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Type 312 Futi class Drone Minesweeper

As early as the early 1970s, the Chinese Navy developed and mass-equipped unmanned ships. This is a very rare unmanned weapon in the history of the Chinese Navy - the Type 312 "integrated boat" unmanned minesweeper. The boat looks like a small landing craft behind the cab, but the hull is smooth, like a submarine floating on the water. In the human mode, three people are required to drive, and remote unmanned driving is also possible. This is an unmanned surface boat (USV) that is similar to the modern sense.

These sea elves organized a delegation to go abroad to participate in the Vietnam War, which was unstoppable at that time. They played a pivotal role in the demining operations of Haiphong Port. They were hailed as "the pioneers of mine clearance" and made positive contributions to the fight against the US and winning the honor for the People's Navy.

At the beginning of 1968, President Ho Chi Minh of Vietnam wrote to Chairman Mao Zedong and hoped that China would provide assistance. According to Chairman Maos instructions, China specially sent an inspection team to visit Vietnam and obtained first-hand information on the new type of mines and offensive methods of the US military, laying the foundation for the development of new anti-mine weapons. After returning to China, Chinese technicians innovatively proposed the idea of ??developing an unmanned minesweeper.

This innovative thinking caused a great controversy at the time. Opponents believed that this was contrary to the revolutionary fearless spirit. However, the leadership of the Navy leadership and the institute expressed support and affirmation. In November 1969, the unmanned remote minesweeper project was officially launched and was named the 312 Project.

It should be said that the "312" project is a project with a very clear tactical background and mission requirements. The importance and urgency were self-evident at the time. However, because this work has no previous experience, many equipments have started from conceptual design and brought many unexpected difficulties to the development work.

Due to the lack of understanding of the equipment required for remote self-propelled, it is considered that 312 is only a self-propelled mine-sweeping device. Simply install the necessary propulsion device and remote control system on the carrier, so it has been "312 remote-controlled mine-sweeping equipment". Proportionally, it is enough to think that the tonnage only needed 10 tons.

However, after the actual design, it was found that the light minesweeping device exceeded 10 tons. After calculating the total tonnage, at least 35 tons could meet the mission requirements. Later, on this basis, the telemetry device and the automatic anchoring system were added, and the total tonnage rose to 39 tons. . This program formally passed the technical design review meeting, and the participants also agreed that it is more accurate to change the name of the boat to the minesweeper.

On February 8, 1971, the first boat was tested for trial flight. In the Yangtze River, tests were carried out to measure the sound field, measure the magnetic field characteristics, and control the remote control. In the sonic magnetic minesweep test, the boat also removed a test using the Soviet ???-1 induction mine. Due to the need for anti-US aid missions, the relevant shipyards and departments began to cooperate greatly and cooperate greatly, and the production of Type 312 boats quickly expanded. From 1971 to 1975, the Chinese shipyard built 62 312 remote-controlled minesweepers in one breath and served in the three naval fleets. Eight of them went to Vietnam to participate in mine-clearing operations in 1972, and five of them later exported to Pakistan.

The Chinese Type 312 minesweeper drone was produced in 1971 and was used during the Vietnam War to clear US mines. Eight Type 312s were sold the Thai navy. However, the Type 312 sufferd a drawback in that the command link is vulnerable, making it susceptible to unpredictable and serious operational problems. The Thailand Army no longer uses the Type 312 as drones.

The 312 type remote-controlled mine-sweeping boat is a type of boat-type remote-controlled mine-sweeping boat. It was successfully developed in the early 1970s. It also made meritorious deeds in participating in the aid mine clearance operation.

The boat has the characteristics of small hull, shallow draft and strong maneuverability. It is suitable for day and night operations in harbors, rivers and islands and reefs. It can remotely mine mines outside the minefield to reduce and avoid casualties. The combination of the boat improves the maneuverability, flexibility and combat effectiveness of the minesweeper, making it better suited to the needs of actual combat.

The 312 remote-controlled mine-sweeping boat can be remotely operated 5 km away, and the safety of personnel and major equipment is very high. The total length of the boat is 20.9 meters, the width is 3.9 meters, the draft is 2.1 meters deep, the standard displacement is 47 tons, and the power is a 300 horsepower diesel engine. The maximum speed is 12 knots and the maximum range is 260 kilometers.

The boat has the characteristics of small hull, shallow draft and strong maneuverability. It is suitable for day and night operations in harbors, rivers and islands and reefs. It can remotely mine mines outside the minefield to reduce and avoid casualties. The combination of the boat improves the maneuverability, flexibility and combat effectiveness of the minesweeper, making it better suited to the needs of actual combat.

The mine-sweeping boat has a displacement of only 50 tons, and it can be used for day and night mine-sweeping operations in the 4th-level sea conditions. The main control can be placed on the container, or on the ship, helicopter or shore remote control. The remote control distance is 6 nautical miles and there are three positioning methods: radar, radio hyperbola, microwave. Remote control mode radio command. It has the ability to sweep magnetic, sensing, sound and its joint fuze, with a mine sweep width of 150 to 250 meters.

In 1968, in view of the fact that the US military used a large number of mines in Vietnam, China sent an inspection team to Vietnam to investigate and develop new anti-mine weapons. After the inspection team returned to China, Liu Zhiping, a technician of the 710 Institute who participated in the work of the group, proposed the development of a pre-discharged boat with a one-way minesweeper. The remote control method was used to safely sweep the mine.

In 1969, the Navy Equipment Department and the Seventh Institute held a "six-two-six" meeting to determine the development of the 312-type boat-integrated remote-controlled mine-sweeping boat. The 710 research institute was mainly engaged in research and design work, and the 708, 704, and 701 institutes cooperated. China Shipyard was responsible for trial production. In less than three years, two prototype boats were developed, and in July 1972, they went to the minesweepers together with the minesweepers. In the aid mine clearance operation, the Chinese mine-sweeping technical team won the first-class military medal and certificate of Vietnam. Since then, the China Shipyard has completed the assault production mission of more than 60 follow-up boats.

Because Chinas overall scientific and technological strength at that time was relatively backward, there were deficiencies in system support, high-precision positioning of targets, and automatic navigation control of ships. Because of the small size of the boat, airworthiness and endurance were limited. The reliability is not high. But it is, after all, the world's first remote-controlled minesweeper to participate in actual combat and successfully mine. It was not until the late 1970s that the Federal Republic of Germany developed a "Troika" remote-controlled minesweeper similar to this. It is nearly 10 years later than China.

In July 1972, he went to the minesweeper with the harbor minesweeper. In the aid mine clearance operation, the Chinese mine-sweeping technical team won the first-class military medal and certificate of Vietnam.

Although the 312-type boat that participated in the aid mine clearance was originally designed to remove high-sensitivity mines, in order to protect the safety of the hull in detonating mines, the minimum speed of mine-sweeping operations cannot be less than 7 knots. However, in the aid mine clearance operation, in order to clean the low-sensitivity MK 52-3 mines deployed by the United States, the 312-type boat is required to mine at a speed of no more than four knots. To this end, the officers and men on the minesweepers repeatedly tried various methods to reduce the speed of the ship, and finally succeeded in the creative way of adding the hang-up to the stern.




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Page last modified: 27-05-2019 18:53:43 ZULU