Find a Security Clearance Job!

Military



ON POINT II: Transition to the New Campaign

The United States Army in Operation IRAQI FREEDOM May 2003-January 2005





Part III

Toward the Objective: Building a New Iraq


Chapter 9
The US Army and the Reconstruction of Iraq

 

Notes

1. Colonel Gregg F. Martin, “Victory Sappers: V Corps/CJTF-7 Engineers in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Part 2: Since the Liberation. . . .” Engineer, October–December 2003, 6.

2. See Garland H. Williams, Engineering Peace: The Military Role in Postconflict Reconstruction (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 2005).

3. L. Paul Bremer III, My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build a Future of Hope (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2006), 114.

4. Scott Wilson, “A Different Street Fight in Iraq; U.S. General Turns to Public Works in Battle for Hearts and Minds,” Washington Post, 27 May 2004, A01.

5. Coalition Provisional Authority, CPA Vision Statement, 13 July 2003, 9.

6. CPA Vision Statement, 13 July 2003, 9.

7. Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 115.

8. Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 117.

9. Joint Publication (JP) 3-57, Joint Doctrine for Civil-Military Operations (Washington, DC, 8 February 2001), 1-1.

10. JP 3-57, viii.

11. Sandra I. Erwin, “As Demands for Nation-Building Troops Soar, Leaders Ponder Reorganization,” National Defense, May 2005, Volume 89, Issue 618, 20; Ariana Eunjung Cha, “Soldiering On to Rebuild Iraq; Civil Affairs Takes on Tough Task,” Washington Post, 12 February 2004, A13.

12. Chapter 2, “Civil-Military Operations,” CALL Newsletter 04-13: Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), CAAT II Initial Impressions Report (IIR) (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Center for Army Lessons Learned, May 2004), 22.

13. Army Corps of Engineers, Gulf Region Division, http://www.grd.usace.army.mil/ divisioninfo/GRDbrochure4_26.pdf.

14. Robert B. Flowers, “Army Engineers: Supporting the Warfighters and Reconstruction Efforts,” Army, October 2004, Volume 54, Issue 10, 185.

15. Martin, “Victory Sappers,” 4–5.

16. Martin, “Victory Sappers,” 8.

17. Keith A. Dotts, “The 420th Engineer Brigade: Builders in Battle,” Engineer, April/June 2005, Volume 35, Issue 2, 24.

18. Colonel Lou Marich, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 10 April 2006, 4.

19. Marich, interview, 10 April 2006, 4.

20. 555th Combat Engineer Group, 555 History Main Body, 18 February 2004, 13–14.

21. 555 History Main Body, 18 February 2004, 14.

22. Colonel Don C. Young, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 10 April 2006, 3.

23. Young, interview, 10 April 2006, 3.

24. Chapter 2, “Civil-Military Operations,” CALL Newsletter 04-13.

25. Lieutenant General David H. Petraeus, “Learning Counterinsurgency: Observations from Soldiering in Iraq,” Military Review, January–February 2006, 6.

26. Lieutenant General David H. Petraeus, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 17 February 2006, 7.

27. Petraeus, interview, 17 February 2006, 7.

28. Major Christopher Bentch, CA Journal Entries by Major Christopher Bentch, 3BCT S-5, 28 June 2003, entry 14.

29. Bentch, CA Journal Entries, 3BCT S-5, 3 June 2003, entry 9.

30. Colonel Michael Toner, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 24 May 2006, 3; CJTF-7, C8 Resource Management, Commander’s Emergency Response Program (CERP) Briefing, slide 3.

31. Toner, interview, 24 May 2006, 2; CJTF-7, C8 Resource Management, CERP Briefing, slide 10.

32. Toner, interview, 24 May 2006, 4.

33. Toner, interview, 24 May 2006, 3; CJTF-7, C8 Resource Management, CERP Briefing, slide 13.

34. Toner, interview, 24 May 2006, 3; CJTF-7, C8 Resource Management, CERP Briefing, slide 13; Draft Coalition Provisional Authority Memorandum, Subject Commander’s Emergency Response Program (CERP), undated.

35. Toner, interview, 24 May 2006, 4.

36. Public Law 108-106, Section 1110—6 November 2003, 117 Statute 1215, http://www.export.gov/iraq/pdf/public_law_108-116.pdf.

37. Brigadier General David Blackledge, 352d Civil Affairs Command, “Department of Defense Press Conference Transcript,” DefenseLink, 14 January 2004, http://www.defenselink.mil/transcripts/2004/tr20040114-1144.html (accessed 9 October 2006).

38. Toner, interview, 24 May 2006, 4–5; Philippe Le Billion, “Corruption, Reconstruction, and Oil Governance in Iraq,” Third World Quarterly, 2005, Volume 26, No. 4–5, 696; and CJTF-7, C8 Resource Management, CERP Briefing, slide 15.

39. “Reconstructing Iraq,” International Crisis Group, Middle East, Report No. 30, 2 September 2004, 18.

40. Bentch, CA Journal Entries, 3BCT S-5, 18 July 2003, entry 18.

41. Office of the Inspector General, Coalition Provisional Authority, Report to Congress, 30 October 2004, 69.

42. Major Robert S. Widmann, “The Commander’s Emergency Response Program, Part II,” in OnPoint: A Counter-Terrorism Journal for Military and Law Enforcement Professionals, http://www.uscav.com/uscavonpoint/Print.aspx?id=169 (accessed 27 April 2006).

43. Lieutenant Colonel Brian McKiernan, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 29 April 2006, 10.

44. Widmann, “The Commander’s Emergency Response Program, Part II.”

45. George Packer, The Assassins’ Gate: America in Iraq (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005), 241; “Reconstructing Iraq,” ICG, Report No. 30, 18.

46. Lieutenant Colonel George Sarabia, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 23 September 2005, 19.

47. Colonel Frederick Rudesheim, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 4 November 2005, 8.

48. Petraeus, “Learning Counterinsurgency,” 4.

49. “3d Infantry Division Live Briefing from Iraq,” DefenseLink, 15 May 2003, http://www.defenselink.mil/transcripts/2003/tr20030515-0184.html (accessed 5 September 2006).

50. Staff Sergeant Marcia Triggs, “3ID Winning Hearts with TF Neighbor,” Army News Service, 19 May 2003.

51. Major Gerald H. Green, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 12 April 2006, 3.

52. Colonel Russell Gold, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 25 January 2006, 10.

53. Colonel Ralph Baker, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1 November 2005, 14.

54. Lieutenant General Raymond Odierno, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 14 December 2005, 9.

55. Odierno, interview, 14 December 2005, 9.

56. Rudesheim, interview, 4 November 2005, 8.

57. Petraeus, interview, 18 March 2006, 14; Brigadier General Frank Helmick, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 15 December 2006, 12.

58. Specialist Joshua Hutcheson, “Engineers Teach Construction Projects to Former Iraqi Soldiers,” Iraqi Destiny—101st Airborne Newsletter, 25 September 2003, Volume 1, Issue 41.

59. Major General Charles Swannack, 82d Airborne Division Closure Report, Summation of Dollars Spent.

60. Swannack, 82d ABN Closure Report, Summation of Dollars Spent.

61. Major General Charles H. Swannack Jr., interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 6 September 2006, 10.

62. Swannack, interview, 6 September 2006, 9.

63. Sergeant First Class Gary L. Qualls Jr., “Guardsmen Give Iraqi Fishermen Means to ‘Net’ Long Forbidden Treasure,” Desert Rifles, Issue 2, 16 May 2003.

64. Colonel Stephen Lanza, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 2 November 2005, 11.

65. Quoted in Specialist Erik LeDrew, “Artillery Troops Plant Seeds of Reconstruction in Iraq,” DefenseLink, October 2004, http://www.defendamerica.mil/articles/oct2004/a101504d.html (accessed 12 September 2006).

66. Major General Peter Chiarelli and Major Patrick R. Michaelis, “Winning the Peace: The Requirement for Full-Spectrum Operations,” Military Review, July–August 2005, 10.

67. Chiarelli and Michaelis, 10.

68. Patrecia Slayden Hollis, “1st Cav in Baghdad: Counterinsurgency EBO in Dense Urban Terrain. Interview with Major General Peter W. Chiarelli,” Field Artillery, September–October 2005, 5.

69. Office of the Special Inspector General for Iraqi Reconstruction, Baghdad Municipal Solid Waste Landfill, SIGIR PA-06-067, 19 October 2006, 9–10, http://www.sigir.mil/reports/pdf/assessments/PA-06-067_Baghdad_Landfill.pdf (accessed 8 December 2007).

70. Chiarelli and Michaelis, 11.

71. Chiarelli and Michaelis, 12.

72. Major General John Batiste, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 20 April 2006, 9.

73. Master Sergeant Luis Jackson Jr., interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 25 January 2006, 7.

74. Brigadier General Dana Pittard, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 22 February 2006, 18.

75. Specialist Ismail Turay Jr., “1st Infantry Division Boosts Power Plants’ Output, Local Economy,” Danger Forward, Volume 1, Issue 7, October 2004.

76. First Sergeant Richard Gano Jr., interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 26 January 2006, 6.

77. Major Webster M. Wright III, “Soldiers Blanket Iraqis in Operation Windy City,” DefenseLink, November 2004, http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Nov2004/n11022004_2004110206.html (accessed October 2006).

78. These statistics can be found in MNC-I/MNF-I History Office, History of CJTF-7, Executive Summary, 5.

79. Lieutenant Colonel Gregory Reilly, e-mail interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 23 June 2006; Major Chris Dantoin, e-mail interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 28 April 2006; 432d Civil Affairs Battalion, For CG, Iraq’s State Company For Phosphate (SCP) Al Qa’im, Iraq, 25 January 2004, 1.

80. Reilly, e-mail interview, 23 June 2006.

81. 432d CA Battalion, For CG, Iraq’s State Company For Phosphate (SCP), Al Qa’im, 30 January 2004, bullet comments, 1.

82. Reilly, e-mail interview, 23 June 2006.

83. Dantoin, e-mail interview, 28 April 2006.

84. Reilly, e-mail interview, 23 June 2006; Dantoin, e-mail interview, 28 April 2006.

85. 432d Civil Affairs Battalion, SCP Rail Projection, undated document.

86. Reilly, e-mail interview, 23 June 2006; Dantoin, e-mail interview, 28 April 2006.

87. Dantoin, e-mail interview, 28 April 2006.

88. Dantoin, e-mail interview, 28 April 2006.

89. Dantoin, e-mail interview, 28 April 2006.

90. 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment, SCP Progress/Update Brief, 28 February 2004, Rifles Base, slide 8.

91. Major Kris Arnold, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1 April 2005, 11–12.

92. Thomas F. Armistead et al., “Reviewing Markets: Oil, Water and More in Practically Every Sector, the Lack of Security Hampers Reconstruction Efforts,” ENR, 9 June 2003, Volume 250, Issue 22.

93. Stuart W. Bowen Jr., Office of the Coalition Provisional Authority Inspector General, Report to Congress, 30 March 2004, 5.

94. Sergeant Major Kevin Gainey, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Hood, TX, 9 December 2005.

95. Chiarelli and Michaelis, 11. Chiarelli and Michaelis also explain that, due to overpopulation, rapid urban growth, and intentional neglect by Saddam Hussein, many parts of Baghdad proper never had existing basic services.

96. Lieutenant Colonel Wes Gillman, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Washington, DC, 7 December 2005.

97. Neil King Jr., “Power Struggle: Race to Get Lights on in Iraq Shows Perils of Reconstruction,” Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), 2 April 2001, A1.

98. Henry Ensher, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Washington, DC, 26 January 2006.

99. Ensher, interview, 26 January 2006.

100. Joseph A. Christoff, Director, International Trade Division of the Government Accountability Office (GAO), testimony before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, “Rebuilding Iraq: Enhancing Security, Measuring Program Results, and Maintaining Infrastructure Are Necessary to Make Significant and Sustainable Progress,” 18 October 2005, 8.

101. Thomas F. Armistead, Glen Carey, and Gary Tulacz, “Contractor Fatalities Prompt Suspension of Work in Iraq,” ENR, 8 December 2003, Volume 251, Issue 23, 18.

102. Armistead, Carey, and Tulacz, 18.

103. Christoff, testimony before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 14–15.

104. United States Government Accountability Office, GAO Report GAO-05-43T, Rebuilding Iraq: Preliminary Observations on Challenges in Transferring Security Responsibilities to Iraqi Military and Police, 14 March 2005, 10.

105. Steven M. Kosiak, “Iraq Reconstruction: Without Additional Funding, Progress Likely to Fall Short, Undermining War Effort,” Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, 27 February 2006, 3.

106. State Department, Section 2207: Report on Iraq Relief and Reconstruction, Executive Summary, October 2004, 14.

107. Between April 2003 and January 2005, 157 civilian contractors were killed in Iraq according to http://icasualties.org/oif/Civ.aspx; Michael E. O’Hanlon and Adriana Lins de Albuquerque, “Iraq Index: Tracking Variables of Reconstruction & Security in Post-Saddam Iraq, Updated April 18, 2005,” The Brookings Institution, www.brookings.edu/iraqindex (accessed 18 December 2006).

108. Armistead et al., 18.

109. US Special Inspector General for Iraqi Reconstruction, Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to Congress, 30 January 2005, 59.

110. Christoff, testimony before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, figure 2, 10.

111. Office of the Special Inspector General for Iraqi Reconstruction, Baghdad Municipal Solid Waste Landfill, SIGIR PA-06-067, 19 October 2006, 13, http://www.sigir.mil/reports/pdf/assessments/PA-06-067_Baghdad_Landfill.pdf. (accessed 8 December 2007).

112. Major General (Retired) John Batiste, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Rochester, NY, 20 April 2006, 12.

113. Josh White, “Town Reflect Rising Sabotage in Iraq,” The Washington Post, 9 December 2004, A01.

114. White, A01.

115. Le Billion, 688–689.

116. Colonel Mike Murray, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 8 December 2005, 12.

117. “Reconstructing Iraq,” ICG, Report No. 30, 22.

118. “Reconstructing Iraq,” ICG, Report No. 30, 20.

119. “Reconstructing Iraq,” ICG, Report No. 30, 20.

120. SIGIR, Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to Congress, 30 July 2004, 45.

121. SIGIR, Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to Congress, 30 July 2004, 30 October 2004, 50.

122. See, for example, CPA Inspector General, First Quarterly Report to Congress, 30 March 2004, 44.

123. Brigadier General David Perkins, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 25 January 2006, 8–9.

124. Perkins, interview, 25 January 2006, 8–9.

125. Perkins, interview, 25 January 2006, 8–9.

126. Colonel Daniel Allyn, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 4 November 2005, 11.

127. Colonel Joseph Anderson, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 4 November 2005, 13–14.

128. Colonel Michael Linnington, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 3 November 2005, 15.

129. Linnington, interview, 3 November 2005, 15.

130. GAO Report GAO-05-431T, 4.

131. General George W. Casey Jr., interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 27 November 2007, 5–6.

132. Petraeus, interview, 18 March 2006, 3.

133. Chiarelli and Michaelis, 10.

134. Chiarelli and Michaelis, 12.

135. Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Section 2207, Second Quarterly Report, 5 April 2004, 11, http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/legislative/index.html (accessed 18 January 2008).

136. Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Section 2207, Third Quarterly Report, 2 July 2004, 11–12, http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/legislative/index.html (accessed 18 January 2008).

137. SIGIR, Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to Congress, 30 January 2005, 1.

138. SIGIR, Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to Congress, 30 January 2005, 1

139. Paul V. Kelly, Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, Section 2207, Quarterly Report, Executive Summary, 5 October 2004, http://www.state.gov/s/d/rm/rls/2207/oct2004/html/ (accessed 18 January 2008).

140. SIGIR, Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to Congress, 30 January 2005, 75.

141. SIGIR, Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to Congress, 30 January 2005, 75.


Chapter 9. The US Army and the Reconstruction of Iraq





NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list