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Grenada - Foreign Relations

The United States, China, Cuba, Venezuela, and Brazil have embassies in Grenada. Grenada has been recognized by most members of the United Nations and maintains diplomatic missions in the United States, Canada, China, Cuba, Belgium, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela.

Grenada withdrew recognition of Taiwan in 2004 and subsequently established relations with the People's Republic of China. PM Mitchell shopped around for the best deal before siding with the PRC. The ROC refused to give into the GOG,s demands and forced PM Mitchell to take the funding the PRC offered as an incentive to end relations with the ROC. In 2007 Grenada co-hosted the Cricket World Cup in a brand-new $40 million stadium. It was paid for by the People's Republic of China.

Grenada has seven full Missions abroad Washington D.C., London, Brussels, Caracas, Havana, Beijing, and New York (United Nations). Grenada also partners in a joint Mission and the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States in Ottawa, Canada. Additionally, Grenada operates Consulates in New York and Toronto. The Missions have lead responsibility for promoting Grenadas foreign policy abroad with the host country, within organizations such as the Organization of American States, the United Nations and the Commonwealth Secretariat.

In order to broaden its scope of influence and opportunities, the Government of Grenada has implemented a policy of appointing Honorary Consuls, Ambassadors-at-large and Trade Commissioners ain strategic locations around the world. These persons are appointed to secure benefits for Grenada and to assist Grenadian nationals in difficulty, without added cost to the Government.

Grenada is a member of the Caribbean Development Bank, CARICOM, the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), the Commonwealth of Nations, and the World Trade Organization (WTO). It joined the United Nations in 1974, and then the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and Organization of American States (OAS) in 1975. Grenada also is a member of the Eastern Caribbean's Regional Security System (RSS).

People's Revolutionary Government (PRG)

The advent of the People's Revolutionary Government (PRG) produced a sharp deviation in the previous norms of Grenadian policy. By the time of Bishop's overthrow and assassination in late 1983, Grenada had been converted from a relatively unassuming member of the Commonwealth to an incipient Soviet-Cuban client state with aspirations of playing a larger role on the world stage.

Almost from the inception of the PRG, Bishop moved to deemphasize traditional ties such as those with Britain and to build strong ties with the Soviet Union and its allies. Cuba was the most important of these new associations. It was evident during his lifetime that Bishop greatly admired President Fidel Castro of Cuba; after Bishop's death (and the revelations contained in some of the documents captured by United States and Caribbean forces), it became clear that he had also shared Castro's revolutionary ideology.

The documents revealed that Grenadian foreign policymakers under the PRG were highly dependent upon the Cubans for advice and direction. Despite their trumpeted nationalism, the Grenadians seemed quite willing to adopt the Cuban (and, by extension, the Soviet) agenda in international arenas such as the United Nations, the Nonaligned Movement, and the Socialist International.

Grenadian relations with the Soviet Union were also strengthened during this period. Soviet specialists Jiri and Virginia Valenta have contended that by the end of the Bishop regime, the NJM was considered a "fraternal" party by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and had been referred to in terms of "new popular-democratic statehood," a characterization that the Soviets had applied to East European regimes in the late 1940s.

Although the Cubans provided the bulk of the economic aid from the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance to Grenada, the Soviets undertook to provide the requisite weaponry for a buildup of Grenadian military capability and a general militarization of Grenadian society. Three separate arms agreements were signed during Bishop's tenure. After the seizure of weapons stocks by United States-Caribbean forces in 1983, the materiel already on the island was estimated as sufficient to equip a force of 10,000; records subsequently revealed that not all the equipment contracted for had yet been delivered. The presence of such an arsenal on an island that before 1979 had maintained a police force of little more than 100 was a matter of concern not only for the United States but also and more particularly for the neighboring states of the Eastern Caribbean.

In addition to establishing stronger ties with Cuba and the Soviet Union, the PRG also established economic and diplomatic relations with Vietnam, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), and Libya, among others. The Libyans were the most generous of the island's new sources of economic aid during this period.

The events of October 1983 exposed the limitations of the PRG's policy. The violent action taken by the Coard-Austin faction apparently took the Soviet Union, the United States, and Cuba by surprise. Swift military action by United States and Caribbean forces left little time for the Cubans or the PRA to fortify the island and provide additional supplies and troop reinforcements, even if the Cubans had been willing to do so. Castro's remarks after the intervention indicated that Cuba was not prepared to commit significant forces to the defense of Grenada. The Soviets obviously followed the same line of thinking, constrained as they were by both geography and politics.

After the Revo

Close cultural, familial, and migratory links make Grenadians sensitive to events and opinions in Trinidad and Tobago; public condemnation by the government of Prime Minister George Chambers, coupled with the imposition of restrictions on Grenadian immigrants, puzzled and stung most Grenadians. They were able to take some consolation, however, in the fact that the press in Trinidad and Tobago (and, apparently, the majority of citizens) supported the intervention and condemned their prime minister for his opposition to it. Eventually, in 1986, persistent efforts by the Grenadians along with those of other OECS members induced Trinidad and Tobago to drop the visa restriction on Grenadians.

Grenada was integrated into the Regional Security System (RSS) once the Special Service Unit (SSU) of its police force was fully trained. The military intervention of 1983 heightened the awareness among regional governments of the need for some kind of security force that could respond to small-scale disruptions or attempts at destabilization. The danger had been pointed up previously by the 1979 NJM coup in Grenada, but collective action on regional security from 1979 to 1983 had been hampered to some degree by the PRG's continued membership in regional organizations, such as Caricom and the OECS.

Grenada's primary forum for the expression of foreign relations concerns beyond its subregion was Caricom. The Blaize government did not play a leading role in this forum, however, preferring to lobby behind the scenes for consensus on issues of regional concern. This approach, a logical one in view of the fact that Caricom foreign relations resolutions must be approved unanimously, took advantage of Blaize's acceptance and connections among regional leaders and his considerable personal persuasiveness.

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