called for in bin Laden’s declarations. This last option has been seminally, and surely provocatively, analyzed by Bat Ye’orin her book "Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis." Leaders and websites of the extremist network Al Qaeda have called for a Muslim reconquest of al-Andalus. The radical Muslims still are bitter over having lost al-Andalus (Spain) in 1492. Just as the Soviet Union had the Brezhnev Doctrine [that no state could be permitted to leave the Socialist Camp], Islamists argue that any land where Muslims once ruled is Islamic land forever.
Osama bin Laden said in 1994 "The banner of jihad is raised up high to restore to our umma (=Islamic community) the pride and honor, and in which the banner of God's unity is raised once again over every stolen Islamic land, from Palestine to Al-Andalus and other Islamic lands that were lost because of the betrayals of rulers and the feebleness of Muslims." In January 2004 he referred to "the lost Al-Andalus.". In February 2006 Al-Qaida's top leadership (bin Laden and Ayman Al-Zawahiri) issued a statement saying: "That your cleansed feet may soon step into our Al-Andalus which was deprived from us - soon, if Allah so wishes."
Islam will take over Europe without violent force within a few decades, said Libyan Leader Moammar Gadhafi in a speech aired on the Arab satellite network Al Jazeera 03 May 2006. “We have 50 million Muslims in Europe,” Gadhafi said. “There are signs that Allah will grant Islam victory in Europe – without swords, without guns, without conquests. The 50 million Muslims of Europe will turn it into a Muslim continent within a few decades.”
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