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Chinese Navy - Torpedoes

Nowadays, countries with a little technical foundation can develop missiles, and there are nearly 20 countries capable of manufacturing submarines. However, there are only a few countries with independent design and manufacture of modern torpedoes. It can be said that modern torpedoes are one of the most difficult naval technologies to develop. China is one of the countries that can independently develop and produce torpedoes.

In 1866, more than 100 years ago, British engineer Robert Whitehead and Austrian Rubis succeeded in developing the first torpedo in human history that could sail automatically in the water. Later generations call this torpedo a "whitehead" torpedo. The "Whitehead" torpedo opened the first page of the history of modern torpedo and became the originator of the development of torpedoes in various countries. Whitehead was also recognized by the world navy as the father of modern torpedoes.

A torpedo is a submerged weapon that is launched by a combat platform to launch water into the water and is automatically steered under controlled conditions to destroy enemy surface ships and submarines. It has good concealment and high probability of hitting. The killing power is great. After the end of World War II, there have been statistics showing that the tonnage of transport ships sunk by torpedoes in naval battles totaled 14.45 million tons, accounting for 68% of the total tonnage of sunken ships; large and medium-sized surface combat ships sunk by torpedoes A total of 369 ships, accounting for 38.5% of the total number of large and medium-sized surface combat ships that were sunk, the great power of torpedoes in naval battles.

In order to facilitate the understanding of the development of modern torpedoes, modern torpedoes can be distinguished as follows: from the power mode, they can be divided into battery-powered (electric) torpedoes and thermodynamic torpedoes; from the way of launching, they can be divided into surface ships and The submarine's tubular device launch, rocket assisted flight and aircraft airdrop; from the use of the distinction, can be divided into anti-submarine torpedo, anti-ship torpedo, anti-ship anti-submarine torpedo, anti-torpedo torpedo and underwater preset torpedo; The guidance method can be divided into direct torpedoes, self-guided torpedoes, line guided torpedoes and composite guided torpedoes; from the torpedo caliber, it can be divided into super heavy torpedoes (above 533 mm) and heavy torpedoes (533 mm). Light torpedo (324 mm) and ultralight torpedo (less than 300 mm).

For submarine warfare, most people's cognition still remains in the German World War II submarine movie: With the captain's command, the torpedo fired and hit the target exploding within visible distance. In fact, after decades of development, the modern torpedo has the characteristics of large voyage, high tracking, and even no matter after launch, almost equivalent to a small unmanned submarine with its own warhead.

Because the Sino-Soviet split during the early Cold War occurred well before the Soviets fielded wake-following weapons, it seems unlikely that early Chinese torpedoes embodied this technique. The German, Franco-Italian, and Russian anti-ship torpedoes all embodied wake-following guidance for use against surface ships. However, the Russians almost certainly transferred the relevant technology when relations between the two countries warmed following the Cold War. At present, the more advanced torpedoes basically adopt the method of remote control + self-guide. Self-guided devices are mostly acoustic self-guided, active, passive and active-passive combined. The new type of torpedo is mostly combined.

The fuel of the heat-powered torpedo is a kind of propellant. The heat engine on the torpedo is used to convert the chemical energy into kinetic energy. It has the advantages of fast speed and long range, and is mainly used for heavy torpedoes. The power of the electric torpedo is derived from the battery equipped there. The motor is used to convert electrical energy into kinetic energy, because the noise of the motor is relatively small and is not easily detected by sonar, and is usually used for medium and light torpedoes.

The naval main ships of the mainstream countries in the world are gradually using gas turbines as power, and the advantage is that the ship can reach the highest speed with a short reaction time. In order to effectively attack such targets, the speed of the torpedo is at least 1.5 times the speed of the target ship.

In addition to the speed of the ship, another contest between the surface ship and the torpedo is between the effective detection range of the ship's sonar and the effective power range of the torpedo. In order to ensure the safety of the torpedo itself, the submarine needs to launch the torpedo outside the effective detection range of the enemy ship's sonar. Therefore, the larger the torpedo's voyage and the better the tracking technology, the more effective it can be to kill the opponent on the premise of better preservation.

In the early 1950s, China purchased a large number of torpedo boats and torpedoes from the Soviet Union, forming the first torpedo speedboat units of the New China Navy. On August 6, 1965, our army torpedo speedboats sank the Kuomintang ships in the battle of the East China Sea. Thus, the Chinese Navy recognized the important position of torpedoes in modern naval battles. At that time, the Chinese navy had not been able to equip a large number of anti-ship missiles, and the torpedo weapons became particularly important. In this context, according to the technology transfer agreement between China and the Soviet Union, after comprehensive consideration by naval experts, China decided to use the imported type 53 Soviet torpedo technology to develop its own domestic torpedo. This is the origin of China's first domestic torpedo - fish-1 torpedo.

Fish type (code Yu-1)

Yu-1 [Type 1 Fish] Chinese torpedoIt is China's first self-made large-scale torpedo. This type of torpedo is still one of the main attacking equipment for submarines and torpedo boats. This type of torpedo is based on the Russian-made 53 type. The torpedo uses high-pressure oxygen. It has a diameter of 533 millimeters, a length of 7.8 meters, and a warhead of 400 kilograms. It uses a gas thermal power propulsion system with a maximum speed of 50 knots. The maximum range is 10 kilometers, and both submarines and surface ships can be equipped. This type of torpedo uses high-pressure gas as fuel and has a short range, but it is easy to use and safe. At the time of the imitation work, Sino-Soviet relations were already very tense, and it was impossible to obtain a design blueprint for the torpedo. Fortunately, there are sample torpedoes, and naval engineers and technicians will disassemble the samples to understand their actual structure, and then carry out reverse mapping design. After unremitting efforts, until 1971, the fish-1 was officially designed and finalized. In the mid-to-late 1980s, the Chinese Navy torpedo research department improved the sound control guidance system based on the foreign technology introduced at that time, and modified the line guide and acoustic self-guided anti-ship torpedo on the basis of the fish-1 type. The improved torpedo, called The fish-1 type A, has greatly improved its combat capability. In the mid-1980s, the Chinese Naval Equipment Argumentation Research Center improved the sound guidance system to significantly improve its combat capability. This is a modified type of fish. The current type of fish in the Chinese navy is mainly this improved type.

Fish type II (codenamed Yu-2)

Yu-2 [Type 2 Fish] Chinese torpedo It is a Chinese-made Russian-made RAT-52 type airship torpedo, and the self-made airdrop attacking torpedo. A maritime tactical vision as a three-dimensional attack. The Chinese navy believes that it is necessary to launch a torpedo attack on enemy ships from the air. In 1954, the Chinese Navy imported a solid-fuel-propelled short-range air-to-ship torpedo RAT-52 from the Soviet Union to equip naval aviation bombers to perform aerial torpedo attacks. In 1958, China decided to copy this type of torpedo. It introduced a complete blueprint from the Soviet Union and hired two Soviet experts to come to China for technical guidance. This is the fish-2 torpedo, the first domestic airdrop anti-ship torpedo in the Chinese Navy. Code fish-2. However, because China's solid booster rocket engine technology is not enough, many test failures have failed. It was repeated over and over again until June 1971. This type of torpedo has a diameter of 450 millimeters and is propelled by a solid fuel jet. It is about 3 meters long, with a maximum speed of 40 knots, a maximum range of 5 kilometers and a warhead of 200 kilograms.

Fish Type III (codenamed Yu-3)

Yu-3 [Type 3 Fish] Chinese torpedo It is the first self-made large-scale sound-guided deep-water anti-submarine torpedo in the Chinese Navy. At present, this type of torpedo is the main equipment of the Han-class attack submarine, and the self-defense equipment of the summer-class missile submarine. In design, this type of torpedo uses an electric propulsion device and a passive acoustic guidance system. In terms of tactics, it is essential to attack enemy submarines, especially nuclear submarines, in deep water.

In the early 1960s, the Chinese navy began to adjust its national defense strategy and decided to develop its own nuclear submarine. At the same time, it developed a deep-water anti-submarine torpedo as a matching weapon. It is not only the main offensive weapon of the attack submarine, but also the self-defense weapon of the ballistic missile submarine. Under this circumstance, China began to independently develop the first large-scale deep-water anti-submarine torpedo, which is the fish-3 torpedo.

According to the design requirements of naval experts, this type of torpedo will use electric propeller propulsion and passive acoustic guidance systems to achieve autonomous attacks. In terms of tactics, attacking nuclear submarines capable of attacking enemy submarines in deep water, especially the enemy, is a basic operational requirement. The acoustic self-guided system is the technical key to this type of torpedo. The final technician developed a multi-beam acoustic self-guided system, which improved the self-guided search speed of the torpedo and captured the target probability, and improved the self-guided performance.

The first sample was made in 1969, but it was not developed until 1984. In 1969, four kinds of mines were installed, and various tests were started. Finally, in 1975, the design was finalized and the 401 attack-type nuclear submarines developed in China were equipped. The fish has a diameter of 533 millimeters and a length of 7.8 meters. It is powered by a silver-zinc battery and is guided by a passive acoustic guide mode. The maximum speed is 40 knots, the maximum range is 15 kilometers, the warhead is 205 kilograms, and the maximum combat water depth is about 240 meters.

Since 1985, 705 Instittue and Shuguang Machinery Plant have used the new technology to improve the mine and developed the fish-3B torpedo. The new torpedo guidance system changed from a single passive acoustic self-guide to active-passive combined self-guided. The improved warhead charge is a high-energy explosive of more than 190 kg. The speed is 35 knots, the range is over 13,000 meters, and the stability is also large. In the late 1980s, China improved the fish three types. In 1991, it successfully tested the fish three improved type, which is the Chinese type II anti-submarine fish.

Fish Type IV (codenamed Yu-4)

Yu-4 [Type 4 Fish] Chinese torpedo Based on the Russian-made SAET-60 electric sound guide torpedo, it is modified and imitation. It is a large submarine sound guide torpedo that is made by the Chinese Navy. The Fish IV is one of the main attacking weapons of the Chinese Navy diesel-electric submarine. It is the main equipment of the Type 035 R-class and 037 Ming-class submarines. In addition, the latest Type 039 Song-class submarine is also equipped with this type of torpedo. The Type IV of fish torpedo are divided into two types: A and B. Since 1985, 705 and Shuguang Machinery Plant have used the new technology to improve the mine and developed the fish-3B torpedo. The new torpedo guidance system changed from a single passive acoustic self-guide to active-passive combined self-guided. The improved warhead charge is a high-energy explosive of more than 190 kg. The speed is 35 knots, the range is over 13,000 meters, and the stability is also large.

The two technical specifications are basically the same except for the guidance system. They are proposed by China Dongfeng Instrument Factory and Northwestern Polytechnical University respectively. The developer of the factory is a passive acoustic guide, named the fish four-type; developed by the Northwestern Polytechnical University, is the active passive joint sound guide, named the fish four B type. The basic specifications of the four types of fish: 533 km in diameter and 7.8 m in length. Powered by high-performance silver-zinc battery, the maximum speed is 40 knots, the maximum range is 15 km, and the warhead weighs 400 kg. What is the combat performance of the fish type IV? Because no actual combat experience is difficult to judge, but according to the time of development and the imitation of the Russian torpedo, its technical performance may best be only the level of the 1970s. In addition, whether the fish type 4 torpedo has been improved or not has been added to the line guide or turbulence guidance system is currently not proven.

Fish Type 5 (codenamed Yu-5)

Yu-5 [Type 5 Fish] Chinese torpedo It is a Chinese-made thermal-powered sound-guided anti-submarine torpedo. It is currently the matching weapon of the Chinese Navy's latest Type 039 diesel-electric submarine. In the mid-1980s, it decided to develop a large-scale line anti-submarine. Torpedo, as a matching weapon for the new generation of diesel-electric submarines. The guidance of this type of torpedo is a mixed mode of active and passive joint sound guides in the middle of the guide line. During the development process, it is reported that many American and Japanese technologies have been used.

According to the data, China announced the success of the test in early 1990, and in the summer of 1995, the final definition of the summer fish type 5, and began mass production in 1998. At present, the details of the fish type 5 are not known to the outside world. According to various sporadic data, the fish type 5 is the standard 533 millimeters, the length of the projectile is about 8 meters, the warhead weighs about 200 kilograms, and the thruster is the most advanced. The OTTO fuel thermal power system has a maximum speed of 50 knots and a maximum range of more than 30 kilometers. The launch vehicle is a Song-class diesel-electric submarine. This type of torpedo may develop the ability to attack surface ships in the future, and has anti-submarine and attacking ships. The fish type 5 is the first line guided torpedo equipped by the Chinese navy and is used on diesel-electric submarines. The successful development of the fish type 5 has made the Chinese navy's conventional submarine capable of anti-submarine warfare for the first time.

Fish Type 6 (codenamed Yu-6)

Yu-6 [Type 6 Fish] Chinese torpedo Although the Chinese Navy's fish 3 series torpedo has been improved many times, the overall technical level is very poor. The maximum speed is only 35 knots. It is very likely that the straight pursuit can not catch up with the US and Russian nuclear submarines. Therefore, it is imperative to increase the speed. The maximum speed generally reached or exceeded 50 knots, so our army began to develop a new generation of fish-6 torpedo. In addition to increasing the speed of the fish-6, the fish-6 has improved the shifting function. Once the target is launched, it can be re-entered into the search mode after deceleration. After the target is found, the target will be chased again. This will bring more attack opportunities. The function brings great convenience to the submarine's underwater operations. However, the development of the fish 6 is not smooth sailing, and the rapid evolution of the combat environment and objects has brought great difficulties to the development, and even almost reinvented. However, the fish 6 eventually managed to finalize the equipment and become the main battle equipment of the new generation of navy submarines.

The Yu-6 is the 533mm wire-/acoustic-/wake-homing heavy torpedo designed by 705 Institute (also known as Xian Precision Machinery Institute), a R&D branch of the China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (CSIC) in Xian, Shaanxi province. The Yu-6 is the most advanced and capable indigenous torpedo in service with the Peoples Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), designed to engage both deep-diving submarines and surface ships. The torpedo entered the PLAN service in 2005, carried by the Type 039 (Song class) and Type 039A (Yuan class) conventional submarines, and possibly the newly launched Type 093 (Shang class) and Type 094 (Jin class) nuclear-powered submarines too.

In the mid-1980s, the PLAN decided to develop a new heavy torpedo for both anti-ship warfare (ASuW) and anti-submarine warfare (ASW) roles, by reverse-engineering a single Mk-48 torpedo recovered by Chinese fishermen in the late 1970s or early 1980s. The development project was later put on a halt after few prototypes were produced due to enormous technical difficulties and lack of funding. However, research on the Otto fuel II and wire guidance was continued by a small team.

As the PLAN realised that its current torpedoes were unable to meet its requirements for modern naval warfare, the Yu-6 project was officially revived in 1995, with Dong Chun-Peng appointed as the chief designer. The revised Yu-6 design has possibly incorporated some Russian technologies, particularly the unique wake-homing technology. A number of Chinese organisations were involved in the Yu-6 development, including Shanghai Jiaotong University that developed new alloy for the torpedo casing; Tianjin Rubber Research Institute that supplied the noise-reduction casing for the acoustic seeker; Harbin Electro Carbon Research Institute tasked to develop the graphite material used to make engine valves and other components; Yizheng Shuanghuan Piston Ring Co. Ltd. that developed the piston ring for the torpedo propulsion. It was reported that the Yu-6 adopts a combined wire + active/passive acoustic + waking-homing guidance for different types of targets. It guidance system reportedly uses an Intel 80486-class microprocessor. The Yu-6 was also the first Chinese torpedo designed with the concepts of modular design and open architecture software programming in mind, so that new technologies and programmes could be readily incorporated whenever they become available.

Fish Type 7 (codenamed Yu-7) Imitation MK46 torpedo

Yu-7 [Type 7 Fish] Chinese torpedo This type of torpedo has been heavily equipped with Chinese naval surface ships and naval aviation aircraft, and used as a warhead for anti-submarine missiles. The torpedo has a diameter of 324 millimeters, a length of 2.6 meters, a total weight of 324 kilograms, and a warhead of 44 kilograms. In October 1978, an unexploded MK-46 torpedo was captured by Chinese fishing boats in the South China Sea and sent to the 705 for research and testing. In 1982, the Navy decided to develop fish-7 on the basis of MK-46. In the 1980s, China purchased a batch of US-made MK46-II anti-submarine torpedoes for $80 million.

The design was designed and finalized in 1994. The imitation work of the MK46 torpedo is of great significance to the Chinese navy. The most important one is the mastery of Otto thermodynamic technology, which promotes the development of the fish-5, and its advanced active-passive combined acoustic guidance. The model also provides a good choice for the Chinese Navy to develop new torpedoes and improve old torpedoes. In addition, this light torpedo has also solved the major problem of the Chinese navy's development of anti-submarine missiles.

It uses advanced OTTO fuel. The thermal power propulsion system has a maximum speed of 45 knots and a maximum range of 11 kilometers. The guiding system is a passive combined sound guiding mode, which can be used in both deep water and shallow water. The imitation work of the MK46 torpedo is of great significance to China. It not only provides the Chinese navy with a very advanced light anti-submarine torpedo, but also greatly enhances the anti-submarine warfare capability, and has made the development of Chinese torpedo technology a big step forward. The MK46 torpedo equipped by the Chinese Navy is in performance. The advanced torpedo still has a gap.

However, the Chinese imitation MK46 is an early model, and its performance is not the best. The Chinese Navy is also using its new technology to continuously improve. At present, this type of torpedo has been heavily equipped with various types of surface ships and naval aviation of the Chinese Navy. The main vehicles are escort ships and their ship-borne anti-submarine helicopters.

Fish Type 8 (codenamed Yu-8) rocket-assisted torpedo [RAT]

Yu-8 [Type 8 Fish] Chinese torpedo After the Second World War, the United States began to develop anti-submarine missiles. In 1961, it was equipped with ASROC anti-submarine missiles launched by surface ships with a range of more than 10 kilometers. In 1964, it was equipped with SUBROC launched by submarines. Anti-submarine missiles with a range of 55 kilometers; in the early 1980s, the development of new long-range anti-submarine missiles began. Since the 1970s, the Soviet Union has been equipped with SS-N-14, SS-N-15, SS-N-16 anti-submarine missiles.

The People's Liberation Army Navy held a large-scale exercise in the South China Sea at the end of July 2015. At that time, the most striking was the first live-fire launch of the "Fish-8 new anti-submarine missile". The core strength of the 054A combat system is the two missiles equipped with its vertical missile launcher: the Haihongqi-16 medium-range air defense missile and the fish-8 rocket booster anti-submarine torpedo. "Fish-8" is the first type of anti-submarine missile (also known as "Fish-8" rocket-assisted torpedo) officially installed by the People's Liberation Army Navy. It was developed by the China Shipbuilding Industry Group 705 Research Institute. It was officially established in 2002 and completed in 2006. The test was finalized and first installed on the 054A missile frigate.

The Chinese Navy's active fish-8 torpedo was developed by Kunming Branch of the 705 Research Institute of China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation. It was established in 2002 and completed in 2006. It was first installed in the Chinese Navy 054A missile frigate. The "Fish-8" anti-submarine missile and the Hongqi-16 type ship-to-air missile not only share the vertical launch system, but also the launch control system is compatible, thus eliminating many facilities and achieving very good versatility. At the same time, other ships can use the Eagle Strike 83 anti-ship missile launcher to launch a "fish-8".

The "Fish-8" anti-submarine missile has a maximum range of tens of kilometers. Its take-off mode, compatibility, attack distance and guidance precision are at an advanced level in the world. It is fast sailing underwater and uses composite guidance, mainly for attacking submarines. And has a certain anti-ship capability.

Fish Type 9 (codenamed Yu-9)

Yu-9 [Type 9 Fish] Chinese torpedo In 2012, the domestic fish 9 multi-purpose torpedo was born. Various media speculated that China's new generation of torpedo system consists of fish-9 heavy torpedo, fish-10 heavy torpedo, fish-11 advanced light torpedo and fish-12). These torpedoes have been in a state of high confidentiality as the main weapon of Chinese submarine, and there is very little public information to disclose specific performance.

In the submarine exercise publicly reported in March 2018, when the personnel on the submarine responded, they replied: No. 1 and No. 2 were ready to launch the fish 9 torpedo. This shows that the fish 9 has not only been developed, but has been put into the military for formal training. After that, the picture of the control of the torpedo in the cabin was also released in real time. This fish 9 is widely considered to be a multi-purpose heavy torpedo newly developed in China. It is said to be very advanced, and it is completely inconsistent with many advanced torpedoes in the world. It is also a great progress in the technology of submarines in China.

However, there is also reporting that this fish 9 is actually a light torpedo, similar to the US MK50. How exactly, because this technology is relatively confidential, there is no detailed data, so it is difficult to carry out detailed analysis. It is reported that China may use this technology to conduct research on new anti-torpedo (ATT) technology. This technology is also very important for the submarine. It can be said that it is a life-saving equipment at a critical moment. After all, the underwater submarine has no anti-missile. If there is no anti-torpedo, it will be streaking and it will be hit.

Fish Type 10 (codenamed Yu-10)

Yu-10 [Type 10 Fish] Chinese torpedo China Fish-10 has a speed of 50 knots and has a power range of no less than 50 kilometers, which is a heat-driven torpedo. China's new generation of submarine-launched heavy torpedoes, the Fish-10, has made strides in the performance of composite guidance and propulsion modules in the torpedo head, which has made its comprehensive performance comparable to that of the world's most advanced torpedoes. One of the important reasons why the Fish-10 has received attention is the use of high-speed fiber guidance for remote control.

After sailing to the approximate area of the target, the torpedo will open the end guidance mode to find the specific location of the target. Generally speaking, the end guidance method of torpedo is divided into sonar detection technology and wake detection technology. The former is gradually being eliminated due to the small distance. The advanced torpedo represented by fish-10 has begun to adopt the integrated wake detection method. Wake detection is a kind of guiding method developed by the torpedo using the physical characteristics of sound, light, electricity and magnetism generated by the ship's wake, which is different from the general seawater. The essence is the scattering of sound and light by the bubbles in the wake. And electromagnetic anomalies caused by the different motion states of the wake water molecules and other water molecules. Wake detection generally requires that the torpedo capture and enter the wake at a distance of about one kilometer from the ship, and finally attack the ship according to the direction generated by the wake.

On torpedoes, there is an important single-component fuel called Otto fuel II. The so-called Otto fuel II is 1,2 propylene glycol dinitrate (76%), o-nitrodiphenylamine (0.5). %) and a mixture of dibutyl succinate (23.5%). The advanced torpedoes at home and abroad usually adopt the method of adding hydroxyl-ammonium perchlorate (HAP) to form a high-energy dual-component fuel. However, the problem that arises is that the heat energy generated by the combustion is too high, and the material of the combustion chamber cannot be absorbed due to overheating. At this time, if the seawater is introduced for cooling, the thermal efficiency is lowered.

In order to effectively cool the combustion chamber while fully utilizing the excess heat energy, the fish-10 engineers installed a container in the filling system to spray cooling water into the combustion chamber internally, thus forming a water vapor. The three "components", the gas plus the water vapor together become the working fluid of the latter turbine. The three-component fuel consisting of Otto 2 fuel + HAP + water is the fuel with the highest energy density in torpedoes so far, and it also gives the fish-10 the world's advanced range and speed. The original reference object of the fish-10 is the improved MK48 heavy torpedo mod6 in the United States. After successful development, the tactical indicators are directly chasing its latest mod7 type.

on December 19th, a fisherman in the country found a torpedo-like unidentified object found on the coast of Fuyan province in central Vietnam. After the fishermen found the object, they were dragged home and reported to the authorities. It is confirmed that this is a torpedo produced in China.

Fish Type 11 (codenamed Yu-11)

Yu-11 [Type 11 Fish] Chinese torpedo In 2016 the media exposed a certain type of missile land-based test of the People's Liberation Army, or the latest model of the fish 11 anti-submarine missile. The biggest advantage of anti-submarine missiles is range and suddenness, which is the main weapon of modern anti-submarine warfare. The new generation of light fish 11 torpedo adopts the Rankine closed-loop thermal power system. This advanced power system has high energy density, and because the closed circulation system does not need to vent outward, there is no exhaust noise and exhaust track, so The self-noise and infrared characteristics of the torpedo are reduced, so that the torpedo has better quietness and concealment, and the overall performance has reached the level of the US military MK50.

Although there is no introduction to the performance of a new generation of light anti-submarine torpedoes, its ability to compete with the world's most advanced torpedoes is bound to result in significant improvements in the overall technology. Among them, the power system may use advanced permanent magnet motor and high-energy battery, so that the maximum speed can reach 50 knots and the maximum range can exceed 20 kilometers.

Other Torpedoes from Foreign Sources

During the 1980s, China acquired torpedoes from Western sources. Chinas relations with European countries have also been greatly improved, and many European countries have also opened the door to arms sales to China. At that time, China purchased 40 A244S light anti-submarine torpedoes and launch systems from Italy, and copied them in the case of digestive technology (it is said that China also obtained heavy-duty A184 torpedoes). At present, the anti-submarine weapons of the Chinese Navy Air Force's Z-8 and Z-9 helicopters are mainly whitehead torpedoes. The torpedo is one of the most advanced light anti-submarine torpedoes in the world. Its power is lead-acid battery. It adopts tri-frequency pulsed active and passive dual-audio guidance system, and is equipped with a pre-set search and motion mode seeker. The torpedo has a diameter of 324 millimeters, a length of 2.6 meters, a maximum speed of 30 knots, a maximum range of 6 kilometers and a warhead of 34 kilograms.

In addition, in the early 1990s, China introduced two 877 and two 636 Kilo submarines from Russia, along with the several torpedoes that they carried with the boats. In fact, the Russian torpedoes had certain technical content, level and skills and tactics are still good, but in this piece is the weakness of the old Maozi, and how much is also affected in the torpedo. When China purchased Kilo, it also purchased Supporting Russian torpedoes, including: TEST-71, TEST-96 and 53-65.

1.TEST-71 type: TEST-71 type torpedo has a diameter of 533 millimeters, a length of 8.2 meters, a warhead of 205 kilograms, battery power, a maximum speed of 45 knots, a maximum range of 19 kilometers, and is guided by the middle line guide terminal. Passive joint guidance mode, submarine and surface ships can be used, the mission is anti-submarine warfare.

2. TEST-96 type: It is a modified type of TEST-71 type, and its performance is more advanced. It is a multi-functional torpedo, which can be used for both anti-submarine and attacking. The guiding method is not only the active-passive combined acoustic guidance of the midway guide terminal. Turbulence guiding devices have also been added to enhance the ability to attack ships.

3. 53-65: 533 km diameter, but the propulsion system is a thermal power unit, 7.8 meters long, with a maximum speed of 50 knots and a maximum range of 19 kilometers. The mission is to attack the ship, to guide the automatic mode of turbulence, submarine or surface ship. Both can be equipped with this type of torpedo. According to the Russian side, the Chinese Navy has obtained the production license for the latest turbulence-guided torpedo from Russia. Due to the current turbulence-guided torpedoes and the lack of effective interference and counterbalance techniques, the introduction of this technology will greatly enhance the operational capabilities of the Chinese Navy's submarines.

4. China purchased 40 VA-111 "Storm" underwater rocket torpedoes from Kazakhstan in the 1990s. This rocket uses the supercavitation principle, which can reach 200 knots under water. At the same time, China also started negotiations with Russia on the purchase of the corresponding technology, and began to work on the development of the Chinese version of the "Squall". The Chinese version of the storm torpedo can hit the weaker underwater part of the US aircraft carrier that is within 90 kilometers.

All of these are Chinese domestically developed projects. There are foreign technical components, but by now, they have basically been digested and absorbed and become our own. The number of fish 1 in the navy is very small. The current situation of Fish 2 is still unclear. Fish 3 and its improved type are the current main force. Fish 4 is already behind at the current level. The imitation MK46 is still in use. It is estimated that the domestic model has been out for a while. The number of Whiteheads is less. One more thing is that the rocket-assisted anti-submarine missiles that have been hidden in the cloud until now are still half-covered.




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