Cuba Army - History
The armed organization was created to carry out the War of national liberation (1956-1958) against the repressive machinery of the dictatorship that reigned from 1952. Batista's force included reached the 80,000 troops of air, sea and earth, equipped and advised by the North American Military Mission in Cuba. The Ejército Rebelde [Rebellious Army] formed from the survivors of the expedition of the yacht Granma, the 2 of December of 1956. In that date the Day of the Revolutionary Armed Forces is celebrated.
The beginning of this stage of the fight was marked by a serious misfortune. In the place known by Joy of Pío, in the then province of Oriente, the expeditionary ones just disembarked were surprised, the 5th December, by enemy forces that caused the total dispersion of the inexperienced revolutionary army. The fight in the Sierra Maestra [Masterful Mountain] range began again and after two years the Armed Forces of the tyranny had been defeated in all the line.
Such a feat was possible thanks to the unshakeable decision to win and the correct strategy of fight of the rebellious headquarters headed by the Commander-in-Chief Fidel Castro Ruz, and mainly by the firm received support of the popular masses of workers, farmers and students.
The small guerrilla column grew with the incorporation of settlers of the zone and the reinforcement of combatants of the cities. They appeared initially new columns, first of them put to the orders of Ernesto commander Che Guevara, and more ahead Raul entrusted itself to the commanders Castro Ruz and Juan Almeida In front Forest the opening of II the Eastern "Frank Country" and III In front the Eastern "Mario Muñoz", respectively. Once defeated the offensive of the army of the tyranny in the summer of 1958, the Rebellious Army Commander-in-Chief decided that the moment had arrived for extending the war to other territories. New fronts were created and the invasion to the West by two columns commanded by Ernesto commanders began Che Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos, together with the rebellious offensive in the Eastern region of the country.
When finalizing the war, the structures, composition and equipment of the units of the Rebellious Army had different characteristics, due to the different degree from development reached in each territory. Columns integrated by companies that were composed as well by squads, and columns formed simply by squads existed. Some fronts had, in addition, the organization of captainships, and in many existed independent detachments, subordinates directly to the headquarters of the fronts and those of the columns or single to these last ones.
The following words of the Commander-in-Chief Fidel Castro Ruz summarizes the role of the Rebellious Army in the Cuban Revolution: "the Rebellious Army was the soul of the Revolution. From his victorious arms it emerged frees, beautiful, mighty and invincible the new mother country. Their soldiers vindicated the spilled generous blood in all the fights by independence and with the hers own one they laid the foundations the present socialist of Cuba. The arms snatched to the opresores in épica fight gave them to the town and with the town they were fused, to be since then and for always the uniformed town."
Only three organizations have sufficient institutional strength to pose a potential challenge to the leadership: the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC), the Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR), and the Interior Ministry (MININT). In June 1989, the regime demonstrated its strength as it moved publicly to convict one of Cuba's most revered and decorated military heroes, Division General Arnaldo Ochoa Sánchez. Ochoa was found guilty on drug charges and summarily executed along with three other officers, including Colonel Antonio de la Guardia, a MININT insider. This would have been inconceivable in most Latin American countries.
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