Index to Joint Enablers Handbook
Defense Threat Reduction Agency
Defense Threat Reduction Agency
The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) safeguards America and its allies from weapons of mass destruction (WMD) (i.e. chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high explosives) by providing capabilities to reduce, eliminate, and counter the threat and mitigate its effects.
The DTRA is the intellectual, technical, and operational leader for the Department of Defense (DOD) and U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) in the national effort to combat the WMD threat. The following are some of the enterprises DTRA is involved with:
- Business enterprise. The DTRA provides the support functions of acquisition, environment, safety and occupational health, facilities and logistics, financial management, human resources, and information management.
- Combating WMD. The DTRA provides manning, facilities, technical support, funding, and expertise to the USSTRATCOM Center for Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction. The agency also provides assessments support, advocacy, planning, training teams, and support teams to USSTRATCOM and other combatant command customers. The DRTA supports its DOD customers in near real time by providing a variety of subject-matter experts working around the clock and links to experts throughout DOD, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Homeland Security.
- Operations enterprise. The DTRA provides a three-pronged approach: on-site inspection, cooperative threat reduction, and combat support. These three functions are carried out by directorates appropriately named the On-Site Inspection Directorate, Cooperative Threat Reduction Directorate, and the Combat Support Directorate. These directorates are aligned with the three pillars of the national military strategy to combat WMD, which represent first (non-proliferation), second (counter-proliferation), and third (consequence management) lines of defense.
- Research and development enterprise. The DTRA identify, conduct, and deliver innovative science and technology, through systematic, risk-balanced processes, that enables the U.S. to combat WMD. The DTRA also provides research, development, and acquisition to support the needs of combatant commanders, services, and DTRA.
The DTRA is a combat support agency of yhe DOD. Founded in 1998, the agency is located in Fort Belvoir, VA. The director of DTRA reports to the under secretary of defense for acquisition and logistics, through the assistant to the secretary of defense for nuclear and biological defense programs. The DTRA director also serves as the director, Strategic Command Center for Combating WMD, collocated with DTRA in the Threat Reduction Center at Fort Belvoir, VA. In this capacity, the DTRA director reports to USSTRATCOM.
- COMM: (703) 767-5870
- DSN: 427-5870
Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization
The Department of Defense (DOD) established the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) in February 2006 to focus (i.e. lead, advocate, and coordinate) all DOD actions in support of combatant commanders and their respective joint task forces' efforts to defeat improvised explosive devices (IEDs) as weapons of strategic influence. Mission areas of JIEDDO are the following:
- Operations and information fusion.
- Training support.
- Rapid acquisition.
- Strategic planning.
A Soldier displays a cell phone used to detonate radio-controlled IEDs. JIEDDO's counter radio-controlled electronic warfare vehicle-mounted, man-portable, and fixed-site jamming systems prevent these devices from detonating. (Photo courtesy of JIEDDO)
JIEDDO has three lines of operation to counter the IED threat:
- Attack the network. Actions and activities designed to reduce the effects and interrupt the insurgent chain of IED activities through:
- Intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, and information operations.
- Counter-bomber targeting through the use of biometrics.
- Technical and forensic exploitation.
- Disposal of unexploded and captured ordnance.
- Persistent surveillance.
- Defeat the Device. Actions and activities designed to reduce the effects of IED detonations for safe operations including:
- Route clearance.
- Device neutralization.
- Explosive detection.
- Disposal of unexploded and captured ordnance.
- Vehicle and personnel protection.
- Train the Force. Actions and activities designed to enable/attack the network and defeat the device through:
- Graduate-level combat training center events.
- Counter IED training at home stations and the centers of excellence.
- Focused individual counter IED predeployment training.
Established by DOD in 2006, JIEDDO is the Pentagon's lead for all efforts to combat IEDs in support of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps. Reporting directly to the deputy secretary of defense, the joint program is able to leverage the experience and expertise of warfighters across the services, enhance its network attack focus, increase the procurement of device defeat tools, and build a robust set of IED-specific force training operations.
Phone: COMM: (877) 251-3337
Knowledge and Information Fusion Exchange
The Knowledge and Information Fusion Exchange (KnIFE) is the Department of Defense's (DOD) central repository for improvised explosive device (IED) information and lessons learned. The KnIFE provides the warfighter real-time counter IED (CIED) information for developing training programs and for rapidly reacting to changing conditions on the battlefield, thereby reducing battlefield casualties and helping to defeat the enemy.
KnIFE includes an operations center-which runs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week-that can be contacted in a variety of ways, to include telephone, secure telephone, Non-Secure Internet Protocol Router Network, SECRET Internet Protocol Router Network, and four other DOD and coalition networks. The operations center answers inquiries regarding CIED tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) from all theaters of operations, the training community, and the research and development community, among many others. KnIFE portal sites consolidate reports, best practices, and TTP. Additionally, KnIFE provides theater-specific foreign language training materials and a searchable photo library. Warfighters use the KnIFE to access current battlefield information for rapid adaptation to constantly changing enemy tactics. The KnIFE's information-sharing capability provides valuable, current information to units in theater or preparing for deployment.
The KnIFE is working with the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization stakeholders (Task Force Paladin, the Counter IED Operational Integration Center [COIC], the Joint Center of Excellence [JCOE], and the Joint Training Counter IED Operations Integration Center) to support the joint training fusion cell (JTFC) in Afghanistan. The JTFC will collect the latest CIED information in Afghanistan and make this information available to the KnIFE, who will then post this information to be used by CIED trainers and warfighters preparing to deploy to Afghanistan. Additionally, JCOE and the COIC are posting critical training programs of instruction and attack the network training information on the KnIFE's portals.
Located at Suffolk, VA, the KnIFE is an operational capability of the Joint Center for Operational Analysis and a component of U.S. Joint Forces Command. The KnIFE is the DOD's foundational information brokerage and repository for all IED information.
- DSN: (312) 668-0777
- COMM: (757) 203-0777
Website: "https://Knife.jfcom.mil" (common access card access only).
KnIFE maintains a 24/7 operations center in addition to the topic-centric Web portals. KnIFE regularly receives questions from units in theater and units preparing to deploy. IED requests for information are answered rapidly, usually within 24 hours, providing materials tailored to the warfighters' rapidly changing irregular warfare requirements.
Joint Personnel Recovery Agency
The mission of the Joint Personnel Recovery Agency (JPRA) is to shape the planning, preparation, and execution of personnel recovery for the Department of Defense (DOD); enable commanders, individuals, recovery forces, and supporting organizations to effectively execute their personnel recovery responsibilities across the spectrum of conflict; shape personnel recovery for the DOD, interagency, and partner nations; and enable commanders, forces, and individuals to effectively accomplish their personnel recovery responsibilities. Ultimately, JPRA plays an important role in ensuring commanders and staffs, recovery forces, and individuals are adequately organized, trained, and equipped to accomplish the personnel recovery mission elements of report, locate, support, recover, and reintegrate. The JPRA supports the warfighter with educating and training commanders and their staffs, reviewing their personnel recovery programs, and assisting with joint exercises and mission rehearsals. They also oversee service survival, evasion, and resistance training and conduct specialized code of conduct training.
As the DOD's office of primary responsibility and executive agent for personnel recovery, the JPRA maintains personnel recovery subject-matter experts and action officers and provides support through the agency's four core competencies-advocacy, education and training, support to operations, and analysis. These competencies are critical to sustaining and improving the DOD personnel recovery system.
- Advocacy. The JPRA is key to developing, formalizing, and advocating DOD's personnel recovery policies; directives and instructions; joint doctrine; task lists; planning; concepts of operations; standing operating procedures; tactics, techniques, and procedures; and joint concepts and/or capabilities.
- Education and training. The JPRA designs, develops, conducts, and updates education and training programs for commanders and staffs, forces, and individuals, and oversees the presentation of such programs. The JPRA does this through in-residence, surrogate, and mobile venues in support of the services and the combatant commands.
- Support to operations. The JPRA provides products and services that prepare commanders and staffs, forces, and isolated personnel for personnel recovery events, and supports combatant commanders and joint force commanders and staffs as required.
- Analysis. The JPRA conducts joint concept development and experimentation, captures lessons learned, and performs mission analyses. The JPRA then translates the results into doctrine, organization, training, material, leadership development, personnel and facilities solutions, task lists, planning, and capabilities development.
The agency provides tools to help individuals evade and escape if isolated from their units. Some products the agency provides or has developed are:
- Evasion charts, which are maps and charts printed on sturdy, non-paper material that include graphic and text information on a specific area.
- One-way, signal-emitter tags that are small, lightweight, and attach to the uniform for help in finding isolated individuals.
- "Blood chits," which are written notices in several languages carried by military personnel in combat. If U.S. military personnel become isolated from friendly forces, the notice identifies them as Americans, encourages the local population to assist them, and promises a reward for doing so.
- "Pointee-talkees" language aids containing selected phrases in English opposite a translation in a foreign language. They are used by pointing to appropriate phrases.
The JPRA, located at Fort Belvoir, VA, is a subordinate activity of U.S. Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM). The USJFCOM commander is the DOD executive agent for personnel recovery, less policy. The JPRA is designated as the executive agent's office of primary responsibility for DOD-wide personnel recovery matters and is responsible for executing the executive agent's functions. All requests for JPRA support should be sent via USJFCOM.
Phone: COMM: (703) 704-2509
Joint Functional Component Command for Integrated Missile Defense
The mission of the Joint Functional Component Command for Integrated Missile Defense (JFCC-IMD) is to integrate and globally synchronize U.S. missile defense systems and operations to provide an optimized, layered missile defense against missiles of all ranges and phases of flight. The JFCC-IMD was established to optimize planning, execution, and force management of deterring attacks against the United States, its territories, possessions, and bases, as directed by U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). In addition, JFCC-IMD would employ appropriate forces, should deterrence fail, and the associated mission of planning, integrating, and coordinating global missile defense operations and support for missile defense.
Sea-based X-band radar used for ballistic missile detection
Being primarily responsible for missile defense planning and management, JFCC-IMD is known as the global synchronizer for missile defense. The JFCC-IMD enables USSTRATCOM to synchronize operational- and tactical-level planning efforts of combatant commands (COCOMs). JFCC-IMD personnel also make employment recommendations for the allocation of low-density/high-demand missile defense forces and elements to meet COCOM operational needs. To accomplish its global mission, JFCC-IMD coordinates regularly with other COCOMs (including U.S. Northern Command), the Missile Defense Agency, and joint service components.
Current operation areas and taskings include:
- Coordinating Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) development and operational activity through the asset management process in conjunction with other applicable commands, agencies, and organizations.
- Being the focal point for global situation awareness of missile defense operations.
- Maintaining visibility of all global missile defense logistics to aid the commander and staff in planning and decision making.
- Coordinating and maintaining intelligence, as necessary, to support missile defense components.
- Providing operational oversight for the command, control, battle management and communications systems.
- Developing course of action recommendations to optimize global integrated missile defense operations; address operational resource conflicts, operational seams and vulnerabilities; and minimize operational risk for missile defense capabilities.
- Planning and coordinating BMDS objectives for joint and COCOM exercises, war games, and experiments.
The JFCC-IMD, located on Schriever Air Force Base, CO, is a functional component of USSTRATCOM. The JFCC-IMD is a joint command comprised of active duty and reserve members of all four military services. The commander of JFCC-IMD is dual-hatted as the commander of Army Space and Missile Defense Command. Additionally, the JFCC-IMD is supported by a variety of Department of Defense and Defense Intelligence Agency civilians and civilian contractors.
Phone: COMM: (402) 294-4130
Joint National Training Capability
The Joint National Training Capability (JNTC) enables integration of combatant command (COCOM), service, and government agency training components to "train like we operate" toward supporting national security goals. This infrastructure consists of credible and adaptive opposing forces, common ground truth, and high-quality feedback, and provides joint context for training realism.
The JNTC was established in 2002 as the centerpiece of training transformation (T2). This capability provides units and staffs with an integrated live, virtual, and constructive (LVC) training environment that allows accurate, timely, relevant, and affordable joint training and mission rehearsals in support of specific operational needs.
The JNTC uses a mix of LVC models and simulations in an integrated network of more than 40 persistent training sites to provide the most realistic collective joint mission experience possible. Specifically, JNTC has the following responsibilities:
- Providing joint context to more than 30 service and COCOM training programs.
- Enabling services to tackle joint training issues at the tactical level.
- Providing the only training environment that can enable the joint training needed in emerging warfare areas.
- Providing an asymmetric opposing force.
The JNTC promises an enhanced way to train by offering COCOMs and the services a spectrum of LVC training environments to create the most realistic training experience possible. In 2008, JNTC supported more than 180 service and COCOM training events.
The JNTC is one of the three enabling capabilities of the Department of Defense's T2 initiative. The second enabling capability is the Joint Knowledge Development and Distribution Capability. Both JNTC and the Joint Knowledge Development and Distribution Capability reside at the Joint Warfighting Center (JWFC). The third enabling capability is the Joint Assessment and Enabling Capability, led by the Office of the Secretary of Defense Personnel and Readiness Office.
The JNTC is governed by a corporate board structure consisting of voting stakeholder representatives from the four military services, U.S. Joint Forces Command, Special Operations Command, Joint Staff director of operational plans and joint force development (representing COCOMs), and the Office of the Secretary of Defense.
Day-to-day management and oversight of JNTC is vested within two organizations in the JWFC:
- The JNTC Joint Management Office (JMO) manages the overall planning and execution of funds to meet the joint warfighter's training environment needs. The JMO serves as the lead for all program planning, allocation, and management of JNTC resources.
- The training development group identifies shortfalls and leads the development, improvement, and integration of the joint training environment to enable trained, capable, and interoperable joint forces to meet future and present operational needs.
Phone: COMM: (757) 836-6555
Consequence Management Advisory Team
The Consequence Management Advisory Team (CMAT) is a deployable, operational, consequence management advisement capability responsible for providing doctrinal and technical subject-matter expertise, advice, planning guidance, training, and hazard prediction modeling assistance.
The CMAT is a small group of trained military, civilian, and contractor personnel able to respond within hours to support combatant commanders, joint task force commanders, or coordinating officials during all phases of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosive (CBRNE) incidents or for exercise support. During a threatened or actual terrorist incident, the agency provides scientific and technical analyses of an incident/accident through a computer-based reachback capability supplemented with subject-matter experts.
The CMAT's charter is to, upon notification of a weapon of mass destruction (WMD)/CBRNE event, task-organize and prepare to deploy. The team consists of a core of WMD/CBRNE advisors-effects modelers/planners-who are augmented as the situation dictates from other assets in the agency, such as public affairs specialists, general counsel/legal advisors, and counter intelligence/physical security specialists, as required. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has a standing memorandum of agreement with the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute for radiation health physicists or radiation physicians, if required.
CMAT members are equipped with laptop computers and peripherals to include the DTRA Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability program; the DTRA Consequences Assessment Tool Set program; DTRA high-resolution weather models; urban wind field modeling; and a host of WMD/CBRNE utilities, tools, references, and high-resolution imagery/infrastructure databases. The CMAT can deploy to either the continental United States (CONUS) or outside the CONUS, and has unclassified and classified voice/data reachback capability to DTRA resources through DTRA's operations center. Team personnel have nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) personal protective equipment; field gear for hot or cold worldwide weather environments; official and diplomatic passports; and the full set of worldwide deployment immunizations.
The CMAT routinely participates in joint, staff-directed consequence management and nuclear weapon accident exercises. CMAT advisors, or teams, have supported national special security events for the Federal Bureau of Investigation at the Fourth of July celebration in Washington, D.C., the Major League Baseball All-Star Game, the National Football League Super Bowl, the World Economic Forum, the Presidential Inauguration, national conventions, and the 2002 Winter Olympics. The CMAT has also supported overseas operations to include Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and Distinguished Games (Athens 2004 Olympics).
The CMAT is subordinate to the DTRA and is a task-organized team of 2 to 20 personnel who provide CBRNE advice and assistance. The team consists of CBRNE planners and modelers who are typically joint service personnel with training in CBRNE and consequence management skills. Their military backgrounds include nuclear weapons operations, nuclear weapons maintenance, explosive ordnance disposal operations, and NBC operations. DTRA modelers are trained in CBRNE modeling tools, weather phenomenology, and communications. They translate CBRNE technical information into operational terms for warfighters and decision makers.
The CMAT's capability must be requested by a supported command through the request for forces (RFF) process. In the RFF, the command must specify if 24/7 capability is required for the incident or exercise, and what the prevailing threat or scenario entails. Defining these requirements in the RFF process enables DTRA leaders and crisis action planners to task-organize and deploy the right specialists with the team and to determine the best number of personnel to provide to meet the requested support.
- COMM: (703) 767-5870
- DSN: 427-5870
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