Tajikistan - Ministry of Defense (MoD)
The initial pattern for Tajikistan's armed forces was similar to that of its neighbors: form a National Guard, establish a National Defense Affairs Committee (NDAC) to oversee nationalization of Soviet units deployed in Tajikistan, and create indigenous units. According to CIA, Tajikistan's National Army now consists of Air and Air Defense Forces, Land Forces and Mobile Forces. The Mobile Force of Tajik Army was founded in 2005 without increase in a total strength of the country’s armed forces. Air and Air-Defense Forces were also united in 2005. Tajikistan’s armed forces also include National Guard and Security Forces (internal and border troops).
Unlike the other former Soviet states of Central Asia, Tajikistan did not form armed forces based upon former Soviet units on its territory. Instead, the Russian Ministry of Defense took control of the Dushanbe-based 201st Motor Rifle Division; actually control simply shifted from the former district headquarters in Tashkent, which was in now-independent Uzbekistan, to Moscow.
For purpose of endurance of independence and defense of territorial integrity of the young state, it was necessary to establish the National Armed Forces and reestablish all military structures. Besides, in order to take measures for stabilization of political and social situation, termination of armed conflicts, crimes and offences, ensuring public order there was an urgent need to establish the National Army. The foundation of the National Armed Forces was built in conditions of absence of necessary technical and financial means, as well as shortage of qualified specialists and command personnel.
On 18 December 1992 the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon signed the Decision “On the Establishment of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Tajikistan”. On 23 February 1993 the first military parade of the Armed Forces was conducted and that date was officially declared as the Day of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Tajikistan.
Despite the difficult economic situation, political leadership of the country solved in a very short period the issues of provision of the newly established National Army with military equipment and ammunition. In this regard, first of all, it was very important to fulfill such tasks as establishment of military units, provision of them with military equipment and recruiting personnel, their deployment in strategically important directions and improvement of their fighting efficiency, proceeding from available possibilities.
Real efforts to create a genuine armed forces awaited the appointment of (ethnic Russian) Colonel Alexander Shishlyannikov as Defense Minister in January 1993. A year after independence, Shishlyannikov was still starting from scratch. The government admitted that the call-up of the previous fall was to all intents and purposes wrecked because of the tense socio-political situation. The army would form anew from another call-up of conscripts and existing Popular Front formations.
Russian assistance helped to create a Tajik Defense Ministry, special purpose troops, internal troops, and a helicopter squadron by early 1994. Shishlyannikov hoped to create a "small, highly mobile, professional and dedicated army," but without a viable conscript system he had to rely upon troops of the so-called Popular Front of Tajikistan — paramilitary, pro-communist forces raised during the civil war. It was a poor foundation upon which to build. By April 1995, Tajik armed forces, totalling 11,500, were organized into one incompletely-manned spetnaz (special operations)unit, four infantry battalions, and two motorized rifle brigades.
By 1997, the Armed Forces of the Republic of Tajikistan were divided into three major categories, namely Armed Forces, Land Forces and Air Force Troops. Apart from the subdivisions of Armed Forces, at the same time, the Ministry of Defense operates separate military units. Among them are military lyceans, military academies, military commanders, military units and other military units, most of which are established for the first years of the establishment of the National Army, and carry out large-scale activities in the field of major sector tasks. As a result of military reform in the National Army of Tajikistan, which began from the days of the Armed Forces, it is still under way. In this context, the Chief of the General Staff, The armed forces of the Ministry of Defense have been established by the Presidential decree in September 2003. The foundation of this type of Armed Forces in the Republic of Tajikistan has been completed and without the increase of the total number of national army of Tajikistan. It included all military units, rocket launchers, special missions, engineers, and a number of other units. Currently, the subdivision of the Armed Forces of the Ministry of Defense is under the joint forces of the Collective Security Forces of the Collective Security Treaty Organization and its three battalions to the joint forces of the Central Asian region.
With the support of OSCE, the Ministry of Defense (MoD) has established a National Humanitarian De-mining Unit (HDU). The HDU operates with a capacity of manual multipurpose de-mining teams and Mechanical De-mining Machines. On 20 June, 2003, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan signed the Agreement “Support to the Tajikistan National Mine Action Programme” with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in order to create the Tajik Mine Action Centre (TMAC). This centre is a Governmental structure and is responsible for all mine action related issues in Tajikistan. TMAC is also the executive authority of the Commission on Implementation of International Humanitarian Law (CIIHL) in the country.
In accordance with Article 5 of Ottawa Convention each state party shall to undertake to destroy or ensure the destruction of all anti-personnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control, as soon as possible but not later than ten years after the entry into force of this Convention for that State Party. The Republic of Tajikistan has fulfilled its obligation on destruction of antipersonnel mines stockpile. The total of 3051 APMs has been destroyed in 31 March 2004.
Tajikistan’s National Army consists of Air and Air Defense Forces, Land Forces and Mobile Forces. The Mobile Force of Tajik Army was founded in 2005 without increase in a total strength of the country’s armed forces. Air and Air-Defense Forces were also united in 2005. Tajikistan’s armed forces also include National Guard and Security Forces (internal and border troops). Unlike the other former Soviet states of Central Asia, Tajikistan did not form armed forces based upon former Soviet units on its territory. Instead, the Russian Ministry of Defense took control of the Dushanbe-based 201st Motor Rifle Division; actually control simply shifted from the former district headquarters in Tashkent, which was in now-independent Uzbekistan, to Moscow.
The General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Tajikistan was established in 2007 on the basis of the Chief of Staff, has been completed for 10 years. The personal composition of the Ministry of Defense is celebrating the anniversary of this important date with a high level of service. Indeed, this festival has been celebrated for over 10 years, strengthening the effective cooperation in the field of strengthening and strengthening the country's defense capabilities, engaging in the professional training of professionals, expanding the scope of work through the training of cadres and staff changes and realization of similar goals, which has led to the progress of work and achieving significant outcomes in the field of military servicemen of the National Army.
According to the plan of the General Staff of the Armed Forces, the subdivisions of the Ministry of Defense and other military structures of the country are constantly emphasizing the professional training and willingness of the military personnel to carry out their experiments, in joint military and internal exercises. In this regard, the Chief of General Staff of the Armed Forces plays a leading role in the mobilization of collective security, regulation and control of the joint military operations. As a result of the activity of the General Staff of the Armed Forces and in general, the Ministry of Defense of the country notes that in the last five years, from 2012 to 2016 there are many joint operational-tactical exercises of Khatlon, Khorog, Sughd and regions of republican subordination with the involvement of military personnel of the subdivisions of these mentioned regions.
The reserve forces are registered with the military committees, with weapons of war, weapons of mass destruction, heavy weapons, and military aviators. It is well-known that on the basis of high professional knowledge and experience, today, the military and political forces of the Armed Forces, along with carrying out such training and experimental exercises, are included in the various anti-terrorism elements, which are of course the strength of the military and military trainers and using modern warfare forces.
On the occasion of the 20th anniversary since the establishment of the Armed Forces of the country, it was noted in February 2013 that over 40 laws, decrees and orders of the President, decisions and orders of the Tajik Government, which govern the core basics of public policy in the field of defense, the powers of the executive bodies of state authority, as well as legal and social protection of servicemen were approved and duly endorsed from the year 2000 and up to 2013.
By 2016 military exercises had been conducted in the framework of military cooperation between the Commonwealth of Independent States of the Commonwealth of Independent States 4 times, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization 5 times, the North Atlantic 14 and the joint joint military exercises of the Armed Forces of the Federative Russia and the Republic of Tajikistan have been involved in the contests of the countries.
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