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T-54E Ramses II

T-54E The Ramses II is a heavily-modified Egyptian version of the Soviet Cold War-era T-54 Main Battle Tank. The T-54E Ramses II is a Soviet T-54 with an American M60 gun and engine. It is fitted with American M68 105-mm rifled gun, Belgian fire control system, and American Continental AVDS-1790-5A engine. The original project was to be called T-54E (the E standing for Egypt) but was subsequently renamed Ramses II, from the famous conqueror Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, and third ruler of the XIXth Dynasty.

Design tank Ramses II began in November 1984 in the framework of the program to improve the mobility and firepower of the outdated T-54 in service in the Egyptian army. In November 1984, the US firm Teledyne Continental Motors (now General Dynamics Land Systems, then part of Chrysler Defence), was awarded a contract to upgrade T-54 tanks for the Egyptian Army. Among the origins of this idea was the Israeli Tiran conversion.

The first prototype was sent to Egypt for extensive firepower and mobility trials from January 1987 to late 1987. Tests continued into the summer of 1990. From the basic conversion idea, the Egyptians obtained, in the process of nearly twenty years, a completely new of MBT. Eventually, the design led to the full conversion of a first batch of 260 units in 2004/2005.

This was to be followed by the set-up of a local conversion in an Egyptian tank plant, with some technology transfer. A second phase was intended to cover an additional 165 vehicles being locally converted. By 2013, a further conversion of some 160-180 more was planned. Noneof this happened, and the remaining tanks were put into storage.

Initially the upgrade focused on the firepower and mobility of the tank solely, while latter stages included the improvement of the level of protection. The tank's hull was modified to accommodate the new engine which had commonality with the one used by the M60A3 (the most numerous main battle tank in active Egyptian service), and as a result an additional road wheel was added. The Ramses II is nearly one meter longer than the T-54/55. The tank is armed with the same main gun used by Egyptian M60A3's; in addition to a sophisticated fire control system.

The old five-speed manual gearbox was changed to hydromechanical TCM-304 (licensed version of the West Renk RK-304), designed specifically for medium and heavy tracked vehicles. Dashboard driver's mechanics performed in the American style. The suspension was replaced by a new General Dynamics 2880 as in the M48 Patton tank.

The increase in the volume of the hull allowed almost half (from 812 liters to 1312 liters) to increase the amount of fuel in internal tanks, providing a cruising range of 530 km. Two new exhaust pipe (rear on the same side of the body) replaced the outlet on the left. Armored intake air filter was placed in the back of the case, that on it it was possible to strengthen the external fuel tanks. The HTL Industries company's fire-fighting system was installe in the dengine compartment, and the top was covered with armor plates united with several hatches for maintenance and inspection of the engine and auxiliary systems in the field.

The hull of the T-54 tank had undergone significant alteration in the aft to accommodate the new power unit: Engine AVDS-1790-5A and transmission Renk RK-304, in contrast to the regular new engine is located along the body, due to which the latter had to extend to 60 cm. The exhaust pipes are derived both sides. Installed new fuel tank capacity of 1312 liters and final drives. In the chassis used hydropneumatic suspension firm General Dynamics Land Systems, the support rollers of M48 tanks and English tracks.

Instead of 100-mm gun D-10T installed American 105-mm rifled gun M68 and two-plane stabilizer by the arms company HR Textron Incorporated. Above the barrel cannon mounted xenon regular day / night floodlight M60 tank. The tank is installed JMA Titan Mk.1 Belgian company SABCA, including a British gunner's sight Avimo TLIO-T with integrated laser range finder, a digital ballistic computer SABCA, graphic displays commander and gunner periscope night sight and sensor unit. In addition, a new communication system is mounted.

The armor protection as a whole remained the same. It installed a new system of protection against weapons of mass destruction. On the sides of the tower mounted 6 smoke grenade Peak #22 and installed a new basket for equipment.

Manufacturing is completed.

SPECIFICATIONS TANK Ramses II
Combat weight, t 48.
CREW, per . 4.
Overall dimensions length - 9600,
width - 3420,
height - 2400,
clearance - 425.
Armament
  • 1 M68 cannon caliber 105 mm.
  • 1 SGMT machine gun 7.62 mm machine gun Browning
  • 1 M2NV 12.7 mm,
  • 12 smoke grenade.
  • Ammunition 34 shot, kapibra 3500 7.62 mm rounds. 200 12.7 mm caliber.
    INSTRUMENTS Aiming telescopic sight with an integrated laser range finder, night sight periscope.
    Armor, mm fore -100... 80
    side- 30 ... 45.
    roof - 20 ... 30,
    turret - 65... 200
    ENGINE AVDS-1790-5A, 12-cylinder, diesel, four-stroke, V-shaped, air-cooled; Power 908 hp (667 kW) at 2400 rev. / Min.
    TRANSMISSION Renk RK-304. hydromechanical automatic (4 + 2).
    CHASSIS six rubber road wheels on board, the rear drive wheel arrangement with removable gear rings (engagement lantern), the steering wheel; hydropneumatic suspension individually.
    MAX SPEED, km / h 69.
    Cruising range, km 530.
    COMMUNICATION radio and intercom.





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