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Type 039C AIP conventional submarine

Construction of conventional submarines appeared to have halted in in 2013. Then at the end of 2016 three more of these Yuan class subs were seen under construction. China apparently resumed construction of Type 039 Yuan-class diesel-electric attack submarines (SSK) after a three year hiatus, IHS Janes Defense Weekly reported on 05 January 2017. Images posted on Chinese online forums showed three Type 039 Yuan-class boats in various stages of completion fitting out at the Wuchang Shipyard in Wuhan, central China. The last of the three subs, built by China State Shipbuilding Industrial Corp (CSIC), was reportedly launched on 12 December 2017.

After the naval review of the ship, close-up high-definition photos of the new domestically-made conventional submarine 039C appeared on the Internet in early 2019. Compared with the previous 039A or 039B, the appearance of the 039C type has been significantly optimized. Among them, the submarine command platform enclosure and the hull are equipped with a rounded and excessive fillet structure, which can reduce the resistance and noise in the underwater submarine state. On the Virginia-class nuclear submarine of the United States, the Type 212 submarine of Germany and the Canglong-class submarine of Japan, the superiority of the enclosure and corner filling has been fully confirmed. In addition, the surface of the 039C's hull is fully equipped with anechoic tiles, and the appearance is extremely smooth and neat, which means that the stealth performance of this type of boat is further enhanced.

The two most critical factors that determine the underwater submarine capability of a submarine are hull shape design and power system. At present, from 039A to 039C, the external optimization of this domestic advanced conventional submarine has reached a relatively ideal level. In other words, if you want to continue to tap the underwater submarine potential of the 039 series platform, it is almost time to make drastic improvements to the power system.

The Lithium battery system for submarines has the advantage of greatly improving underwater navigation time and high-speed start-up time and greatly reducing maintenance items by extending the lifetime more than twice as long as lead acid battery system used in existing submarines. Lithium batteries are small in size and high in energy, and their performance is much superior than existing lead-acid batteries. Specifically, the energy density of lithium batteries is three times that of lead-acid batteries, and the capacity of high-speed navigation can reach twice the latter; the energy of low-speed economic navigation is also about 1.3 times that of the latter. With lithium batteries, the probability of exposure to submarines can be reduced. 2.5 times. Therefore, lithium batteries are considered to be one of the development directions of conventional submarines in the new century.

China has not announced plans to use such batteries on its submarines, but this may be expected in the near future. GS Yuasa, the Kyoto-based developer and manufacturer of battery systems, said in a 21 February 2017 press statement that lithium-ion batteries will be mounted on two Soryu-class boats currently in build for the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF). The first such boat was commissioned in March 2020. In South Korea, it was announced in late 2018 that the Jang Bogo-III Batch-II submarine will be equipped with a lithium battery system developed through domestic research.

Contemporary Amperex Technology Co., Limited (CATL) is a global leader in the development and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries. The share of Chinese companies in the global lithium battery has exceeded 60%, of which CATL ranks first, with a share of 37%. The number of Chinese lithium battery companies has not only increased rapidly, but the quality has also been significantly enhanced. The raw materials and manufacturing equipment have basically been localized, and the product technology level has also been continuously improved. The CATL has entered the supply of Tesla, Mercedes-Benz, BMW and other well-known car companies. These have laid a solid foundation for the application of lithium batteries on domestic submarines.

EverExceed Group was established in 1980s and has its headquarter in Shenzhen, China, and subsidiaries in Singapore, UK and operations in six continents. It is manufacturing and supplying worldwide reliable power solutions with continuous innovative technologies, cost-effectiveness and good service, including industrial batteries (lead acid batteries, NiCad batteries, Lithium-ion batteries), solar power systems, UPS systems and DC power systems.

EverExceed's submarine batteries are very effective, powerful, reliable and long-lasting for military submarine. For the manufacturing of submarine batteries different types of technologies - all in the field of lead acid technology but with different designs - are used in order to achieve the varied demands and sophisticated requirements in terms of energy and performance (high capacity during discharge, high current capability during discharge, law gassing, good shock resistance etc).

EverExceeds submarine batteries are designed for long life and high performance in: Western type submarines: U209; U214; Scorpene; Agosta; and Daphne, and Eastern type submarines: Romeo; Foxtrot; and Kilo. Design development has been done also for classes U206, U212, Vastergotland (A17) (A19).

Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) celebrated their twenty-fifth birthday, and among the most promising electrochemical cells which are expected to replace the traditional fossil fuels in transportation, as well as energy storage for intermittent renewable energy such as solar or wind power, to satisfy urgent environmental demands. In addition, they have been widely applied in portable consumer electronic products. Although LIBs have achieved the dominant position in cell markets as compared with lead-acid and Ni-MH cells, they are still restrained by insufficient energy density and power density, and are in urgent need of further guarantees of safety. This review will concentrate on how the above problems can be considered and dealt with from the aspect of electrochemical potential.

The first requirement, energy density, can be realized by developing novel electrode materials. Anodes (modified carbons are widely adopted) generally have higher capacities than common cathodes. The next-generation anode materials, lithium metal or silicon-(active metal) alloys, even represent better hope for quite great enhancement in capacity. As a result, the bottleneck of energy density always lies in the commercial cathodes such as LiCoO2, LiFePO4 and LiMn2O4.

The second requirement, power density, is not related so directly to the electrochemical potential. However, the high-rate charge and discharge usually bring about side reactions and subsequent aging and capacity-fade at the interfaces, which can be attributed to kinetic stability problems influenced by the sharp potential drop across the interphases, where a high proportion of a full cell systems resistance lies. In addition, the potential variation at the interface modulates the lithium diffusion mechanism there.

The safety issue, which is regarded as the third requirement, promises to be solved by the replacement of electrolytic solutions by solid-state electrolytes. However, the high solidsolid interface resistance is often the predominant limitation of actual LIBs performance. Inorganic all-solid-state batteries can also be fabricated into the sandwich structure, just similar to their counterparts with organic electrolytic solution, while the electrolytes of the former are made of inorganic ionic conductor ceramic pellets. Because there is no electrolytic solution to wet the electrodes, the active materials should be mixed with solid electrolytes together with conductive additives and binders instead. The alternative strategy to realize the all-solid-state battery is to adopt the thin film structure, where the cathode and electrolyte are deposited onto current collectors in sequence, and Li metal or Li alloys can be adhered as anode.

In year 2008, China started to develop the power battery ,it it was the budding period in year 2010 . The so called first developing year was in year 2014 appearing the first lithium-ion battery industry increment. Till year 2020, when the power battery technical route settled, it was the high speed developing period. Initially the normal used 3 types battery: Lithium Iron phosphate ;three elements; lithium sulfur. They are all facing with two main problems of less energy density and no truly meaning safety. As the present technology Can not reach the final solution, The Ultimate solutions for these two problems will be solid state battery, till year 2020, it will be a relatively stable technology for solid state battery.

The present technology accumulation will be valuable and meaningful for future development. The present Lithium Iron phosphate battery is relatively safe, but the energy density is not good enough, it can not meet with the automobile range requests, the present energy density data is 160wh/kg, the future desired data will be 300-350 wh/kg; This will be a truly meaning promotion for forming the electric car and pilotless driving. About the present power battery manufacturing only with 70%-80% passing rate, the technology maturation needs a process. when the whole products technology and equipment assembling become matured, it will reach the 95-96% high passing rate.

According to the statistics of China Chemical and Physical Power Industry Association, the sales revenue of lithium-ion batteriesin China reached $23.72 billion in 2017, up 19.5% from the year of 2016. The output of lithium-ion batteries increased from 87.3 billion Wh to 100.9 billion Wh, a year-on-year increase of 15.6%. Mainly due to the rapid growth of the new energy vehicle power battery and energy storage battery market. Among them, the sales revenue of lithium-ion batteries for consumer electronic products increased from $10.37 billion to $11.30 billion , an increase of about 9% year-on-year, and the output was 49 billion Wh, up 7% year-on-year to 52.4 billion Wh.

The sales revenue of power lithium-ion batteries for new energy vehicles and electric bicycles was $8.96 billion , up 30% year-on-year to $11.64 billion; the output was 33 billionWh, up 35% year-on-year to 44.6 billion Wh. The sales revenue of lithium-ion batteries for energy storage was 3.5 billion yuan, up 48% year-on-year to $ 0.78 billion, and the output increased from 2.5 billion Wh to 3.9 billion Wh, up 55% year-on-year.

In 2017, China's output of automotive lithium power battery stood at 44.5GWh, an upsurge of 44.5% from a year earlier, and the output figure will be up to 215GWh in 2022, a 4.8-fold of the 2017's in the wake of national policy being enforced as well as the improvement of lithium battery production technologies, cost cuts, and the growing trend of new energy vehicle (NEV) and supporting facilities. In 2017, the global demand for electric vehicle (EV) power battery reached 69.0GWh, being the one with most increments among consumer electronics, power, and energy storage. It is expected that the world's demand for EV lithium battery will be at least 325GWh till 2022, a 4.7-fold of the 2017's.

In 2018, the proportion of ternary power batteries has increased significantly. From the perspective of market demand, passenger cars will be the main force for the growth of new energy vehicles in the future. Due to the guidance of the subsidy policy and the high-density characteristics of the ternary battery itself, it can better meet the demand of the new energy passenger vehicle market. From the data of domestic mainstream battery manufacturers, the ternary battery has become the focus of battery technology development. Although lithium iron phosphate batteries have a broad market in the field of electric buses, with the advancement of technology, the cost of ternary batteries is gradually reduced, and the safety is gradually improved, which will have a significant impact on the market share of lithium iron phosphate batteries.

High-nickel ternary material batteries are generally favored by the industry, attracting many power battery companies. Positive layout. The ternary battery companies are mostly focusing on the development of high-nickel ternary batteries. The technicalroute is rapidly advancing from the current mainstream NCM523 system to NCM622, NCM811 and NCA. After the subsidy is abolished in 2020, lithium iron phosphate batteries, ternary batteries and lithium manganate batteries will have their own application fields and development space.

The high nickel and low cobaltization of the ternary cathode material has obvious advantages in improving the specific energy of the battery and reducing the material cost, but the safety and stability problems are more prominent. Due to the high technical barrier of high-nickel ternary cathode materials, the requirements in preparation process, equipment and production environment are much higher than ordinary ternary materials. Domestic high-nickel ternary materials still need to overcome many technical problems. In order to obtain higher subsidies, enterprises have reduced the thermal management requirements of battery systems under the requirement of increasing system specific energy, and there is a great security risk. In addition, most companies still lack sufficient experience in the production of ternary batteries, and the safety and longevity of batteries have yet to be tested. Enterprises should pay great attention to the safety of battery cells and systems.

Chinese policymakers have made a big bet that electric vehicles will fundamentally disrupt the 130-year-old automotive industry, and Beijing has spent tens of billions of dollars to ensure that the country emerges as the undisputed global leader. Leading companies in the market include. BYD Auto, Zhejiang Wanxiang, Tianjin Lishen, and ATL. In 2017 Chinese makers claimed seven of the top 10 slots on the list of the world's largest suppliers of lithium-ion batteries for EVs. China's Contemporary Amperex Technology Ltd., or CATL, is the world's top EV battery manufacturer. According to projections by Bloomberg New Energy Finance, China will produce 70% of the world's electric-vehicle batteries by 2021.




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Page last modified: 17-06-2021 16:42:44 ZULU