US Military Power 2012
Report on U.S. Military Power 2012
China Strategic Culture Promotion Association
Chapter Three - National Defense Budget and Weapons R&D and Procurement
I. National Defense Budget
Annual U.S. National Defense budget is prepared for a fiscal year which begins on October 1st and ends on September 30th the following year. The National Defense functions of the federal budget include: DoD military activities; atomic energy defense activities of the Department of Energy; and defense-related activities of other Federal agencies. More specifically, DoD is responsible for budget for DoD military activities which include funding for military personnel, war preparedness, military equipment, R&D, military construction, military housing, etc.; the Department of Energy is responsible for budget for atomic energy defense activities which include the R&D, production and maintenance of nuclear weapons and defense nuclear material, and disposal of defense nuclear waste materials. Government agencies, such as the Selective Service System, Federal Investigation Bureau, and Coast Guard, are responsible for the share of the budget for their defense-related activities.
The overall FY2012 National Defense budget is $690.9 billion, including a $553.1 billion base budget, and a $117.8 billion budget for overseas contingency operations. When compared with that of the previous fiscal year, there is a slight decrease, mainly because the budget for wars in Pakistan and Afghanistan has been reduced by $41.5 billion. In fact, FY2012 National Defense budget has been increased despite a seeming decrease. According to a review in Washington Post, as the core of National Defense budget, the base budget is $553.1 billion, an increase of $4.2 billion from FY2011, and an increase of $25.1billion from FY2010. Compared with FY2001, the base budget has increased by over 80%.
The allocation of the base budget in FY2012 is as follows: functionally, $142.8 billion will go to military personnel, $204.4 billion will go to operation and maintenance, $113 billion to procurement, $75.3 billion to R&D, and $17.6 billion for miscellaneous purposes; accounting respectively for 25.8%, 37%, 20.4%, 13.6%, and 3.2% of the base budget. In light of services and government agencies receiving the fund, the Army receives $144.9 billion, the Navy (including the Marine Corps) $161.4 billion, the Air Force $150 billion, agencies directly affiliated to the DoD and other agencies receive $96.8 billion, accounting respectively for 26.2%, 29.2%, 27.1%, and 17.5% of the base budget.
The allocation of FY2012 National Defense budget has the following characteristics: First, reduction in funding for overseas contingency operations, and increase in base budget. Budget for overseas contingency operations is $117.8 billion, reduced by $41.5 billion from that of FY2011; the base budget is $553.1 billion, increased by $4.2 billion from that of FY2011. Second, increase in funding for operations and maintenance, and reduction in the other areas. When compared with FY2011, funding for procurement in FY2012 is reduced by 0.6%, that for R&D is reduced by 0.4%, and that for miscellaneous purposes is reduced by 0.8%, while funding for military personnel and that for operations and maintenance is increased by 0.8% and 1% respectively. Third, significant cut in Army strength and relatively small cuts in Navy and Air Force. Although both the Army and the Navy has a 0.2% increase in budget allocation in FY2012, the Army will have to be reduced by 80,000 while the Navy and Air Force will be reduced by 6,200 and 4,200 respectively by 2017, as required by the Defense Budget Priorities and Choices. These characteristics show that the National Defense budget allocation is in line with the principle of maintaining combat effectiveness despite budget cuts as required by the strategic guidance document.
II. Weapons R&D and Procurement
There are three characteristics in terms of U.S. weapons R&D and procurement. First, upgrading of conventional weapons has been accelerated. In terms land operations systems, the R&D focuses on tactical command, communications, and individual combat systems. In terms of maritime operations systems, the R&D focuses on maritime platforms for air defense, anti-missile, land attack, and littoral operations. In terms of air operations systems, the R&D focuses on stealth, general-purpose, long-range strike, and operational support equipment. Second, great efforts have been made to develop new types of weaponry and equipment. Several anti-missile interception tests have been conducted. DARPA has issued an announcement for the Foundational Cyberwarfare Project (Plan X) to develop new systems for cyberspace operations and to define network maps. Test flights of hypersonic spacecraft such as X-37B, X-51A, and HTV-2 were conducted several times to improve prompt global strike capabilities. As to unmanned systems, DoD has continued to purchase UAVs such as MQ-9 Reaper which is capable of both reconnaissance and attack, and unmanned combat vehicles; meanwhile, it has stepped up efforts to develop new UAVs and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). Third, DoD has begun nuclear weapons modernization. While it began to improve and extend life cycles of active-service nuclear weapons systems, it is also committed to the R&D of next-generation strategic bombers and long-range standoff weapons. To sum up, the focus of U.S weapons systems development is on networking, stealth, precision, and automation.
Major U.S. weapons and equipment R&D and procurement projects are as follows:
1. Aircraft ($54.2 billion)
DoD continues to purchase F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, V-22 Osprey, F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, EA-18G Growler, etc. The budget for aircraft R&D and procurement keeps growing, reaching $54.2 billion, of which $6.798 billion will be used for modifications, $4.523 billion for support, $4.354 billion for technological development, $17.842 billion for procurement of combat aircraft, $3.881 billion for the procurement of UAVs, $9.317 billion for the procurement of cargo aircraft, and $7.473 billion for the procurement of support aircraft.
MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper: $2.5 billion from FY2012 National Defense base budget is appropriated for the purchase of 84 UAVs. DoD's goal is to field a sufficient number of Predators and Reapers for 50 CSCPA Report on U.S. Military Power 2012 combat air patrols (CAP) by the end of FY 2011, and 65 CAPs by the end of 2013.
RQ-4 Global Hawk: $1.6 billion is appropriated for the purchase of 3 Global Hawks.
RQ-7 Shadow and RQ-11 Raven: Designed to provide ground commanders with reconnaissance capabilities, these UAVs are capable of battlefield surveillance and control, targeting, and damage assessment. $340 million is appropriated for the purchase of 1,272 such UAVs.
C-130J Hercules: A relatively smaller budget, i.e., $1.257 billion, is appropriated for the purchase of 12 C-130Js in FY2012, compared with the purchase of 17 such planes in FY2011.
C-27J Spartan: C-27J is a joint cargo aircraft for intra-theater light-cargo airlift. $599 million is appropriated for the procurement of nine C-27Js in FY2012.
F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: The Joint Strike Fighter Program is rescheduled to strike a balance between cost and time. In FY2012, $9.732 billion is appropriated for 32 F-35 fighters, including seven for the Navy, six for the Marine Corps, and 19 for the Air Force.
JPATS T-6B Texan II: In 2000, the Navy and the Air Force chose T-6 as their Joint Primary Aircraft Training System for training programs designed for pilots and navigators. $274 million is ppropriated in FY2012 for 36 T-6Bs.
V-22 Osprey: $2.971 billion is appropriated for 36 V-22 Ospreys, among which there are 30 MV-22Bs and six CV-22Bs.
AH-64D Apache Block 3: DoD is continuing with the AH-64 Block 3 program which includes upgrading AH-64 Apache and the procurement of the upgraded version. In FY2012, $816 million is appropriated for remanufacturing 19 AH-64s to AH-64Ds. The first new helicopter will be funded in the FY2013 National Defense Budget.
CH-47 Chinook: $1.409 billion is appropriated in FY2012 for the acquisition of 47 aircraft, of which 32 will be newly built aircraft and 15 will be remanufactured/Service Extension Program aircraft.
UH-60 Black Hawk: $1.619 billion is appropriated in FY 2012 for the purchase and R&D of 75 UH-60 Black Hawks.
C-17 Globemaster: In FY012, $539 million is appropriated for modifications of the existing C-17s and continued development and testing of C-17.
KC-X New Tanker: $877 million is appropriated in FY2012 for continued R&D of next-generation KC-X tankers.
F-22 Raptor: In FY2012, $1.064 billion is appropriated for the R&D and upgrading of F-22s for enhanced land-attack capabilities.
E-2D Advanced Hawkeye: In FY2012, $1.386 billion is appropriated for the purchase of six E-2D Advanced Hawkeyes.
F/A-18E/F Super Hornet: In FY2012, $2.662 billion is appropriated for the purchase of 28 F/A-18E/F Super Hornets and for relevant R&D and testing. It is estimated that in FY2013 28 more such aircraft will be purchased.
EA-18G Growler: In FY2012, $1.125 billion is appropriated for the purchase of 12 EA -18G Growlers and for continued R&D and testing of relevant electronics systems and technology. DoD plans to purchase 12 more such aircraft in FY 2013.
P-8A Poseidon: It is the new generation of multi-mission maritime aircraft, capable of anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, surveillance and reconnaissance,
and intelligence gathering. In FY2012, $2.997 billion is appropriated for the purchase of 11 P-8As and continued R&D and testing of the system. DoD plans to purchase 13 more such aircraft in FY2013.
DoD will also purchase four HH-60M Pave Hawks, 24 MH-60R Seahawks, and 18 MH-60Ss.
2. Command, Control, Communications, and Computer System (C4 System, $10.9 billion)
$10.9 billion is appropriated for C4 System in FY2012. Specifically, $8.881 billion is allocated for battlefield command, control, communications, and service; $400 million for automation systems; $91 million for inter-base communications; $799 million for information security, and $745 million for R&D.
JTRS (Joint Tactical Radio System): JTRS was planned in 1997 by DoD to use software to replace hardware for controlling of radio functions. DoD intends to build a family of software-defined radios that could integrate various radio functions. In FY2012, $1.542 billion is used for the design and R&D of simulation for JTRS; and the production of relevant software and hardware has begun.
Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T): WIN-T will provide U.S. troops with Motorola Atrix smartphones for secure battlefield communications, providing the U.S. Army with real-time, high-speed, and highly efficient command, control, communications, intelligence, and reconnaissance. In FY2012, $1.273 billion is appropriated for the R&D of WIN-T.
3. Ground Systems
In FY2012, $16.1 billion is appropriated for ground systems. Specifically, $1.088 billion is appropriated for heavy tactical vehicles, $865 million for medium tactical vehicles, $323 million for light tactical vehicles, $7.859 billion for support equipment, $5.218 billion for combat vehicles, and $723 million for weapons.
Joint Tactical Vehicle Family: In FY2012, $244 million is appropriated for the procurement of joint light vehicles, $448 million for the procurement of 2,422 medium tactical vehicles, and $680 million for the procurement of 1,598 heavy tactical vehicles.
M1A2 Abrams Main Battle Tank: In FY2012, $191 million is appropriated for the upgrading of M1A2 Abrams Main Battle Tanks.
Stryker Family of Armored Vehicle: In FY2012, $834 million is appropriated for 100 Stryker armored fighting vehicles.
4. Missile Defense System($10.6 billion)
Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System: In FY2012, $1.526 billion is appropriated for the system, including updating five Aegis ship-borne combat systems.
Ground-based Midcourse Defense System: This system is used for intercepting long-range ballistic missiles. In FY2012, $1.161 billion is appropriated for the deployment of this system, including the installation of 30 interceptor missiles in a second missile defense field at Fort Greely, Alaska.
Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor System (JLENS): In FY2012, $345 million is appropriated for the development and experiment of this system. It is estimated that the first JLENS will be deployed in the fourth quarter of FY2013.
5. Missiles and Munitions ($11 billion)
In FY2012, $11 billion is appropriated for procurement and R&D of missiles and munitions, including $4.381 billion for conventional munitions, $2.041 billion for strategic missiles, and $4.608 billion for tactical missiles.
The detailed list of the procurement plan includes: 46 SM-3 Block IBs, 89 SM-6s, 24 Trident II D-5 Fleet Ballistic Missiles, 379 AIM-120s, 372 AIM-9X Block IIs, 142 JASSMs, 196 Tomahawk cruise missiles, 266 JSOWs, 100 Small Diameter Bombs, 4,588 Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM), 710 Javelin Advanced Anti-tank Weapons, 802 TOW 2 missiles, 2,994 Guided Multiple Launch Rocket Systems, 35 Evolved Seasparrow Missiles, and 61 Rolling Airframe Missiles (RAM).
6. Shipbuilding and Maritime Systems
In FY2012, $24 billion is appropriated for shipbuilding and maritime systems, including $11.396 billion for surface combatants, $5.969 billion for submarine combatants, $521 million for support ships, $2.857 billion for support, $293 million for outfitting and post delivery, and $3.132 billion for R&D.
Joint High Speed Vessel (JHSV): JHSV is a shipbuilding program dominated by the U.S. Navy. As a critical asset for maritime forces, it is a high-speed shallow draft vessel with high effective payload, designed for transporting troops, military vehicles, goods and equipment across the world. $416 million is appropriated for funding two JHSV ships, one for the Army and the other for the Navy in FY2012.
DDG 51 Aegis Destroyer: In FY2012, $2.08 billion is appropriated for one DDG 51 Aegis Destroyer.
Littoral Combat Ship (LCS): In FY2012, $2.169 billion is appropriated for four LCS seaframes.
The San Antonio Class Amphibious Transport Dock (LPD 17) ships: LPD 17 is the first craft capable of carrying three main equipment—AAAV, LCAC, and MV-22 Osprey—for the Marines for high-speed, long-distance tactical sealifting, and will be the pivot for future naval expeditions. In FY2012, $1.848 billion is appropriated for the final 11th ship and line shutdown.
SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine: In FY2012, $4.955 billion is appropriated for two Virginia Class submarines; two additional ships will be built in FY 2013 and FY2014.
LHA-R Amphibious Assault Ship: As a new-generation large amphibious warfare ship, it is intended to replace the decommissioning TARAWA Class LHA whose service life is expected to end. It is used for power projection and front military presence. In FY2012, $2.02 billion is appropriated for a second LHA-R.
7. Space-Based and Related Systems ($10 billion)
The FY2012 overall space program budget request is $10.2 billion, a 3% increase from that of FY2011, including $2.054 billion for launches, $5.839 billion for atellites, and $2,336 billion for support.
Mobile User Objective System (MUOS): This is the next-generation DoD advanced narrow band Ultra High Frequency (UHF) tactical communications system. In FY2012, $482 million is appropriated for the launch vehicle for satellite #4 and relevant research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT & E).
Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) satellites: they will be a constellation of communications satellites that will replace the existing EHF system MILSTAR satellites launched between 1994 and 2003. The AEHF constellation will provide secure, survivable, anti-jam communications for military users in the U.S., the U.K., Canada, and the Netherlands. A fund of $975 million is provided for SV-1 on-orbit tests and operations, SV-2 launch and on-orbit/operations support, and Mission Control Segment development in FY2012.
Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle: In FY2012, $176 million is appropriated for the procurement of four launch vehicles and associated launch services and support activities.
Global Positioning System: In FY2012, $1.462 billion is appropriated for the maintenance and upgrading of the system.
Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS): IN FY2012 the U.S. Air Force requested $445 million for DWSS, but the FY2012 National Defense Authorization Act appropriates $43 million for the conclusion of DWSS and $125 million for an unspecified follow-on meteorological satellite program.
Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS): This is the next-generation space-based infrared monitoring system developed by the U.S. Air Force.It is also part of the U.S. National Missile Defense System. Its mission includes: early warning for strategic and theatre missiles; and tracking missiles from initial stage to mid-course so as to provide technical information for missile targeting and to improve situational awareness. The system is also a follow-on project to the Defense Support Program (DSP). In FY2012, $995 million is appropriated for relevant procurement and R&D.
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