Chinese Anti-Tank Guns
Sniper rifles that can attack large targets such as helicopters and light armored vehicles are usually termed "anti-material guns", that is, large-caliber heavy sniper rifles. This rifle appeared with the advent of tanks. It was originally an anti-tank weapon for infantry, so it was also called "anti-tank gun" and played an important role in two wars.
With the appearance of the earliest tanks in the United Kingdom, the war between individual weapons and armor officially kicked off. During the Great War, ordinary infantrymen lacked effective direct firing weapons, so they had no use for tanks. In order to give the infantry a chance to face tanks, Germany created a batch of "reverse bullets." This kind of bullet uses the same ammunition and warhead as a normal rifle, except that the warhead is loaded into the cartridge case backwards, and the charge has been increased, so it has a stronger penetrating power. However, the anti-tank effect of the seed bomb was not ideal, and the German army subsequently developed a special "K" bullet. Although this bullet is also fired with a normal rifle, it has a 30% chance of penetrating the armor of the tank that was only 8 mm thick at the time because of the iron core armor-piercing warhead. If you shoot within 100 meters, you can penetrate up to 13 mm thick armor.
However, even with the special ammunition, the infantry still won't have much advantage when it comes to fighting tanks with thicker armor. The Germans therefore used their brains again and designed the world's first "anti-tank rifle" specifically designed to attack tanks, namely the Mauser 1918 "T". This rifle uses 13.2mm bullets to penetrate the most advanced tank armor at the time. But soldiers still don’t like to use it because the recoil force is too large when shooting. Sometimes it breaks the shooter’s collarbone or dislocates his shoulder.
While the Germans were painstakingly researching anti-tank bullets, the United States was also developing a high-speed bullet with a caliber of up to half an inch to deal with aircraft. The end user of the large-caliber, high-speed bullet being developed by the Americans is the Browning M2 anti-armor machine gun.
When the Second World War broke out, only a few European countries were equipped with large-caliber sniper rifles. Poland was one of them. Their "WZ35" was the first anti-tank gun to be used on a large scale. From the appearance, the WZ35 anti-tank gun is no different from an ordinary rifle except that the barrel is longer and there is a two-legged bracket under the handguard. But in fact, its 7.92 mm bullet is very powerful: due to the use of a lead core, it will "stick" to the armor after being hit, and the impact will tear a large hole about 20 mm in diameter on the armor surface. Data show that WZ35 can destroy all light armored vehicles at a distance of 400 meters, penetrate 15 mm thick armor at a distance of 300 meters, and penetrate up to 33 mm at a distance of 100 meters. For Germany at the time, however, the WZ35, which was supposed to be a German tank killer, failed to play its due role.
During World War II, the Soviet Union was one of the countries that used the most anti-tank guns. However, before the outbreak of the war, the Soviet Supreme Command believed that such weapons would have no practical effect, so the design of anti-tank guns progressed slowly. After being invaded by the Germans in 1941, the Soviet Union urgently needed a large number of anti-tank weapons, so it hurriedly finalized the PTRD-41 designed by the famous designer Jegdyalev and the PTRS-41 semi-automatic anti-tank rifle designed by Simonov.
After World War II, anti-tank guns gradually began to replace the role of some light and howitzers, taking on fire preparation and attack tasks, which was inherited to a certain extent after the war. It can be seen that the further development and use of this type of weapon has actually existed for a long time after World War II. After all, the relationship between anti-tank missiles and anti-tank guns has gradually evolved from the initial complementarity. The lack of function has become a situation where one party is covered and gradually withdrawn from the stage.However, as far as the current situation is concerned, in wars and battles where the intensity has not reached the strong nuclear, biological and chemical environment, the towed anti-tank guns still appeared in various wars.
During the Cold War, China was facing a serious threat from the powerful armored forces of its northern neighbors, especially after entering the 1970s, as the Soviet army began to equip a large number of T72 main battle tanks, at that time our army’s main tank 59 type 69 type was equipped with 100 mm The 85mm and 100mm anti-tank guns used by rifled guns and infantry were unable to penetrate the opponent's armor at all, and it is urgent to develop a new generation of powerful direct-fire artillery. At this time, the relationship between my country and Western countries has been significantly improved, and the introduction of Western standard 120mm smoothbore gun technology has become an ideal choice.
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