Denmark - Foreign Policy
Danish foreign policy is founded upon four cornerstones: the United Nations, NATO, the EU, and Nordic cooperation. Denmark also is a member of, among other organizations, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund; the World Trade Organization (WTO); the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); the Council of Europe; the Nordic Council; the Baltic Council; and the Barents Council. Denmark emphasizes its relations with developing nations. Although the government has moved to tighten foreign assistance expenditures, it remains a significant donor and one of the few countries to exceed the UN goal of contributing 0.7% of GNP to development assistance.
In the wake of the Cold War, Denmark has been active in international efforts to integrate the countries of Central and Eastern Europe into the West. It has played a leadership role in coordinating Western assistance to the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). The country is a strong supporter of international peacekeeping. Danish forces were heavily engaged in the former Yugoslavia in the UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR), as well as in NATO's Operation Joint Endeavor/Stabilization Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina (IFOR/SFOR), and currently in the Kosovo Force (KFOR).
Danes have at times had a reputation as "reluctant" Europeans. When they rejected ratification of the Maastricht Treaty on June 2, 1992, they put the European Community's (EC) plans for the European Union on hold. In December 1992, the rest of the EC agreed to exempt Denmark from certain aspects of the European Union, including a common defense, a common currency, EU citizenship, and certain aspects of legal cooperation.
The opt-outs concern the following areas:
- Economic and Monetary Union - Denmark will not participate in the third phase of Economic and Monetary Union, i.e. the introduction of the single currency, the euro.
- Union citizenship - In 1992 Denmark declared that 'union citizenship is a supplement to national citizenship and not a replacement'. In 1997, amendments made to the Maastricht Treaty and embodied in the Amsterdam Treaty stated that union citizenship will not replace national citizenship, but only supplement it. The Amsterdam Treaty thereby reflected the wording of the Danish opt-out of 1992.
- Common defence - Denmark will not participate in the preparation and implementation of actions with defence implications.
- Justice and home affairs - Denmark will only participate in EU judicial cooperation at an intergovernmental level. This means that Denmark is precluded from taking part in certain areas of EU judicial cooperation.
Denmark set a precedent for an arrangement for its three states - the Danish mainland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. While both the Faroe Islands and Greenland have seats in the Danish parliament, neither are in the EU.
Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, Denmark has been highly proactive in endorsing and implementing United States, UN, and EU-initiated counter-terrorism measures, just as Denmark has contributed substantially to NATO's International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. It currently has about 750 soldiers in Afghanistan, operating without caveat and concentrated in Helmand province. In 2003, Denmark was among the first countries to join Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), supplying a submarine, a Corvette-class ship, and military personnel to support OIF's coalition in Iraq. Denmark in the end provided 500 troops to assist with stabilization efforts in Iraq. Denmark withdrew most of its troops from Iraq in August 2007, when Iraqi forces took over security responsibilities in the Basra area where Danish troops had been concentrated. Denmark maintains a small residual troop contingent that supports the NATO Training Mission in Iraq.
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