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APPENDIX B

A SOLDIER'S TASK:
USE FORCE APPROPRIATELY


CONDITIONS:

Your unit is deployed to a noncombat, but potentially hostile situation, to promote stability, provide humane assistance to distressed areas, assist civil authorities, or protect U.S. interests.

STANDARDS:

1. Defend yourself and members of your unit with initiative.
2. Apply all levels of force only when necessary.
3. Apply an amount of force proportionate to each threat encountered.
4. Transition appropriately to combat when ordered to do so by your chain of command.
TRAINING AND EVALUATION

Training Information Outline

1. Follow all lawful orders of your chain of command regarding use of force. Follow the four standing rules stated in the next paragraph in the absence of more specific guidance. The four rules interlock; do not apply one rule to the exclusion of the others. Your chain of command may supplement one or more of these rules to permit accomplishment of a mission. In such a case, these rules should guide your judgment only to the extent that they do not conflict with the instructions of your chain of command.

2. When facing a potential threat, exercise initiative as well as restraint. Any weapons fire must be disciplined and aimed, while also effective in achieving self defense. When encountering a potential threat, remember RAMP. That key word will help you respond in a way that protects lives, supports the mission, and complies with the law.

Return fire with aimed fire. Return force with force. You always have the right to repel hostile acts with necessary force.

Anticipate attack. Use force first if, but only if, you see clear indicators of hostile intent.

Measure the amount of force that you use, if time and circumstances permit. Use only the amount of force necessary to protect lives and accomplish the mission.

Protect with deadly force only human life, and property designated by your commander. Stop short of deadly force when protecting other property.

3. "R-Return Fire" means that if you have been fired on or otherwise attacked, you may do what you must to protect yourself. This the core of the right to self defense, which is never denied.

4. "A-Anticipate attack" means that self defense is not limited to returning fire. Soldiers do not have to receive the first shot before using force to protect themselves and other lives.

a. When soldiers initiate the use of force to defend themselves, they use what is known as "anticipatory" or "pre-emptive" force. During noncombat operations, unless ordered otherwise, you must use anticipatory or preemptive force only when you face an imminent threat of attack and can identify or describe to yourself certain clear indicators of hostile intent.

b. Determine whether someone's intentions are hostile by considering the same factors you use when reporting enemy information to your leader under the S-A-L-U-T-E format (CT 071-331-0803).

Size How many individuals are you facing?

Activity What is he doing? Pointing a weapon?

Location Is he within small arms range? In a prepared firing position? Has he entered a restricted area?

Unit Is he wearing a uniform? Part of an organized armed force?

Time How soon before he is upon you?

Equipment Is he armed? With what? What are the range and lethality of his weapon?

c. Do not base anticipatory force on a mere hunch that the person is hostile. On the other hand, if your commander informs you that a particular fighting force has been designated by higher headquarters as "hostile," or as "the enemy," you may shoot that force or its equipment on sight without identifying indicators of hostile intent.

5. "M-Measure Your Force" means that if you have a moment to choose your method, you must do so.

a. As a soldier -- a professional in the use of force -- you are expected to adjust the intensity, magnitude, and duration of your force to fit the scale of threat that you face. Excessive force endangers innocent lives and hinders mission accomplishment.

b. If possible, apply a graduated escalation of force, particularly when facing civilian crowds that appear to be unarmed, but also unfriendly. In handling potentially hostile situations, use one or more of the actions in V-E-W-P-R-I-K:

Verbal Warning. Tell person(s), in their language, to disperse, stay away, or halt

Exhibit Weapon. Show your weapon or use some other display that shows you have superior force at your disposal.

Warning Shot. Shoot a warning shot, if authorized. Caution: Warning shots may be interpreted as incoming fire by the person you are trying to "warn" away.

Pepper Spray. Spray cayenne pepper spray, if authorized and available, and the individual is close enough.

Riot Stick. Strike with riot stick, if authorized and available, and if the individual is close enough. Poke fleshy parts of the body first, arms and legs next, and if necessary, escalate to striking the head.

Injure with Fire. Shoot to wound.

Kill with Fire. Shoot to kill.

6. "P-Protect with Deadly Force" means that you must defend more than your own personal safety, but it also means you may use deadly force only in limited circumstances. Your commander may designate that certain sensitive or mission-essential facilities be protected with deadly force. On other occasions, your commander may designate that no property receive this maximum level of protection. This might be the case when your unit is operating in a host nation the laws of which permit the use of deadly force only to protect life.

7. These four RAMP rules operate as an up-ramp when conditions grow more hostile and the situation develops into combat. RAMP also guides your use of force in many situations during war. In war, you attack combat targets according to the Law of War (CT 181-906-1505) whether or not you are in imminent danger from the enemy; however, RAMP remains your guide on the use of force when dealing with civilians and prisoners.

8. These RAMP rules also operate as a down-ramp when combat conditions cool down into stability operations and use of force must become more restrained.

9. Your commander will be complying with ROE from higher headquarters. These ROE will be in the form of ROE Conditions (ROECONs) and ROE Annexes to operations orders. These ROE may impact on the way individual soldiers use force. If so, your commander will translate guidance to you in terms of RAMP, and will "walk you up" each of the RAMP rules to clarify how to use force appropriately in the situations you will face.

Evaluation Preparation

Setup: Soldiers should be individually tested for this task. The evaluator briefs the soldier on the simulated noncombat
situation, providing information on the mission, the potential threat, the soldier's location in relation to other troops in the unit, and the terrain. The soldier is then questioned as to his recognition and actions on the performance measures. The most realistic method of training this task is to include ROE and use of force problems in the Army Training and Evaluation Programs (ARTEPs) and field training exercises (FTXs). The problems should require skill level 1 soldier recognition and action.

Brief Soldier: Tell the soldier that he is deployed in a simulated noncombat but potentially hostile environment. The
soldier may be on guard duty, riding in a convoy, or walking to his cot from the mess tent. The soldier may be confronted with a variety of threats from armed and unarmed individuals and vehicles. The soldier will be asked to describe what actions he should take. If available, use TC 27-10-4, Selected Problems in Rules of Engagement, or the vignettes contained in the other appendices of this guide, to create scenarios for the soldier. At some point, modify the soldier's RAMP such that an identified enemy force has been designated a "hostile force" by higher headquarters. Enemy soldiers may appear in the area, surrender, or be sick or wounded. If available, use TC 27-10-1, Selected Problems in the Law of War, or the vignettes contained in the other appendices of this guide, to create wartime scenarios for the soldier. The soldier will be asked to describe what actions he should take.

Evaluation Guide: 181-906-1506

USE FORCE APPROPRIATELY

Performance Measure Results
1. Returns fire from a hostile force with aimed fire.GO
NOGO
2. Identifies clear demonstrations of hostile intent using the SALUTE factors. Anticipates attack by firing firsGO
NOGO
3. Identifies situation where hostile intent is unclear using the SALUTE factors. Holds fire while maintaining or seeking a secure position.GO
NOGO
4. Responds with measured force when confronted with a potentially hostile force. Uses the scale of VEWPRIK measures.GO
NOGO
5. Omits lower level VEWPRIK measures if the threat quickly grows deadly (i.e., civilian pulls grenade out from underneath clothing and prepares to throw).GO
NOGO
6. Declines to use deadly force when piece of property is snatched (i.e., sunglasses).GO
NOGO
7. Uses deadly force, if indicated, to protect comrades and persons under U.S. control.GO
NOGO
8. Uses deadly force, if indicated, to protect key property designated by commander (i.e., U.S. aircraft).GO
NOGO
9. When told that a force has been designated a "hostile force," fires aimed shots at members of hostile force whether or not they show hostile intent.GO
NOGO
10. When told that a force has been designated a "hostile force," continues to use RAMP when encountering civilians, prisoners, and casualties.GO
NOGO
11. When told that attacks of a particular kind have been reported against U.S. or coalition forces in the area (e.g., hand grenades delivered by civilians, car bomb attacks, Molotov cocktails), considers these potential threats when looking for indicators of hostile intent.GO
NOGO
12. Seeks clarification in terms of RAMP when given instructions on use of force that does not fit the RAMP format.GO
NOGO

Feedback

Score the soldier GO if he passes all steps. Score the soldier NO GO if he fails any steps. If the soldier scores NO GO, show what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.

References

TC 27-10-1
TC 27-10-4



Appendix A: Joint Chiefs of Staff Standing Rules of Engagement
Appendix C: RAMP Training Scenarios



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