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Military

SECTION II

TA. 7 COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT BOS


Positive Performance

7.0 Combat Service Support

* Coordinate Class I, VI, and Water Support: FSBs are developing habitual relationships with their MSB slices [ration team, reverse osmosis water purification unit (ROWPU), etc.] and including the slices into FSB and brigade field training.

7.3.2 Fix/Maintain Equipment

* Maintenance skills: Soldiers display a superior knowledge of aircraft maintenance skills.

  1. Aircraft mechanics demonstrate the ability to perform both real world and notional repairs in a tactical environment.

  2. AVUM units have made great strides in planning for deployment. Most maintenance slices now deploy with the appropriate tools, test equipment, and repair parts to support 40 or more aircraft.

7.4.4.2 Evacuate Casualties

* Evacuation Liaison Team (ELT):

Techniques:

1. ELTs provide the personnel and communications equipment necessary to establish proper control and liaison for the Forward Support MEDEVAC Team (FSMT).

2. Use the ELT to coordinate all ground and non-standard air evacuation (CASEVAC) for the brigade.

3. Use the ELT as a dedicated casualty evacuation control communications net.

RESULT: using the ELT as described virtually eliminates the command and control problems normally associated with FSMT mission execution.

* Casualty treatment and collection:

  1. Soldiers understand the basic lifesaving steps and are pro-active in identifying casualties and performing timely buddy aid.

  2. Units are averaging one combat lifesaver per squad.

  3. Units do a solid job of evacuating casualties to the company CCP without inflicting further injury.

Techniques:

1. Synchronize the casualty evacuation plan with maneuver plan. Do not plan casualty evacuation in isolation.
2. Treat medical evacuation as a combat operation; rehearse the plan at the battalion-level.
3. Units must have at least one combat lifesaver per squad.

7.5.2X2 Water

* Water production operations: Units are focusing on the integration of preventive medicine, security, and maintenance, for their ROWPU operations; thus, providing the task force with safe, continuous water support.

7.5.2X3 Ammunition

* Ammunition Planning and Management: FA Battalions continue to improve their ammunition planning and management. The staffs are doing a better job of identifying ammunition needs, controlling expenditures and rapidly resupplying the batteries.

Needs Emphasis

7.0 Combat Service Support

* Coordinate Transportation Support: Brigade and FSB logisticians experience significant difficulty coordinating army aviation for logistics from the brigade support area (BSA) to forward units.

PROBLEMS:
  1. Aviation is rarely used to move material from the BSA to the forward units.
    -- Often, neither the brigade nor the aviation battalion allocate aircraft for aerial resupply.

  2. When aircraft are allocated, units fail to: prioritize loads, establish PZ/LZ controls and maximize backhaul capabilities.

RESULT: The effect of aerial resupply operation as a combat multiplier is degraded.

Techniques:

1. The brigade must develop and implement a system for requesting and allocating aviation for logistics.

2. Allocations should be prioritized and listed in the tasks to subordinate units of the brigade order to clearly delineate responsibilities.

3. Transportation support must be integrated into the overall CSS plan to ensure support and supplies arrive where needed, when needed.

4. The transportation support plan must consider and integrate Air Force airlift, Army aviation, and ground transportation assets into the concept of support for the ground tactical plan.

5. Synchronize the transportation plan with subordinate and supported units' plans.

6. References:

- MTP 63-216, Forward Support Battalion
- FM 100-13, Army Airspace Command and Control in a Combat Zone
- FM 90-4, Air Assault Operations.

* Coordinate Class II, IV, and VII Support:

PROBLEMS:
  1. Neither the support operations officer (SOO) nor the Brigade S-4 analyze the brigade defensive plan for class IV and V mine requirements.

  2. The brigade defensive plan often uses specific packages to distribute class IV/V mines.

  3. Too often the aerial resupply plan developed by the SOO and Brigade S-4 does not use the same packages or configurations as the bde defensive plan.

  4. Class IV and V mines allocation in the brigade order often differ between the service support annex and the engineer annex.

RESULTS: The class IV and V mine packages must be rebuilt in the brigade support area (BSA) causing significant distribution problems because the reconfiguration of bulk stocks is never planned.

Techniques:

1. Brigade and FSB logisticians should:

- jointly plan logistical support for the brigade
- analyze the requirements for brigade operations.

2. The SOO must:

- monitor DS supply stockage levels, services and assets

- compare available supplies, services, and assets to requirements to identify shortfalls.

- compare shortfalls to anticipated deliveries of containerized delivery system (CDS), combat offload (COL) and/or sling load (SL) materiel.

- plan solutions to rectify the shortfalls.

- ensure available supplies, services, and assets exceed the brigade's requirements.

- maintain a current map with accurate graphics displaying the logistics and CHS situation to facilitate responsive, anticipatory support.

3. References:

- FM 101-10-1/2, Staff Officer's Field Manual
- FM 5-34, Engineer Field Data

* Coordinate Maintenance and Class IX Support:

PROBLEMS:
  1. Frequent failure to effectively use SAMS-2 to manage maintenance and track readiness.

  2. Failure to transmit outgoing maintenance data near real-time to the DMMC using MSE and the TTA, the DNVT, or other electronic means.

  3. Reference publications are often not available.

  4. The SAMS-2 system operator does not perform PMCS on the SAMS-2 system.

Techniques:

1. Use the SAMS-2 system as the primary tool for maintenance and supply management.

2. Conduct supervisor and operator training on the various methods for transferring SAMS-2 data.

3. Coordinate with the DMMC prior to deployment to prevent communications difficulties.

4. References:

- FM 63-20, Forward Support Battalion
- FM 100-10, Combat Service Support
- AR 750-1, Army Materiel Maintenance Policies
- SAMS-2 Users Guide, ADSM 18-L26-AHO-BUR-UM.

7.3.2 Fix/Maintain Equipment

* Unified Maintenance - Aviation: Maintenance units have difficulty understanding the concept of maintenance in operations other than war.

PROBLEM: One AVUM is assigned responsibility for maintenance of all the attached assets, normally three or four different types of airframes.

RESULTS:
  1. Difficulties in unifying the maintenance effort
  2. Poor status reporting to the task force commander
  3. Higher NMCM and NMCS rates.

Technique: The task force commander should unify the maintenance effort by attaching the maintenance test pilots, mechanics, and technical inspectors for each type of airframe to the AVUM commander.

7.3.2.1 Perform Preventive Maintenance

* Field Preventive Maintenance Operations: Units do not establish and implement SOP for preventative maintenance in the field.

PROBLEM: Failure to properly complete and submit DA Form 2404 and DA Form 5988.

RESULTS:
  1. Parts are not ordered
  2. increased down time for weapons systems
  3. low materiel readiness status.

Techniques:

1. Establish SOP for preventative maintenance in the field that includes completion of DA Form 2404 and DA Form 5988, submission and collection process/method, and action and return of parts to equipment operator.

2. Review Maintenance Management Update 14 and Unit Supply Update 14.

7.3.2.2 Recover

* Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) and Disabled Aircraft Repair and Recovery (DARR):

PROBLEM: Commanders are unaware that CSAR and DARR are separate missions.

- Both are required by doctrine to be included in OPORD and SOPs.
- CSAR -- recover crews, assess the aircraft, and provide security for the disabled aircraft.
- DARRT -- recover the aircraft from the battlefield.

Technique: Units must understand and execute the CSAR and DARRT procedures listed in FM 1-500, FM 1-513, FM 20-30, FM 90-18, and FM 1-101.

7.4.2.2 Graves Registration

* Mortuary Affairs (MA) Operations:. MA Teams deploy without proper equipment and supplies to perform their mission and to maintain proper sanitation.

Techniques:

1. Develop an MA SOP that includes a checklist of needed equipment used and supplies to operate the MA collection point.

2. Soldiers must be made aware of the danger of blood bone pathogens and the protective equipment required when working around them.

3. Reference: JTTP 4-06, Joint Technical Publication for MA in Joint Operations.

7.4.4 Provide Health Services

* Site Selection: Poor site selection prevents medical companies from conducting smooth and efficient patient treatment and evacuation.

RESULTS:
  1. The lack of space inhibits proper dispersion of equipment
  2. Does not facilitate establishing patient bunkers nor fighting positions.

Techniques:

1. Conduct a training exercise without troops (TEWT) on site selection with key leaders from the Medical Company and battalion staff

2. Reference: FM 8-10-1, Paragraph 3-3 and FM 63-20, Chapter 2.

7.4.4.2 Evacuate Casualties

* MEDEVAC Command Relationship: The task organization for the Forward Support MEDEVAC Team (FSMT) is often unclear.

PROBLEM: Significant confusion between the Forward Support Medical Company, the Combat Support Hospital, and the aviation task force.

RESULT: Creates C2 problems that hinder the effectiveness of the Forward Support MEDEVAC Team.

Techniques:

1. Establish a clear command relationship for the FSMT prior to deployment.
2. Train with that established relationship prior to deployment.

7.5.2X.3 Munitions

* Ammunition Transfer Point (ATP) operations (CSS):

PROBLEMS:
  1. Units are storing large quantities of high explosives and projectile ammunition close to high traffic areas within the BSA.

  2. Quantity/Distance requirements are not being considered by units when selecting ATP sites.

Techniques:

1. ATP Layout plans should be developed IAW FM 9-13, and FM 9-6, Chapter 2.
2. Doctrinal reference: TM 9-1300-206 for quantity and distance requirements for field site ammunition storage.

Procedure: include a generic ATP plan in the unit TACSOP.

7.5.2X.5 Medical Supplies (Class VIII)

* Management of CL VIII Supplies: Medical equipment sets are not being properly packed.

PROBLEMS:
  1. Some medications are still in bulk packaging and are not placed in medical chests.
  2. Most of the medical equipment chests lacked the appropriate Class VIII.
  3. Chest drawers are not labeled.
  4. Units are storing expired medications
  5. Units are not using quality control and surveillance records for TOE Medical Assemblies, DA Form 9998.

Techniques:

1. Develop an internal Class VIII SOP that outlines accountability, setup and maintenance procedures for both garrison and field operations.

2. References:

- AR 40-61
- ARTEP 8-263-30-MTP
- DA PAM 710-2-1
- FM 8-10-1, para 1-12
- FM 8-10-4, para 5-24
- FM 8-109
- FM 8-55, chapter 6, section III and IV.

7.9 Evacuate Noncombatants from Area

* Civilians on the battlefield: Most units are unfamiliar/untrained on dealing with civilians on the battlefield.

PROBLEMS:
  1. Too often units allow civilians free access to the position area.

  2. Subordinate elements frequently call battalion for guidance whenever civilians show up at the perimeter. Battalions usually take an inordinate amount of time to decide what it wants the unit to do with the civilians.

RESULTS:
  1. Disruption of unit activities.

  2. Friendly or neutral civilians are too often unnecessarily angered by procedures and the treatment they receive as a result of units trying to figure out the proper disposition.

  3. Too free an access however, allows nuetral or anti-U.S. civilians a significant opportunity to collect valuable intelligence (where the C2 nodes are, possible targets for terrorist activities etc.).

  4. Frequently terrorists will gain unobstructed access to a battery and will destroy the BOC/FDC or howitzer section through the detonation of a ruck sack or car bomb.

Techniques:

1. Develop and disseminate to the lowest level a "white/gray/black" list of all pro/neutral/anti- civilians.

2. Develop clear, concise guidance of what actions are to be taken with each type of civilian, as well as those civilians who do not appear on any list.

3. Establish clear procedures on what soldiers are to do upon contact with civilians - train and rehearse all soldiers on how to deal with civilians on the battlefield at Home Station.


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