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ON POINT II: Transition to the New Campaign

The United States Army in Operation IRAQI FREEDOM May 2003-January 2005





Part II

Transition to a New Campaign


Chapter 7
Fighting the Battle of Ideas in Iraq

 

Notes

1. “Insurgents Caught After Attack on US Embassy in Iraq,” DefenseLink, 30 January 2005, http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=24225 (accessed 20 February 2008).

2. Major General Peter Chiarelli and Major Patrick R. Michaelis, “Winning the Peace: The Requirement for Full-Spectrum Operations,” Military Review, July–August 2005, 15.

3. Field Manual (FM) 3-13, Information Operations: Doctrine, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (Washington, DC, 28 November 2003), 1-13.

4. Sergeant Major Herb Friedman (Retired), “Deception and Disinformation,” http://www.psywarrior.com/DeceptionH.html (accessed 12 July 2006).

5. US Army War College, Department of Military Strategy, Planning, and Operations, “Information Operations Primer: Fundamentals of Information Operations,” January 2006, 1, http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usacsl/publications/IO-Primer-AY06.pdf (accessed 12 July 2006).

6. FM 3-13, 1-13 to 1-14.

7. FM 3-13, 1-21.

8. Colonel Curtis D. Boyd, “Army IO is PSYOP: Influencing More with Less,” Military Review, May–June 2007, 67.

9. US Army War College, “Information Operations Primer,” 1.

10. FM 3-13, 1-16, and 2-21 to 2-26.

11. FM 3-13, chapter 2.

12. Larry Wentz, Lessons from Bosnia: The IFOR Experience (Washington, DC: National Defense University, Institute for National Strategic Studies, 1997), 26.

13. Wentz, 168.

14. Wentz, 168.

15. Wentz, 168.

16. Wentz, 205.

17. Wentz, 209.

18. Wentz, 208–229.

19. Major Marc J. Romanych and Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth Krumm, “Tactical Information Operations in Kosovo,” Military Review, September–October 2004, 58, http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/milreview/romanych.pdf (accessed 20 July 2006).

20. Romanych and Krumm, 59.

21. Romanych and Krumm, 61.

22. 4th Psychological Operations Group, Annual Historical Review for 2005. Unpublished manuscript.

23. As the authors of the first On Point concluded, assessing the effectiveness of EW and CNO is difficult. Assessing the effectiveness of PSYOP and MILDEC in the phases of OIF is even more problematic. See COL Gregory Fontenot, US Army Retired, LTC E.J. Degen, US Army, and LTC David Tohn, US Army, On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2004), 419–422.

24. V Corps Briefing, Nested Lines of Operation & V Corps’ Objectives, 18 May 2003.

25. V Corps Briefing, Nested Lines of Operation & V Corps’ Objectives, 18 May 2003.

26. 4th Infantry Division, “Lessons Learned Executive Summary,” 18 June 2004.

27. Major Joseph L. Cox, “Information Operations in Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom—What Went Wrong?” US Army School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, United States Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, AY 2005–06, 1–2.

28. Cox, 44.

29. Cox, 44.

30. Cox, 45.

31. Chapter 2, “Civil-Military Operations,” CALL Newsletter 04-13: Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), CAAT II Initial Impressions Report (IIR) (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Center for Army Lessons Learned, May 2004), 22.

32. Colonel Ralph O. Baker, “The Decisive Weapon: A Brigade Combat Team Commander’s Perspective on Information Operations,” Military Review, May–June 2006, 19.

33. Baker, 19.

34. Baker, 19.

35. Baker, 19.

36. Baker, 16.

37. Mark Mazzetti and Borzou Daragahi, “The Conflict in Iraq: US Military Covertly Pays to Run Stories in Iraqi Press,” Los Angeles Times, 30 November 2005, A1.

38. Chapter 2, “Civil-Military Operations,” CALL Newsletter 04-13, 1.

39. Lieutenant General Thomas F. Metz et al., “Massing Effects in the Information Domain: A Case Study in Aggressive Information Operations,” Military Review, May–June 2006, 5.

40. Cox, 75.

41. Brigadier General James Huggins, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Bragg, NC, 11 May 2006, 7.

42. 173d Airborne Brigade, After Action Review Briefing, 22 January 2004, slides 34–35.

43. 173d Airborne Brigade, After Action Review Briefing, 22 January 2004, slide 36.

44. Cox, 71.

45. Major Charles O’Brien, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 24 February 2005, 21.

46. Lieutenant Colonel Wayne Swan, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Shafter, HI, 19 July 2006, 10.

47. “Stryker Brigade Combat Team 1, 3d Brigade, 2d Infantry: Operations in Mosul, Iraq,” Initial Impressions Report (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Center for Army Lessons Learned, 21 December 2004), 31.

48. Metz et al., 8.

49. Metz et al., 8.

50. “Briefing with Brigadier General Donald Alston, US Air Force, Spokesperson for Multinational Force Iraq,” Coalition Press Information Center, 30 October 2005, http://www.mnf-iraq.com/Transcripts/051030a.htm (accessed 5 June 2006).

51. Brian Ross, “Staying Strong: The Insurgency in Iraq: Many Media Savvy Groups Make for Tough Opponents,” ABC News, 20 March 2006, http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/print?id=1748161 (accessed 30 May 2006).

52. 2d Brigade, 2d Infantry Division, After Action Review: Operation Iraqi Freedom 04-06 Briefing, 5 December 2005, slide 305.

53. 2d Brigade, 2d ID, AAR: OIF 04-06, 5 December 2005, slide 305.

54. Metz et al., 4–5.

55. Metz et al., 5.

56. Swan, interview, 19 July 2006, 10–11.

57. “Rumsfeld says extremists winning media war,” USA Today On-Line Edition, posted 2/17/2006, http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-02-17-rumsfeld-media_x.htm (accessed 5 June 2006).

58. Lieutenant Colonel Steve Boylan, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 9 August 2006, 7.

59. Ross.

60. Ibrahim Al-Marashi, “Iraq’s Hostage Crisis: Kidnappings, Mass Media and the Iraqi Insurgency,” Middle East Review of International Affairs, Volume 8, No. 4, Article 1, December 2004, http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2004/issue4/jv8no4a1.html.

61. Al-Marashi.

62. Al-Marashi.

63. FM 3-61.1, Public Affairs Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (Washington, DC, 1 October 2000), iv.

64. FM 3-61.1, 1-1.

65. Joint Publication (JP) 3-61, Public Affairs (Washington, DC, 9 May 2005), xi.

66. FM 3-61.1, A-1.

67. Margaret H. Belknap, “The CNN Effect: Strategic Enabler or Operational Risk?” Strategy Research Project (Carlisle Barracks, PA: Army War College, 30 March 2001), 1.

68. Belknap, 1.

69. Lieutenant Colonel Arthur P. Brill Jr., USMC (Retired), “A Defining Moment in Marine Corps History,” Sea Power, Navy League of the United States, http://www.navyleague.org/seapower/krulak_interview.htm (accessed December 2007).

70. Brill.

71. Lieutenant Colonel Bernd Horn, “Command and Control Complexity Squared: Operating in the Future Battlespace,” 3 July 2004, http://worldaffairsboard.com/showpost.php?p=20409&postcount=38 (accessed 24 July 2006).

72. Brendan R. McLane, “Reporting from the Sandstorm: An Appraisal of Embedding,” Parameters, Spring 2004, 77–88. The overview of media–military relationships in the following paragraphs is based on this article.

73. McLane, 83.

74. Douglas J. Goebel, “Military–Media Relations: The Future Media Environment and Its Influence on Military Operations” (Maxwell, AL: Air University and Air War College, 1997), 22.

75. Christopher Paul and James J. Kim, Reporters on the Battlefield: The Embedded Press System in Historical Context (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2004), 49.

76. McLane, 81.

77. Office of the Secretary of Defense, “Public Affairs Guidance on Embedding Media During Possible Future Operations/Deployments in the US Central Command’s (CENTCOM) Area of Responsibility (AOR),” 10 February 2003.

78. Sec of Defense, “Public Affairs Guidance on Embedding Media.”

79. 3d Infantry Division (Mechanized), After Action Report, Lessons Learned, Chapter 6: Embedded Media, 40–44.

80. Amy Schlesing, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 12 June 2006, 7.

81. 3d ID, AAR, Lessons Learned, Chapter 6: Embedded Media, 40–44.

82. Schlesing, interview, 12 June 2006, 6.

83. Baker, 18.

84. Chapter 2, “Civil-Military Operations,” CALL Newsletter 04-13, 11.

85. Baker, 18–19.

86. Colonel (Promotable) Stephen Lanza, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Washington, DC, 2 November 2005,17.

87. Brigadier General Michael Tucker, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Washington, DC, 20 January 2006, 9–10.

88. Tucker, interview, 20 January 2006, 9–10.

89. Brigadier General David Perkins, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Washington, DC, 25 January 2006 20.

90. Colonel Glenn T. Starnes, “Leveraging the Media: The Embedded Media Program in Operation Iraqi Freedom,” Strategy Research Paper, Volume S04-06, Center for Strategic Leadership, US Army War College, July 2004.

91. Major General (Retired) John R. Batiste, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Rochester, NY, 20 April 2006.

92. Starnes.

93. Richard K. Wright, “Assessment of the DOD Embedded Media Program,” Institute for Defense Analysis Joint Warfighting Program, IDA Paper P-3931, September 2004.

94. Wright.

95. 3d ID, AAR, Lessons Learned, Chapter 6: Embedded Media, 40–44.

96. Howard Kurtz, “Media Weigh Costs, Fruits of ‘Embedding:’ News Outlets Stretch Budgets for Chance to Witness Iraq War From Front Lines,” Washington Post, 11 March 2003, A.15.

97. Howard Kurtz, “For Media After Iraq, A Case of Shell Shock: Battle Assessment Begins For Saturation Reporting,” Washington Post, 28 April 2003, A.01.

98. Schlesing, interview, 12 June 2006, 9.

99. Lieutenant Colonel Tammy L. Miracle, “The Army and Embedded Media,” Military Review, September–October 2003, 44–45.

100. Steve Ritea, “Media Troop Withdrawal,” American Journalism Review, December/January 2004, http://www.ajr.org/Article.asp?id=3477 (accessed 30 May 2006).

101. Joe Stupp, “Newspapers Pull Reporters From Embed Slots,” Editor and Publisher, 28 April 2003.

102. MNF-I Directorate of Strategic Communications, STRATCOM January 05 Iraqi Election Matrix Briefing, 31 January 2005; Lieutenant Colonel Steve Boylan, Chief of the Coalition Press Information Center in 2004 and 2005, written comments.

103. Mark Memmott, “Reporters in Iraq under fire there, and from critics,” USA Today, 2 August 2006, http:www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2006-03-22-media-critisism_x.htm (accessed 2 August 2006); Jennifer Senior, “The Baghdad Press Club,” New York Magazine, 22 May 2006, 38.

104. Captain Joseph Ludvigson, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 12 June 2006, 6.

105. Senior, 38–39.

106. Memmott; Senior, 39–40.

107. Ludvigson, interview, 12 June 2006, 6; Major Edward L. English, “Towards a More Productive Military-Media Relationship,” US Army School of Advanced Military Studies Monograph, US Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, KS, AY 2004–05, 38.

108. Memmott; Senior, 105.

109. Ludvigson, interview, 12 June 2006, 5–6.

110. Colonel (Promotable) Daniel B. Allyn, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Washington, DC, 4 November 2005, 10.

111. Colonel William Darley, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 8 August 2006, 11.

112. Memmott.

113. Schlesing, interview, 12 June 2006, 10.

114. Darley, written comments, 4 December 2006, 1.

115. Darley, interview, 8 August 2006, 1–2.

116. Captain Angela Bowman, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 7 February 2006, 4, 10.

117. Bowman, interview, 7 February 2006, 14.

118. Lieutenant Colonel Paul Hastings, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 10 March 2006, 12.

119. Justin Ward, “Army sends Media Imagery from Iraq at Push of Button,” Army News Service, 21 June 2004; Hastings, interview, 10 March 2006, 6.

120. Ward; Hastings, interview, 10 March 2006, 6.

121. Ward.

122. General George W. Casey Jr., interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 27 November 2007, 11–12.

123. MNF-I Headquarters, MNF-I, Deputy Chief of Staff for Strategic Communications Orientation Briefing, 14 June 2005.

124. MNF-I, Deputy Chief of Staff for Strategic Communications Orientation Briefing, 14 June 2005.

125. STRATCOM January 05 Iraqi Election Matrix Briefing, 31 January 2005.

126. MNF-I, Deputy Chief of Staff for Strategic Communications Orientation Briefing, 14 June 2005.

127. MNF-I, Deputy Chief of Staff for Strategic Communications Orientation Briefing, 14 June 2005.

128. Colonel Jill Morgenthaler, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 12 June 2006, 2.

129. Darley, interview, 8 August 2006, 5.

130. Ludvigson, interview, 24 May 2006, 8.

131. MNF-I, Deputy Chief of Staff for Strategic Communications Orientation Briefing, 14 June 2005.

132. Tom Shanker and Eric Schmitt, “Pentagon Weighs Use of Deception in a Broad Arena,” New York Times, 13 December 2004, http://www.nytimes.com/2004/12/13/politics/13info.html?ex=1260594000&en=d83314fc17eb65d5&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland (accessed 5 January 2007).

133. Casey, interview, 27 November 2007, 11.

134. Lieutenant General Thomas F. Metz, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 13 December 2005, 6.

135. “Pentagon Debate Rages Over ‘Information Operations’ in Iraq,” CNN, http://edition.cnn.com/2004/US/12/12/pentagon.media/ (accessed 3 January 2007).

136. Casey, interview, 27 November 2007, 11.

137. Mark Mazzetti, “The Nation; PR Meets Psy-Ops in War on Terror; The use of misleading information as a military tool sparks debate in the Pentagon,” Los Angeles Times, 1 December 2004, A1.

138. Colonel William M. Darley, “Why Public Affairs is not Information Operations,” Army, January 2005, Volume 55, Issue 1.

139. See JP 3-13, Information Operations (Washington, DC, 13 February 2006).

140. Darley, interview, 8 August 2006, 7.

141. Darley, interview, 8 August 2006; Schlesing, interview, 12 June 2006.

142. Morgenthaler, interview, 12 June 2006, 8.

143. Darley, interview, 8 August 2006, 7.

144. Baker, 27.

145. Baker, 27.

146. Baker, 27.

147. Baker, 27.

148. Baker, 27.

149. Baker, 27.

150. Baker, 27.

151. Baker, 27.

152. Baker, 27.

153. Lieutenant General David H. Petraeus, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 18 March 2006.

154. Bowman, interview, 7 February 2006, 10.

155. STRATCOM January 05 Iraqi Election Matrix Briefing, 31 January 2005; Boylan, written comments.

 


Chapter 7. Fighting the Battle of Ideas in Iraq





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