Air Defense Force (ADF)
After most of the country's aircraft was destroyed on the ground in 1967, the military placed responsibility for air defense under one commander. Responsibility had previously been divided among several commands. Egypt patterned its new Air Defense Force (ADF) after the Soviet Air Defense Command, which integrated all its air defense capabilities--antiaircraft guns, rocket and missile units, interceptor planes, and radar and warning installations.
The most basic fact about the Egyptian forces in 1970s was that, despite all the equipment the Soviets have provided since the 1967 war, they are still no match for the Israelis. This was particularly true of the Egyptian air force and air defense system. The Israelis had systematically knocked out the Soviet-provided air defense positions along the Suez Canal almost as fast as they have been set up and have proved that they can now fly their aircraft against targets almost anywhere in the Nile Valley, including around Cairo.
In 1989 the ADF had an estimated 80,000 ground and air personnel, including 50,000 conscripts. Its main constituents were 100 antiaircraft-gun battalions, 65 battalions of SA-2 SAMs, 60 battalions of SA-3 SAMs, 12 batteries of improved Hawk SAMs (I-Hawk), and 1 battery of Crotale missiles. Each battalion had between 200 and 500 men, and from four to eight battalions composed a brigade. Gun and missile sites were located along the Suez Canal, around Cairo, and near some other cities to protect military installations and strategic civilian targets. The ADF deployed some of its more mobile weapons in the Western Desert as a defense against possible Libyan incursions.
Progress was being made on a national air-defense network that would integrate all existing radars, missile batteries, air bases, and command centers into an automated command and control system. The ADF planned to link the system to the Hawkeye early warning aircraft.
A large share of the ADF's antiaircraft artillery, SAMs, and radar equipment was imported from the Soviet Union. As of 1989, the most modern weapons in the air defense system were the 108 mediumaltitude I-Hawk SAMs acquired from the United States beginning in 1982. These weapons were supplemented by 400 older Soviet-made SA-2 SAMs with a slant range of forty to fifty kilometers and about 240 SA-3s, which provided shorter-range defense against low-flying targets. A British firm helped the ADF modernize the SA-2s. In addition, Egypt was producing its own SAM, the Tayir as Sabah (Morning Flight), based on the design of the SA-2. The ADF had mounted sixty Soviet SA-6 SAMs on tracked vehicles as tactical launchers. Sixteen tracked vehicles provided mobile launching platforms for its fifty French-manufactured Crotale SAM launchers. Egypt was also introducing its own composite gun-missile-radar system known as Amun (skyguard), integrating radar-guided twin 23mm guns with Sparrow and Egyptian Ayn as Saqr SAMs.
Egyptian Air Defense requirements include technical and maintenance support for TPS-59, TPS-63 and other air defense radars. Technical and maintenance support for HAWK, Chaparral and Sparrow Air Defense Systems, and the Avenger Air Defense System. Procurement of additional 2D and 3D radars and Avenger. Long term procurement of PATRIOT systems. Upgrades to Chaparral systems. New procurement of Sentinal radars. Additionally, Egypt has been cooperating with the US to develop an advanced C3I system that will assimilate data from air and ground sources into a single network so that aircraft and missile systems can engage multiple targets simultaneously.
Russia will supply Egypt regiment air defense systems "Antey-2500" by the end of next year. The contract value exceeds $ 1 billion, a source in the Russian military-technical cooperation with other countries told Tass 09 March 2015. "In accordance with the contract, Egypt will be put Regiment systems" Antey-2500 "trehdivizionnogo composition, including the command post. The contract value exceeds $ 1 billion. This cost includes training Egyptian soldiers to the operation of systems, which will begin this year in one of the training centers ground troops, "- a spokesman said.
"Performance of the contract will be completed in 2016," - he said. The source added that the first division "Antey-2500" is ready for shipment, delivery and support equipment to Egypt began in 2014.
System "Antey-2500" - a deep modernization of the C-300. It is designed to destroy aircraft, missiles, including ballistic and cruise, as well as other air targets at ranges of up to 250 km and a height of up to 25 km. The first buyer of this system was Venezuela.
On 01 October 2019, the Russian agency TASS announced the delivery of a Rezonans-NE 3D over-the-horizon radar system to ‘a country’ in the Middle East. The investigations of several internet users who have relied on OSINT (open-source intelligence) data proved the existence of a site in the central east of Egypt, near the Red Sea between the cities of Ras Gharib [28.3508N, 33.0578E] and Zaafrana [29.1133N 32.6601E], which are separated by about 80km. Egypt is the second country in the region, after Algeria, to deploy this system that can detect certain air targets at 1100 km distance.
The Egyptian anti-aircraft defence deploys a dense and mobile radar network based on the Russian Nebo-E and S300V radars, effectively covering the Egyptian territory and beyond. The adoption of the Rezonans-NE will allow Egypt to counter threats over long distances. The counter-stealth capabilities of the Rezonans-NE could also alter the balance forces in the Middle East after the introduction of the Israeli F-35.
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