Chinese Blinding Lasers
Blinding laser weapons are primarily used to blind its targets with laser in short distance, or interfere and damage the laser and night vision equipment, etc. China has been updating its home-made blinding laser weapons in recent years to meet the needs of different combat operations.
The Ministry of National Defense of the People's Republic of China has long been developing laser weapons and actively equipping them with the police and the army. These are new types of individual weapons commonly known as laser guns. They can blind the enemy's eyes at close range, or cause malfunction or serious interference with other related detection equipment, including the PY132A type. Laser dazzling weapons are the only laser weapon currently approved by the PLA.
During the 2016 Police Equipment exhibition in Beijing, China has unveiled the PY131A and PY132A Blinding Laser Weapons. In recent years, in order to meet the needs of future operations, the Chinese military has launched a number of individual combat weapons. The PY132A became the fourth laser rifle of the Chinese development, known outside the country. Previously, the general public was introduced models WJG-2002 laser guns, the A1201 laser dazzle gun, PY131A laser weapon, and the BBQ-905 model. The most common Chinese laser weapon appears to be the WJG-2002.
The PY132A developed by Eagle Group and is relatively compact and light laser weapons. The weight of the rifle is 6.5 kg, length - 650 mm. The target range is 5 to 400 m, while the PY132A regulates the scattering of the laser beam in automatic mode, so that its diameter when hit on the person's face is 20-30 cm.
Sichuan Longan Police Equipment Co., Ltd. PY132A laser gun has an intelligent control system for automatically adjusting the impact, launching a high-performance laser beam with a diameter of 20 to 30 cm, with a range of 5 to 400 meters. After striking the target's eyes, it dazzles a person for 10-60 seconds. A momentary blindness in seconds will not cause permanent damage. The PY132A "Lightning" series of police laser dazzling guns use the world's most efficient and smallest power high-power all-solid-state lasers, weighing less than 6.5 kilograms, and can be used for 24 hours on a single charge, effectively firing 10,000 times.
Generally, in humans the eye is more vulnerable to injury from laser radiation than the skin. Direct viewing of a laser beam through binoculars or some other magnifying device tends to increase the hazard, depending on the optical power of the device and the incident laser’s characteristics. Studies show that exposure to a green Class 3A laser will cause retina damage in as little as 60 seconds, while no damage resulted from equally long exposures to a red Class 3A laser pointer. However, brief exposures to low-level laser radiation are more likely to result in temporary visual impairment. The severity and duration of the impairment varies significantly, depending on the intensity and wavelength of the light, the individual’s current state of light (or dark) adaptation, the use of photosensitizing medications, and even the person’s skin pigmentation (eye color).
Temporary visual impairment is associated with adverse visual effects that include: glare (a temporary disruption in vision caused by the presence of a bright light within an individual’s field of vision); flashblindness (the inability to see, caused by bright light entering the eye that persists after the illumination has ceased); and afterimage (an image that remains in the visual field after an exposure to a bright light). While none of these visual effects cause permanent eye injury, the distraction, disorientation, or discomfort that often accompanies them can create a hazardous situation for pilots performing critical flight operations.
Under the convention on Prohibitions·or Restrictions on the Use of Certain conventional WeaponsWhich Hay Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects Protocol IV, the Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons, "It is prohibited to employ laser weapons specifically designed, astheir sole combat function or as one of their combat functions, to causepermanent blindness to unenhanced vision, that is to the naked eye or tothe eye with corrective eyesight devices. ... Blinding as an incidental or collateral effect of the legitimate military employment of laser systems, includinq laser systems used against optical equipment, is not covered by the prohibition of this Protocol.... For the purpose of this Protocol 'permanent blindness' means irreversible and uncorrectable loss of vision which is seriously disabling with no prospect of recovery. Serious disability is equivalent to visual acuity of less than 20/200 Snellen measured using both eyes."
The inevitable incidental or collateral effect of legitimate military use of lasers is also recognized and is explicitly not covered by this Protocol. These blinding lasers are not needed by US military forces. They are potential weapons of the future, and the United States is committed to preventing their emergence and use.
The USA has various handheld or weapon mounted, nonblinding lasers that have reversible optical effects. Varying types are in use and include the LA-9/PTM, LA-13/PTM, and the GLARE® MOUT. The LA-9/PTM has a range of 65–1000 meters and a Safety Control Module that shuts the beam off when an object interrupts the beam within the 0–65 meter Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance. The GLARE® MOUT has a range of 18–760 meters and a Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance of 0–18 meters. These devices deliver flash and optical glare effects to deny access, move, or suppress individuals. Uses include entry control points, checkpoints, and convoy/vessel protection. Multiple Services employ these devices.
Ocular Interruption (OI) is a light-emitting, nondamaging, eye-safe visible laser or high powered broad band lamp designed to maximize range while minimizing Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance which can deliver effects at ranges from 2–500 meters. The optical effect can deny access, move, and/or suppress individuals. Uses include force protection, entry control points, checkpoints and convoys. The U.S. Marine Corps is the lead Service.
Long Range Ocular Interruption (LROI) is a device delivering a visible spectrum that will manage Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance at various ranges and have an effective range up to 3000 meters. The optical effect can deny access, move, and/or suppress individuals. Uses include vessel protection, entry control points, checkpoints, convoys, and maritime ports and security zones. The U.S. Navy is the lead Service.
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