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République de la Counani 1887-1904
República de Cunani
Republic of Independent Guyana
Republic of Independent Guyana
République indépendante de Guyane

The Cunani was considered as a revolted territory against its metropolis Brazil, sited between this republic and the French Guiana. The Republic of Independent Guyana, in French La République de la Guyane indépendante, commonly referred to by the name of the capital Counani (rendered Cunani in Portuguese by the Brazilians), was a short-lived independent state in the area which was disputed by France (as part of French Guyana) and Brazil in the late nineteenth century. The term comes from the Tupi Cunani, and is one of the names peacock, fish in the Amazon region. The current Cunani village is district of the city of Calçoene.

Geographers and all statesmen try to formulate an exact opinion about the territory of Cunan. However, this work has been unsuccessful and hence the false idea that in world is made over the flourishing Cunani. Counani was situated in the NE part of Brazil, near the sea and French Guiana, in the territory disputed by Frenchmen and Brazilians, and notable for having named a small state founded in September 1886, whose life lasted just over a year, by some accounts, that no power recognized. The inhabitants of this region are made up of six captaincies: three on the coast, Map, Cunani and Chicapur, and three inland, in the Uassa basin: Bocana, Curipe and Uassa.

As the “Capitania” of Costa do Cabo Norte, the region was invaded by the English and Dutch, who were repelled by the Portuguese. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 established the boundaries between Brazil and French Guiana, but these were not respected by the French. In the 18th century, France retook control of Brasilian Guyana, leading to the short-lived pro-French independent state of Counani in the disputed territory.

In 1885, a group of French adventurers proclaimed the Republic of Cunani caricature, stretching from Oiapoque to the Araguary, exactly in the region disputed by France. These men elected president for life of the State, the French scientist Jules Gros, novelist and member of the Commercial Geographical Society of Paris.

The state was proclaimed by French settlers on July 1886 and existed until 1891. This fanciful administrative unit advanced through the lands of Pará and Amazonas until reaching the Branco river. But what could be consolidated in an independent Republic failed before the geographic and legal deficiencies. Still they issued stamps and coins minted.

They decided that since they were not incorporated into France, they would declare themselves independent with the title of Republic of Cunani, and chose as president Julio Gros, one of the founders of the Society of Commercial Geography of Paris. The president appointed Ministers, consuls, etc., and created an order, La Estrella de Cunani. The Minister of State was Guigues; The Consul General in Paris, Boisset.

Dissidence broke out between him and Gros; Boisset was deposed, no one took seriously the creation of the new republic, and gave the last blow the Journal oficiel Fran Cais comra the following statement: "Many attempts have been made several people in order to establish an independent republic in Cunani, A town located in the vast territory whose possession claims France and Brazil since the Treaty of Utrecht. Such a company is in manifest contradiction with the claims of both States and with the modus vivendi established between them in 1862 to regulate the order in a territory whose sovereignty can not pretend a third party without exercising usurpation. Thus, neither the government of the French Republic nor of His Majesty the Emperor of Brazil may authorize the establishment of the Republic of Cunani."

At the beginning of 1893 to life in Cunani back to normal, and the episode of the First Republic seems to have been forgotten. The population did not exceed 1500 souls, the most populated being Map with 600, and Cunani with 300. They spoke Portuguese, but they understand French perfectly, and, more affectionate to France than to Brazil. The majority of the population, formed by Brazilians who lived by the collection of spices, fishing in the lakes, and the production of fish from sticking to one sly trade.

Suddenly, the discovery of gold by miners Curuçá, Germano and Firmino Ribeiro, in Lawrence, began to change the picture: the population of Cunani in a few months grew from 600 people to 5000. Everything would be called into question. There remained only one means of securing success: by force. The Rio government would free itself from any diplomatic difficulty by disavowing its secret agent if necessary, while passing on the necessary money, arms and men. The gold of the placers is for this city a matter of life or death; Only that which affects this providential manna may excite or excite it. Soon the excitement surpassed all that can be imagined of ordinarily peaceful and softened people.

Stimulated by Lieutenant Destoup, the Brazilians invested the defenseless population in the town of Amapá and slaughtered 38 people. Aware that the low tide would leave them stranded, they tried to withdraw, leading to 6 dead, 22 wounded and some hostages. As of May 15, 1895, the The disputed region became dominated by Brazilians.

By one [satirical] account, the flag of Cunani, like all flags representing a race, has symbols. It is divided vertically into three equal parts; The ends are subdivided as the drawing represents. Along the stem the rectangles are; Blue as the sky of Cunani and red as the blood of the Cunanians. In white field a lion, symbol of the valor, keeps a syringe that represents the rubber that the country produces. The extreme part consists of two rectangles, a black as a tribute of longing for heroes killed in the war of independence and the other color of chocolate in mind the production of cocoa.

The celebrated presiding officer of the pseudo-republic of the Cunani, Julio Gros, died on 1 August 1891 in Vannes, aged 62 years. Julio Gros was a native of Montinel; His youth passed on journeys, on which he published many narrations, and for this he was appointed member of the Society of Geographia of Paris.

In 1887 it was acclaimed by the Indians of the Cunani president of the republic that there improvised with that title, or of independent Guyaua. Taking this role seriously, Julio Gros appointed an office and soon created a special decoration - " A star of Cunani"; He tried sometimes to obtain from France the protection necessary to make the Cunani de facto independent, obtaining nothing from France, nor of the Brazilian government in the sense of being recognized his republic.

It was not long before disintelligences appeared between him and Mr. de Guigues, who served as president of the council of ministers, after which Julio Gros was deposed. The former president was not resigned; he was lucky, and in 1888 he left Paris with the intention of moving to Georgetown for his former states; But having arrived there and having made public his intentions, they made him to re-embark on a ship bound for London. His plans were thus deprived of all his plans, until death took him to a better mansion!

Finally, on December 1, 1900, the Arbitration Commission of Geneva ceded the territory to Brazil, which incorporated it into the state of Pará with the name of Araguari (named after the river of the same name). It became the federal territory of Amapá in 1943 and was elevated to a state on 5 October 1988.

In May 1902 a French adventurer Adolphe Brezet name, trying to restore Gros's Republic, began to send letters to Cunani region, communicating a new proclamation. On landing in the city of Amapá, in July 1902, the Brazilian troops treated immediately to arrest the ministers of Brezet. The rebels were tried, received a civics lesson, and then were released into the wild. As for Brezet, he decided to stay in Paris. Little more was heard of it.

On 06 April 1905, the agent in Spain of the projected republic of Cunani, Mr. Sarrión de Herrera, was held in the prison of Madrid. He titled to himself Minister Plenipotentiary in Spain of the Free State of the Cunani. In his domicile were documents, according to which recruitment was made in Spain, France and England. But the thing did not alarm anyone, for it was more like an emigrant agency than a revolutionary center.

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Page last modified: 14-05-2017 18:34:10 ZULU