UNITED24 - Make a charitable donation in support of Ukraine!


Chinese Military Trucks

The history of Chinese military vehicles can be traced back to the end of 1937 during the Anti-Japanese War. At that time, the Central Military Commission The formation of the army's first vehicle transport team to and from Yan'an, Xi'an, Chongqing and other places. It is mainly composed of more than a dozen cars donated by domestic and foreign friends and self-purchased. By the end of the War of Resistance Against Japan in 1945, the entire army had seized more than 400 military vehicles from various base areas.

During the War of Liberation, the main source of Chinese military vehicles was still the spoils seized from the enemy. For example, during the Lunan Campaign, the East China Field Army wiped out the Kuomintang Army’s 1st Fast Column in one fell swoop and seized 470 vehicles. Based on this, the East China Field Army Special Forces Column was formed; more than 1,200 vehicles were seized from each battlefield in the first year. More than 2,000 cars were seized in the second year, and the number of cars seized increased exponentially in the third year. A total of more than 22,000 vehicles of various types were seized in various battles in 4 years.

The "taken from the enemy" military vehicles improved the army's mobility and combat effectiveness on the battlefield to a certain extent, from the artillery convoy that welcomes the children on the road in the liberated area to the American jeep during the military parade by Chairman Mao Zedong and Commander Zhu De at Nanyuan Airport. They all vividly reflect the condition of China's military vehicles at that time.

After liberation, in order to defend the victory of New China, on the one hand, it was necessary to quell the remaining hostile forces in the country, and on the other hand, it was necessary to solve the urgent needs of the frontline operations of the volunteers who went to North Korea to participate in the war. This was necessary for the transportation and mobility of millions of troops and militia. Put forward very high requirements. According to relevant statistics, since 1951, the country has imported more than 10,000 cars every year. By the end of 1957, the total number of vehicles in the army had reached more than 92,000 vehicles. Among them, there are more than 55,000 Soviet-style cars, accounting for more than 70%; France and other countries have more than 22,000 cars, accounting for nearly 25%; and other Eastern European countries have nearly 3,000 cars, accounting for only about 3%. . However, in the early stage of the founding of the imperialist economic blockade and military siege, whether it is from the needs of national security or the normalization of the army, it is impossible to rely solely on imported cars from abroad. The international and domestic situations require that the country must have the ability to manufacture military vehicles on its own.

In 1953 of the "First Five-Year Plan", Chairman Mao Zedong personally wrote the inscription "Memorial of the Foundation Laying of the First Automobile Factory". Three years later, the "FAW" was completed and put into production, ending China's history of not being able to produce cars and beginning to reverse the situation where military cars were completely imported. With the assistance of the Soviet Union, FAW began to imitate the GAZ series off-road vehicles. After 3 years of production, it equipped the army with more than 7,000 3.5-ton 4-2 CA10 vehicles. Two years later, it trial-produced 2.5-ton 6-6 CA30 off-road vehicles. car. As for the 0.5-ton-1 ton-class light off-road vehicles, most of them were American jeeps left over after the war, except for about 4,000 imported from the Soviet Union. The workers and technicians of Chongqing Chang'an Automobile Plant did surveying and mapping design of the American CJ-5 Jeep without any experience and production base. In May 1958, they developed China’s first off-road vehicle "Yangtze River" 46 It became an exciting scene to inspire the the Chinese people at the military parade on the 10th anniversary of the National Day in 1959. It is worth mentioning that the "Changjiang brand" 46 off-road vehicle has achieved a production volume of nearly 1,400. The accumulated data and successful experience have laid an important foundation for the future development of Beijing Automobile Manufacturing Plant.

On December 13, 1960, the General Staff Headquarters of the Central Military Commission assigned the task of developing and producing light off-road vehicles at the Beijing Automobile Manufacturing Plant under the Ministry of First Machinery Industry. On December 30, the Automobile Bureau of the First Machinery Department held a special meeting attended by seven departments including the General Staff and the General Logistics Department. It clarified the light off-road vehicles for military command vehicles that the Chinese army urgently needs, and they have towing light vehicles. For the functions of artillery, chemical defense, and radio communication equipment, it is required to organize and implement trial production as soon as possible. According to the standards issued by the ministry, the model is designated as BJ210.

In order to realize the serialization of domestic military vehicles, the Military Wheeled Vehicle Professional Group approved by the Central Military Commission’s Science and Technology Committee in June 1961 formulated a military vehicle development plan, organized development, testing, finalization, and coordinated production. After more than two years of hard work, the "Military Wheeled Vehicle Serialization Plan" was drawn up, which was approved by the Central Military Commission He Long, Nie Rongzhen, Luo Ruiqing and other leading comrades, and was issued and implemented on May 1, 1963. The plan determines the development and production of 6 basic military vehicles of 0.5 ton, 1 ton, 2.5 ton, 3.5 ton, 5 ton and 7 ton classes. Based on these 6 types of vehicles, more than 20 variants can be developed and converted into several special vehicles, which basically meet the requirements of serialization, generalization and standardization of military vehicle equipment.

Beginning in 1963, the First Machinery Department organized the production of 1-ton, 2.5-ton, and 3.5-ton off-road vehicles in the First Automobile Manufacturing Plant and Nanjing Automobile Manufacturing Plant in accordance with the military vehicle serialization plan. In 1964, it was determined that the second automobile manufacturing plant, Sichuan (Chongqing Hongyan) and Shaanxi Automobile Manufacturing Plants, to produce 0.5-ton, 5-ton and 7-ton off-road vehicles were established on the third line, mainly producing off-road vehicles. In the late 1960s, the BJ212 light off-road vehicle manufactured by BAIC and the NJ230 of Nanjing Automobile were put into production successively; the 5-ton Dongfanghong 665 heavy tractor developed by Luoyang Tractor Factory also began to be equipped with troops. In 1974, the Second Automobile Manufacturing Plant built an EQ240 automobile production line and began to produce 3.5-ton EQ245 off-road vehicles.

By 1980, the 6 basic models of the first-generation military wheeled vehicles made in China (0.5-ton 4-4 BJ212, 1-ton 4-4 NJ230, 2.5-ton 6-6 CA30, 3.5-ton 6- Type 6 EQ245, 5-ton 6-6 SX250, 7-ton 6-6 JN252 and CQ261) all achieved the expected target of mass production. At the same time, the 6-6 Yan’an SX250, Yellow River JN252, Hongyan CQ261 off-road vehicle and Dongfanghong DFH665 developed in the early 1970s constituted the first generation of equipment for China’s military heavy off-road vehicles, which reversed the difference between heavy weapon tractors Matching, the situation of the small car pulling the cannon satisfies part of the urgent needs of the army, has made contributions to the development of the national economy and national defense construction, and has played an important role in promoting the improvement of the level of China's entire automobile industry.

Since the mid-1960s, China has formed an annual production capacity of more than 10,000 vehicles for the military. The General Logistics Department began in the early 1970s to develop and modify general-purpose special vehicles and special-purpose vehicles based on domestic military vehicle chassis to solve the problem of various military vehicles. Special vehicle equipment requirements for the arms. According to statistics, by 1985, domestically-made general-purpose special vehicles and special ancillary vehicles that had been modified by the entire military accounted for a quarter of the total number of equipped vehicles, of which only the navy, air force, artillery, tanks, communications, radar, engineering, and chemical defense.

The special vehicles for military services and arms, such as missiles, and missiles, are close to one-sixth of the total number of vehicles equipped by the entire army; and the general-purpose special vehicles and special supporting vehicles equipped by the Air Force have accounted for more than half of the total number of vehicles. During this period, the equipment of naval, land, and air force vehicles has been greatly improved. Artillery, engineering, communications, and chemical defense forces have basically achieved motorization; two motorized armies have been formed, and the infantry regiment has begun to equip vehicles, and Some carriages were eliminated. Military vehicles began to be updated, replacing Soviet-style vehicles and old-style domestic vehicles equipped in the early 1960s.

The significance of the first-generation military vehicle based on self-reliance is huge. However, due to the foundation of China's automobile industry, the technical performance, quality indicators, off-road load capacity, and towing weight of vehicles cannot meet the needs of the development of military weapons and equipment and modernization. For this reason, starting in 1975, the General Logistics Department, in conjunction with the vehicle management departments and scientific research units of various services and arms, drafted the "Second Generation Military Vehicle Series Type Spectrum." In the early 1990s, the development of the second generation of military vehicles began, and it was decided to adopt 6-ton basic vehicles of 0.5 ton, 1.5 ton, 3.5 ton, 5 ton, 7 ton and 12 ton. On the basis of self-developed and self-manufactured in the first 30 years, a light off-road vehicle segment with Beiqi, Nanqi, Second Automobile, Dongfeng, etc. as the backbone has gradually formed; the Shaanxi Automobile Manufacturing Plant and Jinan Automobile under China National Heavy Duty Truck Group Manufacturing plant and Sichuan Automobile Manufacturing Plant, Baotou North Benz Heavy-duty Vehicle Co., Ltd., Southwest Vehicle Manufacturing Plant, etc. as the backbone of the medium-sized off-road vehicle sector; The heavy-duty off-road vehicle segment and the heavy-duty special vehicle base represented by Hanyang Special Vehicle Manufacturing Plant.

China has been equipped with military jeeps for a long time, but due to historical reasons, the models used are relatively outdated and have become less and less able to keep up with the needs of increasingly complex modern warfare. The famous BJ212 Beijing Jeep, a Chinese imitation model of the Soviet Union UAZ469B, which was introduced to China in 1960. The Beijing Jeep used to be the leading equipment of the PLA's light off-road command and passenger vehicle. This car was born during the Second World War and is cleverly designed, sturdy and durable. Since its formal finalization in 1965, BJ212 (and BJ2020) off-road vehicles have been equipped with a large number of troops, and they have become famous in the world as Chairman Mao took the open-top BJ212 to inspect the Red Guards. It has also made great contributions to various constructions of the army. With the passage of time, the engine assembly technology of this model is backward, the chassis design is aging, the fuel consumption is too high, and the braking and handling stability are poor, which makes it difficult to meet the needs of the army.

With the deepening of the "reform and development" policy, the development of military vehicles has also been driven by the "introduction of technology". On January 15, 1984, the Beijing Automobile Manufacturing Plant and the American Automobile Company (merged by Chrysler after 1987) were jointly operated. Beijing Jeep Automobile Co., Ltd. marks the beginning of "introduction" and "joint venture" in China's automobile manufacturing industry; China National Heavy Duty Truck Group has also become the first successful example of the introduction of Austrian Steyr and other advanced series models in China. China's automobile manufacturing industry thus entered a period of "globalization" development. In the history of the army's automotive equipment, there is a relatively unique light off-road vehicle, that is, the BJ2020VJ light off-road command vehicle. In May 1983, it was announced that a production cooperation agreement between the American Automobile Company (AMC) and Beijing Automobile Works had been signed. The agreement confirms that Beijing Jeep Corporation (BJC) will produce the Jeep XJ Cherokee in China. The production of BJ212 was also transferred to the newly established BJC, and the vehicle was upgraded to use a Cherokee 85 hp engine. The upgraded Beijing Jeep was renamed BJ2020S, replacing BJ212 to become the standard light multi-purpose vehicle in PLA service.

Beijing Jeep Corporation (BJC) BJ2020S is a 4X4 light multi-purpose vehicle. It is used by the PLA as a light tactical transport vehicle for commanders or liaison officers, and a small personnel carrier may be used as a platform for light weapons. BJ2020S originated from Today, BJ2020S remains the most popular light multi-purpose vehicle in PLA service. BJ2020VJ is a hybrid product of Beijing 2020 and Cherokee. It has the appearance of a traditional Beijing Jeep, the heart and drive of Cherokee, and combines the advantages of the two. On the basis of retaining the good passability, reliability and maintainability of the original model, by improving and absorbing the existing mature technology, the overall performance of the BJ2020 series off-road vehicle is improved while maintaining a relatively low purchase price.

Beijing Jeep Corporation (BJC) BJ2020S is a 4X4 light multi-purpose vehicle. It is used by the PLA as a light tactical transport vehicle for commanders or liaison officers, and a small personnel carrier may be used as a platform for light weapons. BJ2020S originated from the famous BJ212, a Chinese imitation model of the Soviet Union UAZ469B. Today, BJ2020S remains the most popular light multi-purpose vehicle in PLA service. The representative models in the tonnage segment of light off-road vehicles are: BJ2022 4×4 off-road vehicle independently developed by Beijing Jeep; and 1.5-ton NJ2045 soft, hard-top, and truck-type off-road vehicle developed by Nanqi Group using IVECO technology. The 4 ton EQ2061E, EQ2102 and other medium-sized off-road vehicles developed by Dongfeng Motor Co., which are universally used by the whole army and are specially matched for various services and arms; and the SX2150 5-ton military off-road vehicle produced by Shaanxi Automobile General Plant. (July 26, 2007)

In the medium-sized off-road vehicle segment, the "Yellow River" series of China National Heavy Duty Truck Group (later adopted Austrian Steyr (STEYR) technology) occupies an important position in the service trucks of the Chinese army. There are also SX2190 seven-ton, SX2270, and SX2300 12 to 15-ton off-road vehicles developed by Shaanxi Automobile (also using Steyr technology); North Benz's 7-ton 1926A and 10-ton 2629A off-road vehicles; The 7.5-ton 6×6 XC2030 truck of the Southwest Vehicle Manufacturing Plant and the 8-ton 8×8 XC2200 series multi-purpose vehicle are used for the transportation of the the Chinese army’s modern equipment and air defense weapon systems.

The representative models in the heavy and ultra-heavy off-road vehicle sector are WS2300 15-ton, WS2400 20-ton, and WS2500 28-ton off-road vehicles from Wanshan Special Vehicle Manufacturing Plant. This series of vehicles are mainly used as missile launch vehicles and bomb transport vehicles. Tai'an Special Vehicle Manufacturing Plant focuses on supporting vehicles for the 20-ton TA5380 heavy rocket launcher weapon system, ground-to-air missile weapon system launcher, loading vehicle, and phase-controlled radar vehicle. It also produces 25-ton TA5450 variants as rocket launchers. Chassis: 30-ton TA5570 and TA5570A variants are used as missile transport vehicles and missile transport retransmission vehicles.

As a transitional model between the two generations of military vehicles, the equipment life is very short-lived. In order to fill the gap before the second-generation light off-road vehicle entered service, at the beginning of the 21st century, the army began to equip the BJ2020VJ light off-road command vehicle as a transitional model between the first and second generation vehicles. The developer is Beijing Jeep Automobile Co., Ltd. and its military representative office. Based on BJ2020SJ, it has passed the finalization test and appraisal in January 20O1, and is equipped with troops. It can still be seen in all levels of the army.There are also some modified vehicles on the basis, for example, the 149th division of the Mobu modified several assault vehicles that can carry artillery and mortars.

Two new generations of military off-road vehicles were revealed in 2002. One of them was the Dongfeng Iron Armor of Dongfeng Motor Co. , which was unveiled at the Beijing Auto Show in May 2002 . The " Hummer " high-mobility wheeled vehicle produced by General Dynamics of the United States, which is currently widely equipped by the U.S. military, is unusually similar and has attracted widespread attention. The other is the protagonist of this article-Nanjing Iveco NJ2046, which appeared at the Special Vehicle Show in September of that year. When it debuted that year, apart from the static display of the real car, it hardly provided any textual information and data performance, which also cast a veil of mystery. In the subsequent 2003 Abu Dhabi Defense Exhibition, among the materials provided by my country's North Industries Corporation, a "Red Arrow-9" anti-tank missile launch vehicle was particularly eye-catching, and its chassis was NJ2046. The NJ2045 is a new generation of military off-road vehicle that Nanjing Iveco Automobile Co., Ltd. introduced the Italian Iveco model 40.10WM technology, combined with China's climate environment and road conditions, and was successfully developed in 1999 and has been widely equipped. The NJ2046 is a new type of vehicle with many technical improvements based on the NJ2045, which greatly improves the off-road performance. In terms of appearance, the NJ2045 still has the shadow of a civilian car from Iveco, while the NJ2046 is a military vehicle through and through.

As an important manufacturing base for military special vehicles, Hanyang Special Vehicle Manufacturing Plant has a history of nearly 40 years. Since the 1980s, it has been developing heavy special vehicles for weapon systems. Representative products such as Hanyang HY473 (6×6) Tractor and HY962 semi-trailer, etc. At present, the main series of products are semi-trailer tractors of more than 20 tons for the transportation of heavy equipment. On the one hand, this type of military vehicle is for the heavy weapons and equipment of modern high-tech warfare; on the other hand, it is for the supply of huge consumable materials for the troops in a very short time. The development of heavy-duty military vehicles with greater carrying capacity and military vehicles that meet the requirements of complex weapon systems has not only become an important development trend of military equipment, but also a huge challenge and a powerful impact on a country's automobile manufacturing base and capabilities.

From the early stage of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" period, Wanshan Company used super heavy off-road vehicle and special vehicle technology to extend downwards and began the development of a new generation of heavy-duty and high-mobility off-road vehicle products combined with military and civilian use. The WS2250 (8×8) two basic and serialized models have filled the domestic gap. The main technical indicators of this series of off-road vehicles are better than similar domestic products, and the technical level is at the same level as similar foreign products. It has a higher cost performance and comprehensive Competitiveness will become a new economic growth point for Sanjiang Special Vehicles.

The company has developed a new generation of high-mobility off-road vehicles with independent intellectual property rights and has taken the lead in making breakthroughs in civilian market sales, laying a solid foundation for opening up a broader sales market in the future. At the same time, the WS2251 high-mobility off-road vehicle developed and produced by Wanshan Company has been included in the 181st batch of product announcements in the National "Announcement of Vehicle Manufacturers and Products".

Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list

Page last modified: 01-08-2021 14:07:07 ZULU