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ON POINT II: Transition to the New Campaign

The United States Army in Operation IRAQI FREEDOM May 2003-January 2005





Part II

Transition to a New Campaign


Chapter 8
Combined Arms Operations in Iraq

 

Notes

1. 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized), Lessons Learned: Executive Summary, 17 June 2004, 66.

2. Michael R. Gordon, “US Re-evaluates ‘iron-fisted’ Strategy in Iraq,” New York Times, 7 August 2003, A1.

3. Kenneth W. Estes, “Command Narrative: 1st Armored Division in Operation IRAQI FREEDOM, May 2003–July 2004,” Unpublished study, 78. These operations were IRON DIG, SCORPION STING, IRON MOUNTAIN, IRON BOUNTY, LONGSTREET, CROSSBOW, IRON HAMMER, IRON JUSTICE, IRON GRIP, IRON RESOLVE, and IRON PROMISE.

4. Robert O. Babcock, Operation Iraqi Freedom I: A Year in the Sunni Triangle (Tuscaloosa, AL: St John’s Press, 2005), 279. These operations were PENINSULA STRIKE, DESERT SCORPION, SIDEWINDER, IVY SERPENT, IVY NEEDLE, IVY FOCUS, IVY TYPHOON I and II, IVY CYCLONE, IVY BLIZZARD, and IVY TYPHOON III.

5. CJTF-7, OIF Smart Card 1 (20 December 2003) and OIF Smart Card 4 (2 January 2004). These documents remain classified as For Official Use Only (FOUO) as of the writing of this study.

6. See, for example, the briefing entitled 3d Corps Support Command, Enemy Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTP) and Recommendations created in 2004. This document remains classified FOUO as of the writing of this study.

7. US Government Accountability Office, GAO Report GAO-05-431T, “Rebuilding Iraq: Preliminary Observations on the Challenges in Transferring Security Responsibilities to Iraqi Military and Police,” 14 March 2005, 10; Estes, 124.

8. Estes, 125.

9. Estes, 55.

10. 4th ID (Mech), Lessons Learned: Executive Summary, 68.

11. 4th ID (Mech), Lessons Learned: Executive Summary, 68.

12. 4th ID (Mech), Lessons Learned: Executive Summary, 69–70.

13. Captain Roger M. Stevens and Major Kyle J. Marsh, “3/2 S BCT and the Countermortar Fight in Mosul,” Field Artillery, January–February 2005, 36.

14. Stevens and Marsh, 36.

15. Estes, 87.

16. 173d Airborne Brigade, The AMB PENINSULA STRIKE Briefing, 6 June 2003, slide 15.

17. 173d ABN, AMB PENINSULA STRIKE Briefing, slide 15.

18. Colonel Dominic Caracillo, Commander, 2-503d Airborne Infantry Regiment, excerpts from personal journal, 8–13 June 2003 entry.

19. 173d ABN, AMB PENINSULA STRIKE Briefing, slide 15.

20. 173d ABN, AMB PENINSULA STRIKE Briefing, slide 15.

21. Colonel Philip Battaglia, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 13 December 2006, 10.

22. Battaglia, interview, 13 December 2006, 12.

23. Battaglia, interview, 13 December 2006, 10.

24. Sergeant First Class Todd Oliver, “Soldiers attacked While on Operation Peninsula Strike,” USAREUR Public Affairs, 18 June 2003, http://www.hqusareur.army.mil/htmlinks/Press_Releases/2003/Jun2003/18Jun2003-01.htm (accessed 20 February 2007).

25. Caracillo, journal excerpts concerning Operation PENINSULA STRIKE. See also, “4th Infantry Division and Task Force ‘Ironhorse’ Conclude Operation Peninsula Strike,” Defend America, 14 June 2003, http://www.defendamerica.mil/iraq/update/june2003/iu061703.html (accessed 13 October 2006).

26. “4th ID and TF ‘Ironhorse’ Conclude Operation Peninsula Strike.”

27. Kathleen T. Rhem, “Pentagon Leaders Describe Offensive Operations in Iraq,” DefenseLink, 29 July 2003, http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Jul2003/n07292003_200307295.html (accessed 13 October 2006).

28. Gordon, “US Re-evaluates ‘iron-fisted’ Strategy in Iraq,” A1.

29. Gordon, “US Re-evaluates ‘iron-fisted’ Strategy in Iraq,” A1.

30. Gordon, “US Re-evaluates ‘iron-fisted’ Strategy in Iraq,” A1.

31. Lieutenant Colonel George Sarabia, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 25 September 2005, 28.

32. L. Paul Bremer III, My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build a Future of Hope (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2006), 319.

33. Estes, 131.

34. Estes, 131.

35. Estes, 134.

36. Estes, 137.

37. 2d (IRON) Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, Striker Scimitar: The Battle for Al-Kut, 8 April 04–11 April 04 Briefing, slide 3.

38. David Stokes, “Taking stock,” Middle Eastern Quarterly, http://www.meforum.org/pf.php?id=669 (accessed 22 June 2006).

39. Striker Scimitar: The Battle for Al-Kut, 8 April 04–11 April 04, slide 6.

40. Striker Scimitar: The Battle for Al-Kut, 8 April 04–11 April 04, 1–2.

41. Terry Boyd, “Bronze Star Recipient Led to Stunning Victory,” Stars & Stripes, European Edition, 14 June 2005, http://www.estripes.com/article.asp?section=104&article=28917&archive=true (accessed 28 February 2007).

42. Striker Scimitar: The Battle for Al-Kut, 8 April 04–11 April 04, 1–2.

43. Striker Scimitar: The Battle for Al-Kut, 8 April 04–11 April 04, 1–2.

44. Captain Nathaniel Crow, e-mail interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 4 December 2006, 3.

45. Crow, e-mail interview, 4 December 2006, 3.

46. Crow, e-mail interview, 4 December 2006, 3.

47. Striker Scimitar: The Battle for Al-Kut, 8 April 04–11 April 04, slide 18.

48. “Coalition Working to Pacify Fallujah, Destroy Sadr Militia,” DefenseLink, 8 April 2004, http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Apr2004/n04082004_200404081.html (accessed 19 October 2004).

49. 3d Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division, FRAGO 1 to 3 BCT OPORD 04-13, 09 April 2004.

50. 3d BCT, 1st ID, FRAGO 1 to 3 BCT OPORD 04-13, 09 April 2004.

51. Task Force Danger, Operation DANGER FORTITUDE Briefing, 12 April 2004, slide 7.

52. 3d BCT, 1st ID, FRAGO 1 to 3 BCT OPORD 04-13, 09 April 2004.

53. Colonel Dana Pittard, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 22 February 2006, 8–9.

54. Pittard, interview, 22 February 2006, 50–51.

55. Major Chris Budihas, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 31 January 2006, 7.

56. Budihas, interview, 31 January 2006, 8.

57. Quoted in Alistair Lyon, “Tension Eases in Two Iraqi Flashpoint Cities,” Reuters, 20 April 2004, http://www.strykernews.com/archives/2004/04/20/tension_eases_in_two_iraqi_flashpoint_cities.html (accessed 20 October 2006).

58. Estes, 141.

59. Estes, 145.

60. Estes, 141.

61. US Department of State, “Najaf/Samarra Reconstruction Effort, Questions Taken at November 12, 2004,” Daily Press Briefing, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2004/38162.htm (accessed 8 January 2008).

62. General George W. Casey Jr., interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 27 November 2007, 5–6.

63. Major General John R.S. Batiste, and Lieutenant Colonel Paul R. Daniels, “The Fight for Samarra: Full-Spectrum Operations in Modern Warfare,” Military Review, May–June 2005, 15, http://usacac.leavenworth.army.mil/CAC/milreview/English/MayJun05/MayJun05/bat.pdf (accessed 14 May 2007).

64. 1st Infantry Division, Operation Iraqi Freedom-Samarra: An Iraqi Success Briefing, 4 October 2004, slide 23; Batiste and Daniels.

65. 1st ID, OIF—Samarra: An Iraqi Success Briefing, 4 October 2004, slide 24; Batiste and Daniels, 15.

66. 1st ID, OIF—Samarra: An Iraqi Success Briefing, 4 October 2004, slide 17.

67. 1st ID, OIF—Samarra: An Iraqi Success Briefing, 4 October 2004, slide 17.

68. Sergeant First Class Chuck Joseph, “‘Duty First’ Soldiers Conduct Cajun Mousetrap III in Iraq,” USAREUR Public Affairs News Release, 16 August 2004, http://www.hqusareur.army.mil/htmlinks/Press_Releases/2004/Aug2004/16Aug2004-02.htm (accessed 14 May 2007).

69. Sergeant Major Ron Pruyt, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 25 August 2006, 17.

70. 1st Infantry Division, Task Force Danger Press Release, 15 August 2004, 3, http://www.1stid.org/about/pressreleases/tfdanger_pr081504.pdf (accessed 22 May 2007).

71. Batiste and Daniels, 19.

72. Batiste and Daniels, 19.

73. 1st ID, OIF—Samarra: An Iraqi Success Briefing, 4 October 2004, slide 30 and notes pages.

74. Major James L. Anderson, 2d Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division (Light), OIF Historical Account Submission #35, 10–16 October 2005, 2.

75. Anderson, 2d BCT, 25th ID (Light), OIF Historical Account Submission #35, 10–16 October 2005, 5.

76. Major James L. Anderson, 2d Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division (Light), OIF Historical Account Submission #44a (Samarra Supplemental), 2–3.

77. Anderson, 2d BCT, 25th ID (Light), OIF Historical Account Submission #44a (Samarra Supplemental), 4–5.

78. “U.S., Iraqi Troops Strike Samarra Insurgents,” American Forces Press Service, 1 October 2004, http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=25169 (accessed 1 June 2007).

79. Sergeant Major Cory McCarty, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 24 May 2006, 10.

80. Batiste and Daniels, 13.

81. 1st Infantry Division DTAC, Samarra OPSUMs, 02–04 October 2004.

82. Patrecia Slayden Hollis, “Task Force Danger in OIF II: Preparing a Secure Environment for the Iraqi National Elections,” Field Artillery, July–August 2005, 4–5.

83. Major Barrett Bernard, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 26 January 2006, 14.

84. Sergeant W. Wayne Marlow, “Samarra Adjusts to Life After Insurgents,” Danger Forward, Volume 1, Issue 8 (November 2004), 13, http://www.1id.army.mil/1ID/Danger_Forward/Documents/Danger_Forward_Nov.pdf (accessed 6 July 2007).

85. “Coalition Provisional Authority, Police Academy Commencement, Baghdad, April 1, 2004,” CPA Official Web site, http://www.iraqcoalition.org/transcripts/20040401_bremer_police.html (accessed 5 July 2006).

86. Lieutenant General John F. Sattler and Lieutenant Colonel Daniel H. Wilson, “Operation AL FAJR: The Battle of Fallujah—Dousing the Bright Ember of the Insurgency,” Marine Corps Gazette, July 2005, 14.

87. Major General Richard Natonski, Operation Al Fajr: The Battle for Fallujah Briefing, slide 10.

88. Sattler and Wilson, 14.

89. Lieutenant General Thomas F. Metz et al., “Massing Effects in the Information Domain: A Case Study in Aggressive Information Operations,” Military Review, May–June 2006, 8.

90. Metz et al., “Massing Effects in the Information Domain,” 8.

91. Sattler and Wilson, 14.

92. Matt M. Matthews, Operation AL FAJR: A Study in Army and Marine Corps Joint Operations (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2006), 40.

93. Natonski, Operation Al Fajr: The Battle for Fallujah Briefing, slide 9.

94. Natonski, Operation Al Fajr: The Battle for Fallujah Briefing, slide 15.

95. Matthews, 14.

96. Matthews, 14.

97. Sattler and Wilson, 21.

98. Matthews, 2.

99. Official estimates suggested that less than 500 civilians, less than 1 percent of the city’s population, remained in Fallujah when the assault began in early November. Sattler and Wilson, 16.

100. Casey, interview, 27 November 2007, 7–8. See also, Jim Garamone, “Iraqi, US Troops Begin ‘Al Fajr’ Operation in Fallujah,” DefenseLink, 8 November 2004, http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Nov2004/n11082004_2004110805.html (accessed 23 October 2006).

101. Sattler and Wilson, 18–20.

102. Lieutenant Colonel Peter A. Newell, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 23 March 2006, 11.

103. Staff Sergeant David Bellavia, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 27 July 2006, 13.

104. Bellavia, interview, 27 July 2006, 14.

105. Matthews, 45.

106. Matthews, 64.

107. Captain Chris Brooke, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1 May 2006, 9.

108. Brooke, interview, 1 May 2006, 10.

109. Matthews, 48.

110. Matthews, 49–51, 79–80.

111. Lieutenant Colonel James Rainey, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 19 April 2006, 21.

112. Quoted in Matthews, 83.

113. Sergeant Jared Zabaldo, “MNSTC-I’s ASTs Led Way, Training in Iraqi Fight for Fallujah,” The Advisor, 27 November 2004, 6.

114. Lieutenant General Richard F. Natonski, e-mail correspondence with Matt Matthews, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 12 February 2007.

115. Natonski, e-mail correspondence, 12 February 2007.

116. Zabaldo, “MNSTC-I’s ASTs Led Way,” 7.

117. Patrecia Slayden Hollis, “Second Battle of Fallujah: Urban Operations in a New Kind of War, Interview with Lieutenant General John Sattler,” Field Artillery, March–April 2006, 4.

118. Hollis, “Second Battle of Fallujah: Urban Operations in a New Kind of War,” 9.

119. Hollis, “Second Battle of Fallujah: Urban Operations in a New Kind of War,” 9.

120. Donna Miles, “Fallujah Reconstruction Effort to Begin Soon,” DefenseLink, 19 November 2004, http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Nov2004/n11192004_2004111909.html (accessed 24 October 2006).


Chapter 8. Combined Arms Operations in Iraq





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