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Type 039C AIP conventional submarine

Construction appeared to have halted in in 2013. Then at the end of 2016 three more of these Yuan class subs were seen under construction. China apparently resumed construction of Type 039 Yuan-class diesel-electric attack submarines (SSK) after a three year hiatus, IHS Janes Defense Weekly reported on 05 January 2017. Images posted on Chinese online forums showed three Type 039 Yuan-class boats in various stages of completion fitting out at the Wuchang Shipyard in Wuhan, central China. The last of the three subs, built by China State Shipbuilding Industrial Corp (CSIC), was reportedly launched on 12 December 2017.

Lithium battery system for submarines has the advantage of greatly improving underwater navigation time and high-speed start-up time and greatly reducing maintenance items by extending the lifetime more than twice as long as lead acid battery system used in existing submarines. China has not announced plans to use such batteries on its submarines, but this may be expected in the near future. GS Yuasa, the Kyoto-based developer and manufacturer of battery systems, said in a 21 February 2017 press statement that lithium-ion batteries will be mounted on two Soryu-class boats currently in build for the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF). The first such boat will be commissioned in March 2020. In South Korea, it was announced in late 2018 that the Jang Bogo-III Batch-II submarine will be equipped with a lithium battery system developed through domestic research.

For instance, EverExceed Group was established in 1980s and has its headquarter in Shenzhen, China, and subsidiaries in Singapore, UK and operations in six continents. It is manufacturing and supplying worldwide reliable power solutions with continuous innovative technologies, cost-effectiveness and good service, including industrial batteries (lead acid batteries, NiCad batteries, Lithium-ion batteries), solar power systems, UPS systems and DC power systems.

EverExceed's submarine batteries are very effective, powerful, reliable and long-lasting for military submarine. For the manufacturing of submarine batteries different types of technologies - all in the field of lead acid technology but with different designs - are used in order to achieve the varied demands and sophisticated requirements in terms of energy and performance (high capacity during discharge, high current capability during discharge, law gassing, good shock resistance etc).

EverExceeds submarine batteries are designed for long life and high performance in: Western type submarines: U209; U214; Scorpene; Agosta; and Daphne, and Eastern type submarines: Romeo; Foxtrot; and Kilo. Design development has been done also for classes U206, U212, Vastergotland (A17) (A19).

Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) celebrated their twenty-fifth birthday, and among the most promising electrochemical cells which are expected to replace the traditional fossil fuels in transportation, as well as energy storage for intermittent renewable energy such as solar or wind power, to satisfy urgent environmental demands. In addition, they have been widely applied in portable consumer electronic products. Although LIBs have achieved the dominant position in cell markets as compared with lead-acid and Ni-MH cells, they are still restrained by insufficient energy density and power density, and are in urgent need of further guarantees of safety. This review will concentrate on how the above problems can be considered and dealt with from the aspect of electrochemical potential.

The first requirement, energy density, can be realized by developing novel electrode materials. Anodes (modified carbons are widely adopted) generally have higher capacities than common cathodes. The next-generation anode materials, lithium metal or silicon-(active metal) alloys, even represent better hope for quite great enhancement in capacity. As a result, the bottleneck of energy density always lies in the commercial cathodes such as LiCoO2, LiFePO4 and LiMn2O4. The second requirement, power density, is not related so directly to the electrochemical potential. However, the high-rate charge and discharge usually bring about side reactions and subsequent aging and capacity-fade at the interfaces, which can be attributed to kinetic stability problems influenced by the sharp potential drop across the interphases, where a high proportion of a full cell systems resistance lies. In addition, the potential variation at the interface modulates the lithium diffusion mechanism there.

The safety issue, which is regarded as the third requirement, promises to be solved by the replacement of electrolytic solutions by solid-state electrolytes. However, the high solidsolid interface resistance is often the predominant limitation of actual LIBs performance. Inorganic all-solid-state batteries can also be fabricated into the sandwich structure, just similar to their counterparts with organic electrolytic solution, while the electrolytes of the former are made of inorganic ionic conductor ceramic pellets. Because there is no electrolytic solution to wet the electrodes, the active materials should be mixed with solid electrolytes together with conductive additives and binders instead. The alternative strategy to realize the all-solid-state battery is to adopt the thin film structure, where the cathode and electrolyte are deposited onto current collectors in sequence, and Li metal or Li alloys can be adhered as anode.

In 2017, China's output of automotive lithium power battery stood at 44.5GWh, an upsurge of 44.5% from a year earlier, and the output figure will be up to 215GWh in 2022, a 4.8-fold of the 2017's in the wake of national policy being enforced as well as the improvement of lithium battery production technologies, cost cuts, and the growing trend of new energy vehicle (NEV) and supporting facilities. In 2017, the global demand for electric vehicle (EV) power battery reached 69.0GWh, being the one with most increments among consumer electronics, power, and energy storage. It is expected that the world's demand for EV lithium battery will be at least 325GWh till 2022, a 4.7-fold of the 2017's.

Chinese policymakers have made a big bet that electric vehicles will fundamentally disrupt the 130-year-old automotive industry, and Beijing has spent tens of billions of dollars to ensure that the country emerges as the undisputed global leader. In 2017 Chinese makers claimed seven of the top 10 slots on the list of the world's largest suppliers of lithium-ion batteries for EVs. China's Contemporary Amperex Technology Ltd., or CATL, is the world's top EV battery manufacturer. According to projections by Bloomberg New Energy Finance, China will produce 70% of the world's electric-vehicle batteries by 2021.




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