R0110 Gas Turbine
The mainstream view was that China's domestic aircraft carrier will still use steam turbine. However, in fact, China's domestic heavy-duty gas turbine has made a major breakthrough. On 03 March 2015, the aircraft industry main R & D team successfully completed the low calorific value R0110 gas turbine development work, and through the National Science and Technology High-tech Center organization of acceptance.
On the basis of the development of QC280, China developed the R0110 heavy gas turbine. China developed the QC280 on the basis of the technology of DA80/GT25000 gas turbine imported from Ukraine. The R0110 heavy-duty gas turbine was formally established in October 2002, in China's Ministry of Science and Technology plan special issue. The construction of this heavy-duty gas turbine was completed in 2004, and parts were built in 2004, and the ignition experiment was completed in 2008. The successful development of the R0110 gas turbine means that China has produced the first domestic heavy-duty gas turbine.
At the beginning of the 21st century, China was still digesting and attracting foreign technology to promote the QC280 project. At the same time it started the heavy-duty steam turbine project in 2001, the R0110 project was proposed in October 2002 to start, for the "fifteen" period it had a major Special project budget of 500 million. A number of enterprises, research institutes, universities, the composition of the project consortium, in 2008 began the prototype of the trial work.
The R0110 is China's first developed heavy-duty gas turbine, so that China will become the world's fifth country with heavy-duty gas turbine development capacity. The characteristics include: 40 MW marine gas turbine, the output power 114,500KW, fold and 150000 Horsepower, thermal efficiency of 36%. On the basis of it, China could build 60MW, 160MW and more than 200MW series of gas turbine. For a simple comparison, the current active Liaoning ship's main power system is four steam turbines, with a total power is only 200,000 horsepower. The current ship-based single maximum power of the gas turbine for the British "Queen Elizabeth" class aircraft, which used the MT30 gas turbine 36 MW power.
The model developed by China was independently developed and manufactured, completely and completely dependent on their own strength. At present, the latest generation of Ford-based aircraft carrier nuclear power has 280,000 horsepower. The Chinese Type 002 aircraft carrier of 80,000-tons, two R0110 can give a 100,000-class aircraft carrier a speed 30 knots.
This gas turbine is gradually moving towards maturity, in December 2012, 72 hours to complete the load test run assessment. November 29, 2013, the completion of 168 hours of joint cycle test operation assessment. March 21, 2014 passed the acceptance of the expert group. In the next year, the 40th-rated category of marine gas turbines will be among the winners of the 2009 Fengru Aviation Technology Award.
Now R0110 type has entered the civilian use, with the ship-based type in promotion. The diameter of 2 meters, weighing 6 tons of high-temperature alloy turbine die forging, has been in 2014 at Deyang the 80,000 tons forging press put into production. The service life will be as high as 200,000 hours, quite a continuous operation of more than 8 thousand days, which is equal to the aircraft carrier life cycle.
R0110 gas turbine with single-axis, before the output, flow-type results, suitable for low calorific value of gas fuel, starts fast and runs reliably. "The estimated output power of the R0110 gas turbine is 114500 kilowatts and the thermal efficiency is 36 percent. On the basis of the R0110 torch, 60 megawatts, 160 megawatts, and so on are available on the basis of the R0110 model," the China Aviation News reported in February 2008. More than 200 MW series of gas turbines (1 MW equivalent to 1000 kW) and the R0110 gas turbine shipboard demonstration work has been launched, can be used as the main force of heavy conventional aircraft carrier.
Compared with steam turbines, gas turbines have many advantages: First, the gas turbine has the advantage of great power density, the same volume of gas turbine is the diesel engine 1/3 to 1/5, is the steam turbine volume of 1/5 to 1/10. Compared with steam turbines and diesel engines, gas turbines start faster. As the rotor is very light, the gas turbine with the help of the starter in 1 to 2 minutes to reach the maximum speed, and this point for the warships to start and accelerate performance has a crucial role.
In addition, the gas turbine has a third advantage. The gas turbine itself is in high-speed stable rotation, so the noise is more high-frequency whistling, the noise component is very low. In contrast, diesel engine piston in the resumption of production will produce a lot of low-frequency mechanical vibration noise. The greater noise means that the warships are more likely to be detected by the enemy's sonar, especially by the sonar of the enemy's submarine.
But in fact, for the R0110 gas turbine to be used in conventional aircraft carrier, China also needed to solve a lot of problems. According to common sense, if the aircraft carrier used gas turbine for power, they should burn oil, not burning natural gas. The R0110 gas turbine burns natural gas. Aircraft carrier needs to consume a lot of fuel, so to install the R0110 gas turbine on the ship, engineers also must address the use of natural gas as fuel.
When LNG is considered with its storage and support systems, the volumetric energy density of LNG can be up to three times higher than diesel fuels. This space penalty can be too large to overcome for many vessels. The liquefaction process condenses the natural gas into a liquid at close to atmospheric pressure by cooling it to approximately -162°C (-260°F). The energy density of LNG is 60% of that of diesel fuel. This makes LNG attractive for use in marine applications where storage space and endurance are critical.
A major concern with LNG is the possibility for de-bunkering (or emptying the fuel tanks). This step is necessary when a ship is to be anchored for an extended period of time. Unless special LNG de-bunkering facilities are available in the port, the gas would boil off, causing huge methane losses to the atmosphere. In the case of grounding accidents, a technique for de-bunkering would also be necessary. Another concern is the pressure increase when consumption occurs below the natural boil-off rate, which will happen if there is no re-liquefaction plan available onboard.
Some gas turbine engines are configured to utilize different fuels from multiple fuel systems. For example, gas turbine engines used for power generation have been configured to selectively operate on either gaseous fuel, such as natural gas, or liquid fuel, such as Diesel or any other suitable liquid petroleum product. The operator of such an engine can choose to operate on gaseous fuel or liquid fuel based on whichever fuel is the most available or cost effective at any given time.
The potential lack of emission controls, in conjunction with its significantly lower fuel cost, makes LNG an attractive option for compliance. The only large ships currently using LNG as a fuel on international voyages are LNG cargo carriers. For LNG to become an attractive fuel for the majority of ships, a global network of LNG bunkering terminals must be established. If not, LNG-fueled ships will be limited to coastal trades where LNG bunkering networks are established.
LNG is becoming increasingly more prominent in the United States, Asia and South America. An inherent feature of LNG is variable gas composition as a "batch" of LNG is consumed. Since gas constituents with different volatilities (methane, ethane, propane, etc.) are vaporized at different rates (methane being one of the fastest to volatilize), methane concentrations typically continue to decrease as a "batch" of LNG is vaporized and subsequently consumed.
On marine based equipment each refueling of liquid fuel is an opportunity for a change in its physical properties depending on the source and grade of the fuel. Such changes frequently impact emission levels of the gas combustion turbines and may also impact the base load points of the propulsion or power plant. These above criteria have caused increased pressure on gas turbine operators to operate their equipment using "non-pipeline quality" fuel or non-standard distillate. However, consumption of large quantities of this "off-spec" fuel may have detrimental effects on the combustion turbine system.
In addition, mis-operation of the combustion system manifests itself in augmented pressure pulsations or an increase in combustion dynamics. Pulsations can have sufficient force to destroy the combustion system and dramatically reduce the life of combustion hardware.
The use of natural gas as a marine fuel faced two obstacles: First, if the use of natural gas as a fuel, must be liquefied, which will cause the R0110 gas turbine cost to be extremely high. Secondly, even if the cost does not consider the use of liquefied natural gas, the container is no different from a giant bomb, which for the aircraft carrier poses security risks. In addition, there is a view that R0110 gas turbine output power of 114500 kilowatts, if equipped with one such engine, for the current aircraft carrier power is too large, and the use of two with a dual axis, then single Large, need to use a certain power reduction measures. Finally, there is an important reversing problem for high-power gas turbines, and the deck area occupied by the intake and exhaust ducts is large.
In terms of endurance and many other aspects, nuclear-powered aircraft carrier compared with conventional aircraft carrier has a huge advantage. Therefore, if the R0110 improved ship gas turbine development cycle is too long, and China's aircraft carrier nuclear reactor technology has a breakthrough in the short term, then China is likely to choose to skip the aircraft carrier gas turbine this step, and go directly to the use of nuclear power.
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