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Military

COMMAND AND CONTROL BOS


Positive Performance

TREND 1: Company Command Post Operations

SUSTAIN:

1. Exceptional physical setup of CP.

2. Efficient orders process.

3. Clear, concise quality graphics to support the plan.

RESULTS:

1. Facilitates integration of fire support team.

2. Frees commander and FSO to concentrate on paragraph 3 of OPORD.

Techniques:

1. Consider configuring the CP as follows:

  • Back the two command Bradleys and the FIST-V together so that the ramps touch.

  • Cover the open space between them with a tarp to create a weatherproof area where white light can be used.

  • Use this open area for developing and issuing OPORDS.

2. Include platoon leaders and XO in orders process.

3. Consider integrating 1SG's M113 into the CP operations to provide back-up and alternate CP.

4. Maintain proficiency in speedy graphics reproduction.

5. Work on methods of providing a written OPORD to subordinate leaders.

6. Develop charts and matrices in 3-ring binder format for tracking information in the CP.

(TA.4.0 Command and Control)


TREND 2: Tracking Scout Strength/Sending Spot Reports to Higher

SUSTAIN:

1. Clear and concise reporting on O/I and command nets.

2. Key information passed to TF commander prior to arrival of main body at MBA.

RESULT: Continual improvement in situational awareness.

Techniques:

1. Maintain and improve on current capability.

2. Consider implementing a tracking matrix (both friendly and OPFOR) to further enhance consistency and quality of reporting.

(TA.4.1.3 Maintain Information and Force Status)


TREND 3: Situational Awareness - CSS

SUSTAIN:

1. Good overall knowledge of ROE.

2. Situational awareness good.

3. Excellent battle tracking after slow start.

  • Outstanding S-1 casualty reporting.

  • Outstanding S-4 equipment loss reporting.

4. Timely collection of 1155/56.

(TA.4.2.1 Review Current Situation)


TREND 4: TOC Operations

SUSTAIN:

1. After initial disorientation, the TOC became extremely functional.

2. XO enforces TOC SOP and routinely updates it.

3. Staff continues to receive and analyze information.

4. Situational awareness is kept current by identifying and prioritizing critical information to be tracked.

(TA.4.3 Determine Actions)


TREND 5: Flexibility

SUSTAIN: Despite lack of clear intelligence or planning guidance from higher, the commander and subordinate leaders demonstrated the ability to effectively implement short-suspense combat orders.

RESULT: Unit continually met and surpassed standards.

Techniques:

1. Maintain a flexible mind set.

2. Conduct constant parallel and contingency planning against likely missions. Use the complete MDMP whenever possible.

3. Produce solid CONPLANS. Reduce the likelihood of hasty planning to execute short-suspense orders.

(TA.4.3 Determine Actions)


TREND 6: Risk Assessment

SUSTAIN: Good risk assessment program.

(TA.4.3 Determine Actions)


TREND 7: Determine capability of subordinate units prior to operations.

SUSTAIN:

1. Immediate application of lessons learned to improve performance.

2. Use of baseline checklist.

RESULT: Continual improvement in convoy PCIs and dismounted PCCs.

Techniques:

1. Use AARs and lessons learned to improve generic PCI/load plans.

2. Develop SOPs to cover contingencies:

  • Late additions to convoys.

  • Attached maneuver assets.

  • Squad/section specific inspections.

3. Urge junior leader initiative in load plan refinement, weapons, and vehicle maintenance.

(TA.4.4 Direct and Lead Subordinates)


TREND 8: Concern regarding lack of 19D specific train-up prior to operation.

SUSTAIN:

1. NCO coaching on STX lanes and during mission execution.

2. Accepted and quickly applied lessons learned from AARs.

3. Empowered junior leaders.

RESULT: Marked improvement in proficiency.

Technique: Continue to apply current training methodology to build on known strengths and improve shortcomings identified during mission execution.

(TA.4.4 Direct and Lead Subordinates)


TREND 9: Unit capitalizes on the soldiers with SASO experience.

SUSTAIN: Use of experienced soldiers to train and coach newly-arrived soldiers in all aspects of SASO.

RESULTS:

1. Quick grasp of engineer-related provisions of the Dayton Accord.

2. Almost immediate proficiency in negotiations, mine clearance o.s., and force protection due to extensive collective experience.

Techniques:

1. Stabilize leadership within the unit.

2. Continue to use experienced troops to coach and train new arrivals.

(TA.4.4 Direct and Lead Subordinates)


TREND 10: The unit maintained a superb safety record during operations.

SUSTAIN:

1. Leaders constantly checked vehicles for load plans and hatch locking pins.

2. Implementation of additional safety measures to ensure vehicles were safe to operate.

3. Maintained good field sanitation and discipline.

4. Leaders ensured that soldiers consumed enough water to prevent heat-related injuries.

5. Executed 25 percent security.

6. Completed sector sketches and range cards for .50-caliber machine guns.

RESULTS:

1. Excellent security.

2. All crew-served weapons manned.

3. Vehicles properly dispersed.

Techniques:

1. Maintain focus on force protection and safety.

2. Establish and maintain discipline.

3. Consider standardizing risk assessment down to squad level.

(TA.4.4 Direct and Lead Subordinates)


TREND 11: Operator Level Maintenance

SUSTAIN: Operators conscientiously annotate deficiencies on Form 5988E.

Technique: Strive to maintain current excellence of level 10 maintenance.

(TA.4.4 Direct and Lead Subordinates)


TREND 12: General Knowledge of SASO

SUSTAIN: High level of prior SASO experience among leadership.

RESULTS:

1. Extremely familiar with mission requirements.

2. Strong performance on SASO tasks.

Techniques:

1. Use experience base to train new members of the team.

2. Avoid complacency. Certain aspects of the mission have changed since last deployment.

(TA.4.4 Direct and Lead Subordinates)


TREND 13: Soldier Knowledge of JM/ROE

SUSTAIN:

1. Each soldier received an individual copy of the JMC (Joint Military Commission) handbook.

2. Unit established training plan, including formal classes and testing.

Techniques:

1. Ensure each soldier has his/her own copy of JMC handbook.

2. Conduct periodic JM/ROE classes to maintain proficiency.

3. Conduct periodic testing to ensure proficiency.

(TA.4.4 Direct and Lead Subordinates)


TREND 14: Units routinely schedule rehearsals.

(TA.4.4.1.1 Develop and Complete Plans or Orders)


TREND 15: Engineer drills are well-rehearsed and executed.

SUSTAIN:

1. Constantly demonstrated mastery of squad drills.

2. Excelled in route proofing, marking lanes through obstacles or bypasses, and Panther operations.

Technique: Continue to maintain unit proficiency in these critical tasks during Home-Station training.

(TA.4.4.1.1 Develop and Complete Plans or Orders)


TREND 16: CSS Rehearsals

SUSTAIN:

1. Rehearsals progressively improved during operations.

2. Key players always attended, including specialty and attached units.

3. S-4 explained concept of support and sustainment functions for each phase.

4. When mission was time-sensitive, S-4 conducted rehearsals over the A/L net.

Techniques:

1. Develop a detailed terrain rehearsal kit which can be maintained in the CTCP.

  • Provides a graphic representation of the battlefield.

  • Improves logisticians' and 1SGs' understanding of the TF concept of support.

2. Ensure continued attendance by key players.

(TA.4.4.1.1 Develop and Complete Plans or Orders)


TREND 17: The company meets the 1/3, 2/3 standard.

SUSTAIN: The commander ensures that the 1/3, 2/3 rule is executed.

RESULT: Provides platoon leaders ample time to prioritize work and battle-task rehearsal.

Techniques:

1. Issue WARNO promptly (commander).

2. Follow-up with detailed timeline and OPORD (commander).

3. Ensure PSGs conduct PCCs (1SG).

(TA.4.4.1.1 Develop and Complete Plans or Orders)


TREND 18: JAAT Operations

SUSTAIN: Advance planning and research.

RESULT: Successful mission accomplishment.

Techniques:

1. Conduct advance planning and research (FSO).

2. Practice continuous face-to-face coordination with all external elements.

(TA.4.4.5 Synchronize Tactical Operations)


Needs Emphasis

TREND 1: Noncombat arms battalions demonstrate a lack of proficiency in the planning, preparation, and conduct of stability and support operations.

PROBLEMS:

1. Noncombat arms units frequently lack preparation for conducting SASO.

2. Staffs lack proficiency in planning and executing SASO missions.

3. Limited knowledge of SASO fundamentals.

RESULTS:

1. Notable deficiencies occurred in land navigation skills at company level.

  • Numerous mine strikes.

  • Inadequate SOPs.

2. Staff unfamiliar with the decision-making process, course-of-action development, and situation analysis.

3. Inadequate application of a set of rules of engagement (and IPB) in a SASO environment.

4. Inadequate rehearsals.

Techniques:

1. Added emphasis on training mounted land navigation prior to deployment.

2. Revise SOPs to address areas such as precombat inspections and mine strike drills.

3. Conduct staff drills prior to deployment. Drills should include practice in staff operations as outlined in FM 101-5, including:

  • Mission analysis (FM 100-23, Chapter 3).

  • Developing and analyzing courses of action.

  • Operations order preparation prior to deployment.

4. Develop familiarity with IPB, especially in applications relevant to SASO.

  • Requires emphasis to support the commander's decision-making process.

  • Enhances knowledge of systems and information sources available at higher echelons.

5. Train on liaison coordination with adjacent units.

6. Incorporate liaison coordination with adjacent units into SOPs and planning.

7. Further enhance unit deployment performance by conducting rehearsals which are based on a complete knowledge of the ROE and understanding of the specific SASO environment.

(TA.4.0 Command and Control)


TREND 2: TF leadership initially overwhelmed by the unforeseen complexities of SASO.

PROBLEM: Unfamiliarity with mission parameters.

RESULT: Generates confusion among leaders and staff despite extensive military training.

Techniques:

1. Focus on SASO during Home-Station training.

2. Take advantage of lessons learned by other units to prepare for SASO.

(TA.4.0 Command and Control)


TREND 3: Documentation and Reporting

PROBLEMS:

1. Units are typically weak in battle tracking, maintaining situational awareness, and reporting accurate and timely information to higher.

2. Spot reports are normally not in SALUTE format.

3. Units seldom use preprinted spot report forms which greatly increase information flow.

(TA.4.1.1 Communicate Information)


TREND 4: Information Flow

PROBLEM: Soldiers often failed to use SALUTE or SALT-A report formats.

RESULTS:

1. Created confusion.

2. Impeded TDMP.

Technique: Enforce use of SALUTE and SALT-A reporting formats.

(TA.4.1.1 Communicate Information)


TREND 5: Lack of knowledge of ROE.

PROBLEM: Soldiers normally do not fully understand the ROE until towards the end of the rotation.

(TA.4.1.1 Communicate Information)


TREND 6: FARPs perform well but are forgotten.

PROBLEM: Because the FARP is usually away from the battalion assembly area, they are forgotten and do not receive information on what missions are flying.

(TA.4.1.1 Communicate Information)


TREND 7: A/L Net in the CTCP

PROBLEMS:

1. Initial lack of A/L net in the CTCP.

2. Untimely conduct of COMMEXs.

3. Poor time management.

RESULTS:

1. Relocation of CTCP to FTCP.

2. Inadequate battle tracking.

3. Fragmented unit trains.

(4.1.2 Manage Means of Communicating Information)


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