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ON POINT II: Transition to the New Campaign

The United States Army in Operation IRAQI FREEDOM May 2003-January 2005





Part III

Toward the Objective: Building a New Iraq


Chapter 11
Training the Iraqi Security Forces

 

Notes

1. Anthony Cordesman with William D. Sullivan, “Iraqi Force Development: Can Iraqi Forces Do the Job?” Center for Strategic and International Studies, Revised 29 November 2005, 19.

2. James Zumwalt, “The Iraqi Military’s Achilles’ Heel Is Saddam Hussein: He’s so worried about a rebellion that he has emasculated his own army,” Los Angeles Times, 26 December 2001, B13.

3. Lieutenant Colonel David J. Conboy, An Interview with Lieutenant General Nasier Abadi, Deputy Chief of Staff, Iraqi Joint Forces (Carlisle Barracks, PA: US Army War College, 2005), 7.

4. Lieutenant General David H. Petraeus, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 8 April 2006, 24.

5. Cordesman with Sullivan, 19.

6. Brigadier General Michael Tucker, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 20 January 2006, 5.

7. Major General (Retired) Buford C. Blount III, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 15 February 2006, 13; Lieutenant Colonel Rod A. Coffey, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 8 December 2005, 3; Former Ambassador to Yemen Barbara Bodine, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 15 February 2006, 5.

8. Andrew Rathmell et al., Developing Iraq’s Security Sector, The Coalition Provisional Authority’s Experience (Santa Monica, CA: RAND National Defense Research Institute, 2005), 11.

9. Douglas J. Feith, War and Decision: Inside the Pentagon at the Dawn of the War on Terrorism (New York, NY: Harper, 2008), 367–368.

10. Colonel (Retired) Paul Hughes, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1 March 2006, 10.

11. “News Transcript: Secretary Rumsfeld Interview on NBC Meet the Press,” DefenseLink, 2 November 2003, http://www.defenselink.mil/transcripts/2003/tr20031102-secdef0835.html (accessed 20 June 2006); see also “Walt Slocombe Holds Defense Department News Briefing on Rebuilding the Iraqi Police and Military,” FDCH Political Transcripts (17 September 2003): 1–12.

12. Mr. Walter Slocombe, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 12 September 2006, 9; see also Hughes interview, 1 March 2006, 12; and Colonel (Retired) Gregory Gardner, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 11 September 2006, 2–3.

13. Feith, 427–435.

14. Rathmell et al., 15.

15. Rathmell et al., 17.

16. Between mid-May and the end of June, Slocombe was nominally in charge of all security related issues including both CMATT and CPATT. But de facto, Bernard Kerik reported directly to Ambassador Bremer since Slocombe had no police experience, and the dual chain was soon formalized. Slocombe, interview, 12 September 2006, 3–4.

17. Joint Center for International Security Force Assistance, unpublished briefing slides, “Training Iraqi Security Forces,” Combined Arms Center, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 30 August 2006.

18. “Walt Slocombe Holds Defense Department News Briefing,” 1–12.

19. Lieutenant General David Petraeus, Training Iraqi Security Forces Briefing, 8 August 2006, “Measures of Progress: Force Generation” slide.

20. Rathmell et al., 23.

21. Rathmell et al., 23.

22. Rathmell et al.

23. Cordesman with Sullivan, 28.

24. “Iraq: Three Years, No Exit: Rebuilding Iraq Has Been Tougher Than Expected,” CBS News Online, 13 March 2006, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/03/13/eveningnews/main1397666.shtml (accessed 14 June 2006).

25. Major General (Retired) Paul D. Eaton, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 3 August 2006, 2–3, 13.

26. Slocombe, interview, 12 September 2006, 8; see also Hughes, interview, 1 March 2006, 12; and Gardner, interview, 11 September 2006, 2–3.

27. “CPA Briefing with Major General Paul Eaton, Commander, Coalition Military Assistance and Training Team, RE: Rebuilding Iraq Armed Forces, Location: Baghdad, Iraq, Wednesday, 21 January 2004,” http://www.cpa-iraq.org/transcripts/Jan21_Eaton.html (accessed 21 June 2006).

28. “DRAFT Statement of Work (SOW): New Iraqi Army Training (NIAT),” 7 June 2003, 1.

29. Ambassador L. Paul Bremer, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 20 April 2006, 5.

30. Rathmell et al., 33.

31. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 6–7.

32. “CPA Briefing with Major General Paul Eaton, RE: Rebuilding Iraq Armed Forces.”

33. “CPA Briefing with Major General Paul Eaton, RE: Rebuilding Iraq Armed Forces.”

34. “NIC Brief—SECDEF Version—3 June 2003 DC with Backups,” Draft PowerPoint Presentation provided to Contemporary Operations Study Team by Colonel (Retired) Greg Gardner, OSA Chief of Staff, 11 September 2006; Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 6–7.

35. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 11.

36. Thom Shanker, “US Is Speeding Up Plans for Creating a New Iraqi Army,” New York Times, 18 September 2003, A1.

37. Slocombe, interview, 12 September 2006, 11.

38. Slocombe, interview, 12 September 2006, 11–12.

39. “Vinnell Corp. To Dispatch Team to Iraq Under Contract to Train Army,” CongressDaily (26 June 2003): 13–14.

40. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 8.

41. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 9–10.

42. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 11–12.

43. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 11–12.

44. Shanker, “US Is Speeding Up Plans for Creating a New Iraqi Army,” A1.

45. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 12–14.

46. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 12–14.

47. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 23.

48. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 15.

49. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 16.

50. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 17.

51. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 9.

52. “CPA Press Release: First Battalion of New Iraqi Army Graduates,” 7 October 2003, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/cpa-iraq/daily/archives/01October2003_index.html (accessed 20 June 2006).

53. Lieutenant General Ricardo Sanchez, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 18 August 2006, 6–7; see also Lieutenant Colonel Wesley Odum, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 17 March 2006, 9, 13–14. The term “Iraqi National Guard” was initially rejected by the CPA because it sounded too much like “Republican Guard” from the Saddam regime, though in 2005 the ICDC was renamed the Iraqi National Guard.

54. Rathmell et al., 38.

55. Gardner, interview, 11 September 2006, 5.

56. Slocombe, interview, 12 September 2006, 8.

57. Colonel David Teeples, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 4 November 2005, 14.

58. Colonel James Hickey, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 15 February 2006, 4.

59. “News Transcript: DOD Briefing—Secretary Rumsfeld and Gen. Abizaid,” DefenseLink, 21 August 2003, http://www.defenselink.mil/transcripts/2003/tr20030821-secdef0604.html (accessed 20 June 2006).

60. Rathmell et al., 38.

61. L. Paul Bremer III, My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build a Future of Hope (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2006), 175, see also 150, 168–169, and 182–183.

62. Sanchez, interview, 25 August 2006, 9–10. The ICDC was later incorporated into the NIA in the spring of 2004 when MNSTC-I was formed and the security force mission was given to CJTF-7. In 2004 the ICDC became the Iraqi National Guard, and in 2005 was made part of the Iraqi Army.

63. Coalition Provisional Authority, CPA Order No. 28, “The Establishment of the Iraqi Civil Defense Corps (3 September 2003),” http://www.cpa-iraq.org/regulations/20030903_CPAORD_28_Est_of_the_Iraqi_Civil_Defense_Corps.pdf (accessed 9 January 2008).

64. Aaron D. Boal, “On the Ground: Training Indigenous Forces in Iraq,” in Brian M. De Toy, ed., Turning Victory into Success: Military Operations After the Campaign (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2004), 287–306.

65. Boal, “On the Ground,” in De Toy, ed., Turning Victory into Success, 288–289.

66. Boal, “On the Ground,” in De Toy, ed., Turning Victory into Success, 296.

67. Colonel Mike Repass, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 29 January 2007, 11–13.

68. Cordesman with Sullivan.

69. CMATT Briefing, The New Iraqi Army: Update and Acceleration Plan, 5 September 2003.

70. CMATT Briefing, The New Iraqi Army: Update and Acceleration Plan.

71. CMATT Briefing, The New Iraqi Army: Update and Acceleration Plan.

72. Seth G. Jones et al., Establishing Law and Order After Conflict (Santa Monica, CA: RAND National Defense Research Institute, 2005), 118.

73. Inspectors General Report, US Department of State and US Department of Defense, “Interagency Assessment of Iraq Police Training,” 15 July 2005, Department of State Report No. ISP-IQO-05-72, Department of Defense Report No. IE-2005-002, 19.

74. Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 127.

75. Jones et al., 124, 127.

76. Rathmell et al., 44–47.

77. Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 128–129.

78. Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 152.

79. Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 169, 182.

80. Lieutenant Colonel Blaise Cornell-d’Echert, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 31 October 2006, 6.

81. Captain Christian Solinksy, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 5 July 2006, 4.

82. Inspectors General Report, Department of State Report No. ISP-IQO-05-72, Department of Defense Report No. IE-2005-002, 55–56.

83. Jones et al., 120.

84. Lieutenant Colonel Wesley Gillman, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 7 December 2005, 5.

85. Tucker, interview, 20 January 2006, 5.

86. Major Brian Pearl, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 8 December 2005, 5.

87. 4th Infantry Division, “Press Release #251-03-01: Task Force Iron Horse MP’s and Iraqi Police Go on Joint Raid,” 7 September 2003.

88. Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 186, see also 150, 168–169, and 182–183.

89. Rathmell et al.

90. Rathmell et al., 55.

91. Brigadier General Frank Helmick, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 15 February 2006, 9.

92. Colonel Michael Linnington, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 4 December 2005, 30.

93. Colonel Richard Hatch, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 14 February 2006, 11.

94. Linnington, interview, 4 December 2005, 12.

95. Ariana Eunjung Cha, “Female Officers Cross Cultural Frontier in Iraq; Women on Patrol Near Iran Brave Insults and Disapproval,” Washington Post, 3 January 2004, A01.

96. Lieutenant Colonel Gregory Reilly, e-mail interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 30 May 2006, 7.

97. “Significant Events of Grim Troop, 2/3 ACR during Operation Iraqi Freedom,” 27 January 2004.

98. John J. McGrath, Boots on the Ground: Troop Density in Contingency Operations (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2006), 130. As this work notes, the number of police originally reported was approximately 190,000, but that number was likely far too high because it did not reflect officers who had deserted, were unfit for service, or who had never existed. In mid-2004 the number of police was recalculated and discovered to be around 100,000, 129.

99. Sanchez, interview, 25 August 2006.

100. DRAFT Joint Manning Document Excel Spreadsheet, provided to Contemporary Operations Study Team by Colonel (Retired) Greg Gardner, OSA Chief of Staff, 11 September 2006.

101. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 18.

102. Cornell-d’Echert, interview, 31 October 2006, 8–9.

103. Joint Center for International Security Force Assistance, “Training Iraqi Security Forces” Briefing.

104. Cornell-d’Echert, interview, 31 October 2006, 6.

105. Cornell-d’Echert, interview, 31 October 2006, 9.

106. Cornell-d’Echert, interview, 31 October 2006, 8–9.

107. Lieutenant General Karl Eikenberry, e-mail interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 9 August 2006.

108. Sanchez, interview, 23 August 2006.

109. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 20.

110. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 20–21.

111. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 20.

112. Repass, interview, 29 January 2007, 12, 15.

113. See Matt M. Matthews, Operation AL FAJR: A Study in Army and Marine Corps Joint Operations (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2006), for an account of the second battle of Fallujah.

114. “MNSTC-I ‘ASTs’ Led the Way, Training in Iraqi Fight for Fallujah,” The Advisor, Volume 1, Issue 12, 27 November 2004, 7.

115. “MNSTC-I ‘ASTs’ Led the Way, Training in Iraqi Fight for Fallujah,” 8.

116. Major General John R.S. Batiste and Lieutenant Colonel Paul R. Daniels, “The Fight for Samarra: Full-Spectrum Operations in Modern Warfare,” Military Review, May–June 2005.

117. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 18.

118. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 24.

119. Eaton, interview, 3 August 2006, 24.

120. Petraeus, interview, 4 March 2006, 4.

121. Petraeus, interview, 8 April 2006, 4.

122. Remarks by Lieutenant General David Petraeus, Former Commander, Multi-National Security Transition Command Iraq, to the Center for Strategic and International Studies, “Iraq’s Evolving Forces,” Moderator: Anthony Cordesman, 7 November 2005, 21, http://www.comw.org/warreport/fulltext/0512petraeus.pdf (accessed 8 January 2008).

123. John McGrath, “Iraq Security Forces Order of Battle,” Unpublished manuscript, on file with Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS.

124. Colonel Chris King, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 24 May 2006, 2.

125. Gerry J. Gilmore, “Despite Challenges, Iraqi Forces ‘In the Fight’” DefenseLink, 29 September 2004, http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=25181 (accessed 3 January 2008).

126. The 125,000 figure does not include those security forces that were still in training. Lieutenant General David H. Petraeus, Training Iraqi Security Forces Briefing, 8 August 2006, “Measures of Progress: Force Generation” slide. It was also true that many of these individuals were not still on the roles of active Iraqi units.

127. Lieutenant General David H. Petraeus, Iraqi Security Forces Update as of 27 February 2006 Briefing.

128. King, interview, 24 May 2006, 2.

129. Jeremy M. Sharp and Christopher M. Blanchard, “Post-War Iraq: Foreign Contributions to Training, Peacekeeping, and Reconstruction,” CRS Report for Congress RL32105, updated 6 June 2005, 3.

130. “NATO Expands Training Mission in Iraq,” NTM-I Fact Sheet, 10 February 2005, http://www.afsouth.nato.int/JFCN_Missions/NTM-I/Factsheets/NATO_ExpandsTM.htm (accessed 5 July 2006).

131. Petraeus, interview, 4 March 2006, 18.

132. Petraeus, interview, 4 March 2006, 20.

133. Sharp and Blanchard, 2.

134. “Iraqi Coastal Defence Force Ready to Patrol Iraqi Waters Thanks to Navy,” Australian Government Defence Media Release, CPA 222/04, 1 October 2004.

135. Sharp and Blanchard, 11.

136. This does not count the many thousands of Soldiers involved with IAF train and equip programs who were not strictly classified as advisors. See Joint Center for International Security Force Assistance, “Training Iraqi Security Forces” Briefing.

137. This has been a common trend in US Army history. See Robert D. Ramsey, Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2006).

138. Major Jeffrey Allen, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 5 December 2005, 17.

139. Allen, interview, 5 December 2005, 6.

140. Allen, interview, 5 December 2005, 19–20.

141. Major Mike Sullivan, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 5 May 2006, 5.

142. Major Pete Fedak, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 5 December 2005, 5.

143. Fedak, interview, 5 December 2005, 9.

144. Sullivan, interview, 5 May 2006, 21; see also, Major Robert Dixon, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 10 October 2006, 9.

145. Dixon, interview, 10 October 2006, 10.

146. Fedak, interview, 5 December 2005, 13–14.

147. Inspectors General Report, Department of State Report No. ISP-IQO-05-72, Department of Defense Report No. IE-2005-002, 25, 15.

148. Major Shauna Hauser, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 29 November 2005, 10.

149. Sullivan, interview, 5 December 2005, 9.

150. Remarks by Petraeus to Center for Strategic and International Studies, Former Commander, MNSTC-I, “Iraq’s Evolving Forces,” 7 November 2005, 5.

151. Mr. Henry Ensher, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 26 January 2006, 8–9.

152. Joint Center for International Security Force Assistance, “Training Iraqi Security Forces” Briefing.

153. Colonel Stephan Lanza, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 2 November 2005, 11–12.

154. The following section of this chapter only briefly examines the role of the US Army Reserve’s 98th Division. For a thorough analysis of this unprecedented deployment of the USAR, see Steven Clay, Iroquois Warriors in Iraq (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2007).

155. Major General James Helmly, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 2 December 2006.

156. Helmly, interview, 2 December 2006.

157. Brigadier General Richard Sherlock, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 16 November 2006; Colonel Frank Cipolla, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 20 November 2006.

158. Sherlock, interview, 16 November 2006; Cipolla, interview, 20 November 2006.

159. Sherlock, interview, 16 November 2006.

160. Colonel Doug Shipman, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 3 November 2006.

161. Cipolla, interview, 20 November 2006.

162. Lieutenant General David H. Petraeus, “The 2006 TRADOC/Combat Studies Institute Military History Symposium Keynote Presentation,” in Kendall D. Gott, ed., Security Assistance, U.S. and International Historical Perspectives; The Proceedings of the Combat Studies Institute 2006 Military History Symposium (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2006), 12.

163. Clay, 138.

164. Command Sergeant Major Milt Newsome, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 3 November 2006, 5–6.

165. “Iraq’s 6th Battalion Completes Training, Activates,” DefenseLink, 8 July 2004, http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=25734 (accessed 4 April 2008).

166. Remarks by Petraeus to Center for Strategic and International Studies, Former Commander, MNSTC-I, “Iraq’s Evolving Forces,” 7 November 2005, 8–9.

167. Petraeus, interview, 4 March 2006, 11.

168. Jim Garamone, “Iraqis Adapt British Military Academy as Model,” American Forces Press Services (26 May 2006), http://www.defenselink.mil/news/May2006/20060526_5249.html (accessed 9 June 2006).

169. Chief Petty Officer Joe Kane, “Iraqi Mechanized Brigade Rolls Out Heavy Equipment,” The Advisor, Volume 1, Issue 12, 27 November 2005, 1, 11–12.

170. Technical Sergeant Andrew Hughan, “11 Graduate from First Iraqi Signals Schools,” The Advisor, Volume 2, Issue 4, 22 January 2005.

171. Sergeant Jared Zabaldo, “Iraq Adds First Female Officer to Army’s Medical Corps,” The Advisor, Volume 2, 18 September 2004, 4.

172. Technical Sergeant Andrew Hughan, “Iraqi Mechanized Brigade Assumes Mission,” The Advisor, Volume 2, Issue 3, 15 January 2005; Captain Tim Jeffers, “Iraqi Air Force Takes Off with Aircraft Delivery,” The Advisor, Volume 2 Issue 3, 15 January 2005; also, General Bryan Brown, written comments provided to the Combat Studies Institute, 19 December 2006, on file at Fort Leavenworth, KS.

173. “Special Forces Produce,” The Advisor, Volume 2, Issue 3, 15 January 2005.

174. For one publicly available record of this operation by the Al Hillah unit, see W. Thomas Smith Jr., “In Their Own Hands: An Emerging Iraqi Special-ops Force Works to Get the Bad Guys,” MilitaryPhotos.Net, 12 October 2004, http://www.militaryphotos.net/forums/showthread.php?t=24143 (accessed 18 December 2006). The unit continues to operate in Iraq in 2006.

175. Major Dennis Levesque, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 14 March 2006, 9.

176. Rathmell et al., 39.

177. Specialist Joe Alger, “203rd Iraqi National Guard Battalion Makes Tremendous Progress,” 1st Infantry Division Public Affairs Office, 19 December 2004, http://www.1id.army.mil/1ID/News/December/Article_18/Article_18.htm (accessed 6 July 2006).

178. Colonel J. Mike Murray, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 8 December 2005, 19.

179. Lieutenant Colonel Scott Efflandt, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 14 December 2005, 14.

180. Murray, interview, 8 December 2005, 19.

181. Efflandt, interview, 14 December 2005, 14.

182. Romesh Ratnesar and Paul Quinn-Judge, “Can Iraq Do the Job?” Time, no. 18 (3 May 2004): 35–37.

183. Doug Struck, “Iraqi Security has Come Far, With Far to Go; U.S.-Trained Forces Hit by Defections,” Washington Post, 1 August 2004, A18.

184. Ian Fisher, “Attacks Go On; Bomb Kills 6 Iraqi Officers,” New York Times, 16 December 2003, A1.

185. Lieutenant General David Petraeus, “Office of Security Cooperation” Briefing.

186. Inspectors General Report, Department of State Report No. ISP-IQO-05-72, Department of Defense Report No. IE-2005-002, 25, 15.

187. “Iraq’s 6th Battalion Completes Training,” 1–2.

188. Remarks by Petraeus to Center for Strategic and International Studies, Former Commander, MNSTC-I, “Iraq’s Evolving Forces,” 7 November 2005, 9.

189. Solinksy, interview, 5 July 2006, 8.

190. Solinksy, interview, 5 July 2006, 12.

191. Sergeant Jared Zabaldo, “Iraqi Ministry of Interior Orders Highway Patrol to 6,300 Strong,” The Advisor, Volume 1, Issue 8, 30 October 2004.

192. Inspectors General Report, Department of State Report No. ISP-IQO-05-72, Department of Defense Report No. IE-2005-002, 13. Also, Lieutenant General David Petraeus, written comments provided to the Contemporary Operations Study Team, 9 January 2007, on file with Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS. Also, US Government Accountability Office, GAO Report GAO-05-431T, Rebuilding Iraq: Preliminary Observations on the Challenges in Transferring Security Responsibilities to Iraqi Military and Police, 14 March 2005.

193. “Iraqi Police Commandos take Fight to Insurgents,” The Advisor, Volume 1, Issue 16, 25 December 2004.

194. Petraeus, written comments, 9 January 2007.

195. Houser, interview, 29 November 2005, 6.

196. Hauser, interview, 29 November 2005, 6.

197. Chief Petty Officer Joe Kane, “Iraq’s Border Enforcement Department Graduates First Cadets,” The Advisor, Volume 1, Issue 4, 2 October 2004, 5.

198. Petraeus, “Keynote Presentation,” in Gott, ed., Security Assistance, U.S. and International Historical Perspectives.

199. Petraeus, “Keynote Presentation,” in Gott, ed., Security Assistance, U.S. and International Historical Perspectives.

200. Chief Petty Officer Joe Kane, “Iraqi Border Forts Strengthen Security at More than 300 Locations,” The Advisor, Volume 1, Issue 5, 9 October 2004.

201. Major Lars Hyrup and Captain Piotr Siemienski (Polish Army), MND-CS Press Release, 28 October 2004, http://republika.pl/piomndcs/MND%20CS%20News/IBP.htm.

202. US Government Accountability Office, GAO Report GAO-04-902R, Rebuilding Iraq: Resource, Security, Governance, Essential Services, and Oversight Issues, 28 June 2004.

203. Allen, interview, 5 December 2005,17.

204. Petraeus, interview, 4 March 2006, 6.

205. Petraeus, interview, 4 March 2006, 25.

206. Hatch, interview, 14 February 2006, 4.

207. Hatch, interview, 14 February 2006, 10.

208. Remarks by Petraeus to Center for Strategic and International Studies, Former Commander, MNSTC-I, “Iraq’s Evolving Forces,” 7 November 2005, 22.

209. Levesque, interview, 14 March 2006, 5.

210. Petraeus, interview, 4 March 2006, 12.

211. Hauser, interview, 29 November 2005, 7.

212. Technical Sergeant Andrew Hughan, “Kitchen Serves Thousands of Iraqi Soldiers,” The Advisor, Volume 2, Issue 3, 15 January 2005.

213. “Unit Responsible for Training Iraqi Forces Changes Command,” American Forces Press Service, 8 September 2005.

214. Petraeus, interview, 8 April 2006, 26.

215. General George W. Casey Jr., interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 27 November 2007, 12.

216. Jackie Spinner and Bassam Septi, “Militant Declares War on Iraqi Vote,” Washington Post, 24 January 2005, A01.

217. “Special Defense Department Briefing on Iraq Security Forces.” DefenseLink, 4 February 2005, http://www.defenselink.mil/transcripts/2005/tr20050204-0283.html (accessed 7 October 2006). Presenter: Lieutenant General David Petraeus, Commander, MNSTC-I.

218. Specialist Brian Schroeder, “Iraqi Troops Risk Lives for Elections, 10th Mountain Division News Release, CAMP LIBERTY, BAGHDAD, Iraq,” Defend America, http://www.defendamerica.mil/articles/jan2005/.

219. Major General (Retired) John R. Batiste, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 20 April 2006, 7–8.

220. Lieutenant Colonel Steven Bullimore, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 18 May 2006, 13, 15.

221. Casey, interview, 27 November 2007, 12.


Chapter 11. Training the Iraqi Security Forces





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