China-U.S. Relations - Trump
In a commentary published by the Wall Street Journal in 2016, Trump's new National Security Adviser John Bolton said it was time to shake up U.S.-China relations. "This may involve modifying or even jettisoning the ambiguous 'one-China' mantra, along with even more far-reaching initiatives to counter Beijing's rapidly accelerating political and military aggressiveness in the South and East China seas," wrote Bolton.
Donald Trump, as a famous entrepreneur, filed more than 80 trademarks in China using his name over the past decade, most of which have been granted. According to a report on Beijing Youth Daily, Trump filed his first five trademarks in 2005. In 2015 alone, when he announced he would take part in the presidential election, he filed more than 40 trademark applications in China. The applied trademarks cover a wide range of businesses, such as real estate, financial services, insurance, education, spas, social escort services, bodyguards, hotels and massage parlours.
China awarded Donald Trump a valuable new trademark. The win came after a 10-year dispute and raised a host of ethical questions about the president's foreign intellectual property. China's Trademark Office posted the registration of Trump's new mark, which became official Feb. 14, to its website. It gave Trump the right to use his name for building construction services in China through 2027. This may be the first foreign trademark Trump had received as president, but it's unlikely to be the last. He had 49 pending trademark applications in China alone.
From the end of February to early March 2017, Chinese authorities for industry and commerce published the provisional approvals for nearly 40 Trump trademarks. Analysts say that it was quite unusual for China to grant a large volume of trademarks in such a short time period. It can be regarded as a special treatment to the Trump administration. Some say the approvals came much more quickly than usual. “They’re trying to curry favor with the president,” Democratic Sen. Ben Cardin of Maryland told the AP.
The US government was expected to impose punitive duties on steel imports from China after a finding that says the Beijing-subsidized goods are being sold at below fair value and harming the domestic industry. The ruling on 03 March 2017 by the US International Trade Commission allowed for the imposition of an anti-dumping duty of up to 76.64 percent and a countervailing duty of up to 190.71 percent on stainless steel sheet and strip. Carbon and alloy steel cut-to-length plate will also be subject to duties of 68.27 percent and 251 percent. Trump had repeatedly criticized China over the trade imbalance between the countries. US trade authorities had already imposed punitive duties on a series of Chinese imports, including products for road paving, a heat-resistant fabric called amorphous silica, and ammonium sulfate, a material to make fertilizers.
In a speech to opening session of the annual National People's Congress at Beijing's Great Hall of the People 05 March 2017, Premier Li Keqiang promised to eliminate 50 million metric tons of steel production capacity.
Donald Trump made strong statements on China with regard to trade, the South China Sea and the North Korean missile program in a bid to set the stage for negotiations aimed at reducing Washington's trade deficit with Beijing. In general, the Trump administration has increased tensions in the bilateral relationship. Some saw this as a preparation for bargaining.
The US sought to pressure China, North Korea's main trading partner and historical ally, to use its influence to curb its rogue neighbor's weapons program. Trump has accused China of not doing enough, while Beijing has voiced alarm over a US anti-missile defense system being deployed in South Korea. In an April 2017 interview with the "Financial Times" newspaper, Trump said : "China will either decide to help us with North Korea, or they won't. And if they do that will be very good for China, and if they don't it won't be good for anyone". US Ambassador to the UN Nikki Haley agreed that China needs to cooperate on handling North Korea. "They need to put pressure on North Korea. The only country that can stop North Korea is China, and they know that," said Haley.
Chinese President Xi Jinping on 06 April 2017 engaged with Donald Trump in a deep-going, friendly and long-time exchange, as the ever first meeting between them briefly caught the global spotlight. During his two-day stay in Florida, Xi held several talks with Trump at the Mar-a-Lago resort, which Trump calls "the Southern White House," to exchange views on bilateral ties and major regional and global issues of common concern. Trump said the two leaders had quickly “developed a friendship,” and he predicted that “long term we’re going to have a very, very great relationship and I look very much forward to it.”
On 14 November 2017 Trump concluded his five-nation, 12-day trip to Asia with no major policy announcements but declared it “a tremendously successful trip,” noting “I’ve made a lot of friends at the highest level.” Former Obama administration National Security Advisor Susan Rice contended Trump’s trip left the United States “more isolated and in retreat, handing leadership of the newly christened ‘Indo-Pacific’ to China on a silver platter.” After a solid start in Japan and South Korea, “in China the wheels began to come off his diplomatic bus,” she wrote in an opinion column in the New York Times. “The Chinese leadership played President Trump like a fiddle, catering to his insatiable ego and substituting pomp and circumstance for substance.”
Michael Pillsbury was the director of the Center on Chinese Strategy at the Hudson Institute and has served in presidential administrations from Richard Nixon to Barack Obama. His book, "The Hundred-Year Marathon", draws on his extensive knowledge of Chinese historical military writings and theory as well as his interactions with Chinese defectors and senior military officers to develop a compelling analytical defense of his thesis that China constitutes, by far, the biggest national challenge to America’s position in the world today. Pillsbury argues that China was not just in competition with the US but intent on remaking the international system in its only likeness by 2049, (the 100th anniversary of the current Chinese government coming to power).
On the campaign trail, Trump routinely attacked China over its trade policies and practices, pledged to designate Beijing a currency manipulator on his first day in office and levy punishing import tariffs on Chinese goods. Trump was also very critical of the United States’ military allies in the region. During his campaign, Trump targeted Beijing’s trade practices, threatening to slap 45-percent tariffs on Chinese imports.
"There's a whole range of relatively outlandish statements that Trump said during his campaign that if they were to come to pass, could create some pretty dramatic business and economic consequences for the region," Ethan Cramer-Flood, associate director of the Conference Board’s China Center for Economics and Business, said in Beijing. "The good news for China is that a Trump presidency will most likely mean the end of the Trans Pacific Partnership, a regional free trade grouping that Beijing was excluded from and has yet to be finalized," he said. "China sees the grouping as a threat to its own regional trade ambitions.... The bad news on Trump’s rhetoric and trade globalization is that it was directed at China”.
In China, analysts note that many of the hawks and nationalists are excited about a Trump presidency because of what they see as isolationist global view. They also see Trump’s “pay for friendship” approach to relations with Japan, South Korea and the Philippines as benefiting Beijing’s own ambitions in the region. “Some in China feel that they will have an opportunity to come and fill in those spaces as the Trump team sort of withdraws or creates new tension points,” said Cramer-Flood.
"I don't want China dictating to me," Trump said in an interview on Fox News 11 December 2016. He defended his phone conversation with Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen, the first contact between a Taiwan leader and a U.S. president or president-elect since 1979, when the United States acknowledged that Taiwan was part of a unified China. "I don't know why we have to be bound by a one China policy unless we make a deal with China having to do with other things, including trade," Trump said.
"We're being hurt very badly by China with devaluation, with taxing us heavy at the borders when we don't tax them, with building a massive fortress in the middle of the South China Sea, which they shouldn't be doing, and frankly with not helping us at all with North Korea," Trump said. "You have North Korea. You have nuclear weapons and China could solve that problem and they're not helping us at all." Trump lied about Chinese and US tariffs. China imposes levies ranging from 5.0 to 9.7 percent on US goods, while the US collects 2.5 to 2.9 percent tariffs on Chinese goods.
Chinese state media warned that any new tariffs imposed by Trump would lead to retaliation against Boeing, Apple iPhones and U.S. corn and soybeans. For example, The Global Times, a Chinese newspaper, warned that China could retaliate by limiting sales of U.S. cars and by ordering aircraft from Europe's Airbus instead of America's Boeing.
Trump staffed his trade transition team personnel experienced in the US steel industry's struggle with China. Wilbur Ross, a billionaire steel investor, was Trump's nominee for commerce secretary. Dan DiMicco, the former CEO of steelmaker Nucor Corp, has accused China of waging a "mercantilist trade war" on the United States for two decades, through currency manipulation, unfair subsidies and intellectual property theft. Robert Lighthizer and Jeffrey Gerrish represented United States Steel and Stephen Vaughn represented AK Steel in cases filed against China since 2013. These members of Trump's trade team were expected to shift the US trade focus toward enforcement to reduce the chronic US trade deficit.
Iowa Governor Terry Branstad was nominated to be the next United States ambassador to China. Branstad was a longtime friend of Chinese President Xi Jinping and his nomination was welcomed by Beijing. "Governor Branstad is an old friend of the Chinese people," said Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Lu Kang. "We welcome the fact that he is to play a great role in promoting the development of China-US relations." President Xi has known Branstad since 1985, when he visited Iowa as part of an official delegation studying pig-raising techniques. China was a crucial export market for the Midwestern state of Iowa, which was a major producer of pigs, soybeans and corn. Branstad's personal ties with Xi could help smooth relations between the U.S. and China, which have come into greater focus since Donald Trump's victory.
Chinese President Xi Jinping sent a message to Donald Trump to congratulate him on winning the US presidency. China's state TV reported that Xi told Trump the two biggest economies in the world share responsibility for promoting global development and prosperity. Xi said the stable and healthy long-term development of China-US relations was in the fundamental interest of the Chinese and American peoples. Xi stressed that he places great importance on the China-US relationship. And he said he looks forward to working with Trump to uphold the principles of non-conflict, non-confrontation, mutual respect and cooperation.
The U.S. defense secretary Jim Mattis said 04 February 2017 that “China has shredded the trust of nations in the region, apparently trying to have a veto authority over the diplomatic and security and economic conditions of neighboring states... “What we have to do is exhaust all efforts, diplomatic efforts, to try to resolve this properly, maintaining open lines of communication ... At this time we do not see any need for dramatic military moves.”
The US government fired the first shots of the trade war in March 2018, when it sharply increased tariffs on steel and aluminum to address what it said were unfair trade practices. That sparked rounds of tit-for-tat tariff hikes by Washington and Beijing. Then, in January, Trump and Chinese Vice Premier Liu He signed the first phase of a deal. China wanted to ease friction with the US to stop its economy from slowing down. Trump had his eye on his re-election bid and wanted to boost his popularity among farmers. China agreed to increase imports of US farm products and other products by more than $200 billion over the next two years and work to protect intellectual property. But the coronavirus pandemic derailed the implementation of those terms and any hope of a second phase.
China's Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying said 23 March 2018 the Chinese position on the policy "is very clear and the United States is very clear about this." "No matter who holds the position, the importance of Sino-U.S. relations is self-evident and there will be no change," she added. "China and the United States respect each other, focus on cooperation, properly handle their differences to achieve a mutual beneficial and win-win result. This is consistent with the common interests of China and the United States, and is also the common expectation of the international community."
China responded swiftly to President Donald Trump's announced plans to levy tariffs on up to $60 billion on Chinese goods, warning the proposed move risks pushing trade relations into the danger zone. In a statement 23 March 2018, just hours after President Trump signed a memo paving the way for major tariffs on nearly 1,300 Chinese imports, China's Commerce Ministry called on Washington to carefully consider its next policy steps, urging it to "pull back from the brink." The ministry also announced in a separate statement it was mulling retaliatory measures to steel and aluminum tariffs announced by the Trump administration earlier this month. In the statement, the ministry said if necessary it would target 128 different U.S. imports.
The United States was not the only country concerned with China's practices of forced technology transfers in joint ventures, subsidies for state-owned companies, and intellectual property theft. China's systemic trade apparatus supports economic nationalist policies that are very, very supportive of its own industries through various protectionist mechanisms.
China denies the accusations of unfair trade practices and pledged to continue to open up its markets. On 21 March 2018, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang said there will be no forced technology transfers and pledged to better protect intellectual property. A day before Li spoke with the press, the country's newly appointed governor of the Central Bank of China, Yi Gang, promised a number of reforms to open up the financial sector were coming over the next few weeks.
The US and China both saw technology as a key geopolitical battleground, and the next-generation standard for broadband cellular networks — known as 5G — was a main focus. In 2015, Beijing unveiled a strategic plan called “Made in China 2025” that mapped out a path to becoming the world's top manufacturing power. It called 5G a “priority area” and since then the country has become the clear leader in the race to install the technology globally. The Trump administration tried to thwart that progress. In May 2019, it banned US firms from selling electronic components to Chinese IT Giant Huawei without government approval. Huawei has been a driving force behind 5G and holds the largest global market share in 5G base stations. In May 2020, the US got even tougher, declaring that no manufacturer anywhere in the world could sell semiconductors to Huawei if they were using US-made manufacturing equipment. China, meanwhile, has come up with an export ban of its own. The Export Control Law, announced in October, bans exports of sensitive materials to foreign companies deemed a threat to China's security. It’s not clear yet what those sensitive items are, but China leads the world in some parts for smartphones and electric vehicles.
Washington began taking a keener interest in the South China Sea. China was actively pushing its claims in sovereignty battles with many of its neighbors over territory in the South China Sea. The US had been relatively unengaged in the disputes, calling only for a peaceful solution, but that changed this year. US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo declared Beijing's claims to offshore resources across most of the South China Sea “completely unlawful.” Over the summer, the US conducted an unusually large-scale exercise in the South China Sea, involving two aircraft carriers. Meanwhile, China took the rare step of conducting military drills in the South China Sea, East China Sea and Yellow Sea. Both countries’ exercises served to draw increased international attention to the issue.
US was looking to boost Taiwan’s international standing. The US government has been raising China’s ire with its increasingly overt backing of Taiwan. Washington has been sending military aircraft and vessels to areas around Taiwan, and has agreed to sell a host of weapons to help it upgrade its military. The US Congress voted unanimously in 2018 to pass the "Taiwan Travel Act" to promote mutual visits by senior officials — something that had previously been considered too much of a provocation. Health Secretary Alex Azar became the most senior official in more than 40 years, since the two sides severed diplomatic ties, to visit Taiwan when he led a delegation there in August 2020. US lawmakers gave Taiwan another boost in March when they passed an act that said the US should support Taiwanese membership of all international organizations and encourage other nations to strengthen ties with Taipei. Beijing reacted strongly, saying: “the so-called TAIPEI Act seriously violates the one-China principle and the three China-US joint communiques. China deplores and rejects it.”
Xi Jinping’s hardline stance on Hong Kong, Uighurs stoked tensions. China’s leader has shown an increasingly authoritarian streak in his dealings with Hong Kong and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and that’s prompted the US to levy sanctions and tear up agreements. After China enacted a national security law for Hong Kong in June, the US suspended or abolished a slew of bilateral agreements with Hong Kong, including an extradition treaty and duty-free rules. Washington also froze the assets in the US of senior Hong Kong and Chinese government officials, including Carrie Lam, Hong Kong's Chief Executive. China retaliated by suspending the implementation of an agreement between Hong Kong and the US to cooperate with investigations. Since July 2020, the US has been targeting senior Chinese officials in connection with what the US says are human rights violations in China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The sanctions include asset freezes and US entry bans. In September 2020, the US Department of Homeland Security announced a ban on imports of some products, citing allegations that they were produced by forced Uighur labor. But Xi touted the economic impact of his policies in the region, and claims that “facts have fully proved that China's work on ethnic affairs has been successful.”
US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo emphasized on 09 November 2018 that despite the fact that the US was still "concerned" over China's military policies and religious freedom in the country, Washington does not seek a new "cold war" with Beijing. "The United States is not pursuing a Cold War or containment policy with China. Rather, we want to ensure that China acts responsibly and fairly in support of security and prosperity in each of our two countries," Pompeo said.
On 14 November 2018, US Vice-President Mike Pence told The Washington Post that Beijing would face an all-out "cold war scenario" with Washington if it failed to "fundamentally change its behavior". Washington would put US economic, diplomatic and political pressure on China if the country failed to make "significant and concrete concessions", and didn't stop its "rampant intellectual property theft, forced technology transfer, restricted access to Chinese markets, respect for international rules and norms, efforts to limit freedom of navigation in international waters and Chinese Communist Party interference in the politics of Western countries" Pence warned.
Trump turned up the heat at the start of August 2019, saying the US will impose tariffs on almost all Chinese imports from September 1. Trump added that China failed to meet commitments to buy US farm products. Beijing's response on 05 August 2019 was to allow China's currency to weaken against the dollar to a level not seen in about 11 years. A weaker yuan makes Chinese exports cheaper in overseas markets. In Washington, the Treasury department responded right away by labeling China a currency manipulator. China's central bank said it wasn't acting to devalue the yuan. The bank said that US actions against China are disrupting financial markets and the global economy.
Secretary of State Mike Pompeo made it clear in October 2019 that a long-term geopolitical competition was going to be the norm. Speaking to a Hudson Institute dinner, he said: “[The Chinese Communist Party] are reaching for and using methods that have created challenges for the United States and for the world and we collectively, all of us, need to confront these challenges ... head on. It is no longer realistic to ignore the fundamental differences between our two systems, and the impact that … the differences in those systems have on American national security.” Predictably, the Chinese government was unimpressed. “Pompeo’s remarks were a vicious attack on the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese government. It drives a wedge between the Party and our people and it smears our domestic and foreign policy,” a spokesman said.
The "Phase 1" trade deal between the United States and China, signed with much fanfare at the White House on 15 January 2020 was met with qualified praise by most trade experts who see good news in any reduction of tensions between the world's two largest economies. The deal also left many major challenges to be addressed in a "Phase 2" negotiation that experts believed will be far more difficult to complete successfully.
The Phase 1 agreement gave the US some assurances that China will reform some of its practices related to the treatment of intellectual property, open its markets to US financial services firms, and purchase more US-made goods and services, particularly in the area of agriculture. The deal committed Beijing to criminal prosecution of individuals caught stealing trade secrets, and to a crackdown on the sale of pirated goods. For years, a condition of doing business in China for many foreign firms has been the requirement that sensitive technology be transferred to a Chinese partner company as a condition of market access. The agreement commits China to ending that practice and allowing any transfer that does take place to be on market terms.
However, it left tariffs in place on a large majority of goods traded between the two countries, and doesn't address major points of concern. The deal does not address China's practice of creating substantial financial subsidies for its domestic industries, which it does through a complex web of low-interest loans, directed government spending, favorable regulatory treatment and more. US officials have indicated that the issue of industrial subsidies was a key element of the proposed Phase Two talks. It also doesn't specifically touch on theft of proprietary business information that the US claims was abetted by Beijing. Permanent tariffs might become the "new normal" for U.S.-China trade relations.
The June 2020 unrest in the US over George Floyd’s death in custody was seized by China and renewed discourse on “the end of the American era”. The scenes of tear gas fumes engulfing streets, police firing rubber bullets, beating up and arresting protesters and journalists have been distressing for many Americans and non-Americans. It was raw meat for Beijing’s aggressive “wolf warrior” diplomats named after a Chinese blockbuster about a commando who kills American baddies with his bare hands. And it couldn’t have come at a better time for the ruling Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
Chinese diplomats have seized on the unrest in the US to hammer home CCP talking points of a violent, racist, imperialist power that has double standards and was structurally hypocritical. “The racial discrimination against minorities is a social ill in the United States. What happened again reflects there are serious problems that should be urgently addressed,” Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian told reporters in Beijing. Zhao, a former Chinese ambassador to Pakistan, was widely regarded as the “alpha male” of the “wolf warrior” pack and has been retweeting a volley of taunts against the US.
The latest unrest in the US gave Beijing a fresh chance to seize the narrative by portraying a violent implosion of a declining power turning its back on the magnanimity and multilateralism that defined the postwar global order. China views itself as a natural replacement, ready to extend its strategic influence with its ambitious Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and strengthen its hold on multilateral institutions that have been a favorite punching bag for Republican US presidents.
“That’s what [Chinese President] Xi Jinping tends to believe. He started to be convinced about the American decline a few years ago, since around 2014. But I think they miscalculated that it was time for China to be more assertive, to be more aggressive based on the assumption of an American decline, which is overstated,” said Dorian Malovic, Asia editor of French daily, La Croix, and author of several books on China. “Despite the problems in the US – the economic and racial inequalities, the lack of social security, healthcare – it’s still impossible to deny the US is still the most powerful country militarily and in terms of soft power, even with Trump. The people are against Trump, he is not overwhelmingly popular and the world can see that Trump’s influence looks weak, but America is still very strong.”
In late June 2020, National Security Advisor Robert C. O’Brien discussed the ideology of China’s leaders, comparing Chinese President Xi Jinping to Soviet dictator Josef Stalin and suggesting both U.S. political parties had failed to see that Beijing was working to “remake the world” in its image. Early in July 2020, FBI Director Christopher Wray warned that acts of espionage and theft by China’s government pose the “greatest long-term threat” to the future of the U.S. and said it was involved in a “whole-of-state effort to become the world’s only superpower by any means necessary.” In late July 2020 Attorney General William Barr discussed the economic danger China poses to the U.S., saying that “the ultimate ambition of China’s rulers isn’t to trade with the United States. It is to raid the United States.”
Washington must make a clean break with its existing policy of trusting China and should lead a global “alliance of democracies” to counter its increasingly aggressive actions, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said 23 July 2020, in the latest of a series of hawkish Trump administration speeches about Beijing. Speaking at the Nixon Library in California, Pompeo said the U.S. had little to show for nearly five decades of engagement with China, while Beijing has repeatedly taken advantage of Washington’s complacency in bilateral relations, including through intellectual property (IP) theft, trade imbalances, and the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) designs for a global hegemony.
“The old paradigm of blind engagement with China has failed,” Pompeo said. “We must not continue it. We must not return to it.” The top U.S. diplomat said the Trump administration will no longer accept platitudes from the Chinese government, when it routinely reneges on its promises and contradicts its claims.
Pompeo lambasted Beijing for its lack of transparency in the handling of the coronavirus pandemic, which originated in its city of Wuhan in late 2019 and has gone on to infect more than 15 million people worldwide. He also slammed China over its repressive measures in Hong Kong and against Uyghurs in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR), trade abuses he said had cost American jobs and harmed U.S. companies, and increased spending on its military, which he said routinely engages in provocative acts to further its territorial claims. As part of its shift in policy towards China, Pompeo noted that the Trump administration has taken increasingly tougher measures against Beijing.
“Maybe it’s time for a new grouping of like-minded nations ... a new alliance of democracies. Securing our freedoms from the Chinese Communist Party is the mission of our time, and America is perfectly positioned to lead it because of our founding principles.” Pompeo stressed that “If the free world doesn’t change Communist China, Communist China will change us”.
Pompeo's anti-China speech was a "psychotic rant" and ran contrary to historical facts, according to Charles Freeman, a former veteran diplomat who worked on multiple positions in the U.S. State Department. He told Xinhua that Pompeo's speech served domestic political agenda and his own political ambition, instead of foreign policy goals. The speech was part of a broad anti-China campaign, and the United States is reestablishing hostility against China "as outlined in Pompeo's psychotic rant," Freeman said.
The United States on 13 august 2020 designated the Confucius Institute education program as a “foreign mission” of China, setting up the Chinese government-funded language teaching scheme for tougher scrutiny amid worsening relations between Washington and Beijing. The order requires the Confucius Institute U.S. Center staff to register and follow restrictions similar to those placed on diplomatic embassies, and recently applied by Washington to Chinese state media outlets. US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said the United States views the CI organization as “an entity advancing Beijing's global propaganda and malign influence campaign on U.S. campuses and K-12 classrooms."
Confucius Institutes are funded by the PRC and part of the Chinese Communist Party’s global influence and propaganda apparatus,” he said in a statement announcing the designation. “For more than four decades, Beijing has enjoyed free and open access to U.S. society, while denying that same access to Americans and other foreigners in China. Furthermore, the PRC has taken advantage of America’s openness to undertake large scale and well-funded propaganda efforts and influence operations in this country,” said Pompeo.
The roughly 550 Confucius Institutes around the world, including 75 in the United States, are run as joint ventures between the host university, a partner university in China, and Hanban (Confucius Institutes Headquarters), an agency under China's education ministry. United States Senate permanent subcommittee on investigations said in a report in March 2019 that the Chinese Communist Party had poured more than U.S. $158 million into U.S. universities to fund Confucius Institutes since 2006.
Teachers and funding for the institutes are provided and controlled by China's ministry of education through the Hanban, meaning that all teachers, events and speakers at Confucius Institutes are approved by Beijing, even on U.S. soil. “Of all the … PRC activity in the U.S. that’s been highlighted, Confucius Institute’s been out there for a long time. People have understood for a very long that these things have been going on, and this designation was long overdue,” said Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs David Stilwell.
Twenty-two closed after the US 2019 National Defense Authorization Act, which forces schools to choose between keeping Confucius Institutes or receiving foreign language study funding from the U.S. Defense Department.
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