The cruiser is a large surface ship with strong firepower and many uses, mainly in the ocean . The cruiser is equipped with strong offensive and defensive weapons, has high speed and seaworthiness, and can carry out long-distance ocean operations in severe weather conditions. The main mission of the cruiser was to escort aircraft carriers and battleships, or to form a marine maneuvering formation as a flagship flagship to attack enemy surface ships, submarines or shore targets. With the development of the times, the cruisers gradually declined. After the Second World War, countries no longer built cruisers. Only the United States and the Soviet Union have built several levels, such as the Ticonderoga of the United States and the Kirovian class of the Soviet Union. After entering the 21st century, cruisers enjoyed a revival, with several countries building large destroyers that were better described as cruisers.
The cruiser originated from the "fast sailing" of the sail era, and was responsible for patrol, reconnaissance, alert, escort, and pursuit in the ocean fleet. At that time, there was no name for the ship type of the cruiser, but it was distinguished according to the number of artillery pieces. The British Royal Navy stipulates that the standard for fast sailing is to equip 38 to 50 artillery pieces with a displacement of about 1,000 tons.
The earliest "Cruisers" appeared in the seventeenth century. At that time, it was not so much a type of warship, but rather a task carried out by a warship, that is, the task of patrol and escort in the distant sea. In the eighteenth century, the "frigate" gradually became the name of a lightly armed (only single-layer gun deck) warship that was light and fast capable of long-distance cruising. It was mainly responsible for reconnaissance, escort and break-up. In the 19th century, steam power began to be used in warships. In the 1850s, experimental steam-powered frigates began to appear. In the mid-1850s, the British and US Navy built steam-powered hulls. The cruiser, which was large and equipped with large-calibre guns, subsequently had armor protection.
For a long time, the cruiser made up the gap between very light vessels such as torpedo boats and battleships. Cruisers were strong enough to withstand the attack of small ships, they were too slow and require too much fuel (especially after using steam turbines), making them very dependent on supply fleets when fighting long distances. Most of the 19th century and early 20th century cruisers were a fleet of long-range deterrent weapons, while battleships stayed near the base. The main role of the cruiser is to attack the enemy commerce. Cruisers were designed with great emphasis on speed: their elongated, streamlined hulls were especially good for high-speed sailing. At the end of the 19th century, the warships developed so fast that the cruisers that had been launched a few years later had surpassed the previous battleships. The White Fleet of the United States has been out of date a few years after launching.
China had little experience with cruisers, and Communist China had none until recently. On April 12, 1929, the National Government ordered the establishment of the Department of the Navy. In 1930, the Admiralty ordered two new 2,600-ton cruisers: a contract was signed with the Japanese. In 1932, the "Ninghai" built in Japan was completed and arrived in China. The "Pinghai", built by Jiangnan Shipbuilding Co., was started in August 1931. In 1936, it went to Japan to install weapon systems. In April 1937, it returned. domestic. The two cruisers became the most advanced warships in China at the time. In 1931, Jiangnan Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. also built a 1,500-ton light cruiser "Yi Xian". In the outbreak of the Japanese aggression against China in 1937, the Republic of China Navy had only nine cruisers, but these were quickly sent to the bottom.
Prior to the Second World War, the tonnage of the heavy cruiser reached 20,000-30,000 tons, the speed is 32-34 knots, the endurance is more than 10,000 nautical miles, and the armor is 127-203 mm thick. The ship is equipped with eight or nine 203mm caliber guns with a range of more than 20 nautical miles. It is mainly used to attack enemy water surface ships and shore-based targets. The lignt cruiser had a tonnage of less than 10,000 tons and a fast speed of 35 knots. The ships were equipped with 6-12 main guns with a caliber of 127-133 mm. In addition, it was equipped with 8-12 127mm sub-cannons and dozens of small caliber guns, as well as weapons such as torpedoes and mines.
After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, the Chinese Navy accepted a cruiser "Chongqing" from the British Navy, which was delivered to China in 1948. It was hailed by the Kuomintang military and political figures as "the new birth of the Chinese navy." However, the "good situation" was short lived. The "Chongqing" rushed from Shanghai Wusongkou to the Yantai Port under the control of the Communist Party on February 26, 1949, and went to the new owner. Soon after, because of the bombing of the Kuomintang Air Force, it went to the bottom in waters near Huludao in western Liaoning. Since then, the Chinese no longer had cruisers.
After the Second World War, the number of cruisers decreased sharply. From the perspective of technological development, nuclear power plants were mainly used, equipped with missile weapons and helicopters. The development of nuclear-powered cruisers is mainly the United States and the former Soviet Navy. The United States has adopted nuclear-powered propulsion in five of the eight levels of cruisers, while the former Soviet Union only used nuclear power plants. From the perspective of tonnage, the tonnage of cruisers built after World War II was basically around 10,000 tons. Only the former Soviet Navy developed a first-class Kirov class with a displacement of 28,000 tons. This is the world's largest first-class cruiser.
In order to cover up their military purposes, some countries have some large surface ships that are close to the cruiser’s indicators, but are called destroyer. Typical examples include the Kongo class in Japan and the Sejong missile destroyer in South Korea. They are close to full load displacement of 10,000 tons. In the United States, the newest Arleigh Burke class destroyers are also 9,000 tons, while the new DDG1000 destroyer is to reach 14,000 tons.
The function of the cruiser has converged with the destroyer, and requires the cruiser to have stealth function, theater missile defense function, cooperative combat function with aircraft carrier and amphibious ship, and powerful land attack function, in simple terms, with multiple combat capabilities for air, land and anti-submarine, attack each The target is to provide fire support during the landing operation and serve as a sea formation command ship.
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