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ON POINT II: Transition to the New Campaign

The United States Army in Operation IRAQI FREEDOM May 2003-January 2005





Part I

Setting the Stage


Chapter 3
The Rise of the Iraqi Insurgency and the US Army's Response

 

Notes

1. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Publication (JP) 1-02, DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (Washington, DC, 12 April 2001), 213.

2. US Department of State, “Transitional Justice Working Group,” The Future of Iraq Project (Washington, DC, 2003), 29.

3. US National Defense University, “Iraq: Looking Beyond Saddam’s Rule,” Workshop Report (Washington, DC: Institute for National Strategic Studies, 2002), 10.

4. “Iraq: Looking Beyond Saddam’s Rule,” Workshop Report, 21.

5. Conrad C. Crane and W. Andrew Terrill, Reconstructing Iraq: Insights, Challenges, and Missions for Military Forces in a Post-Conflict Scenario (Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 2003).

6. Crane and Terrill, 37.

7. Kevin C.M. Benson, “‘Phase IV’ CFLCC Stability Operations Planning,” in Brian M. De Toy, ed., Turning Victory Into Success: Military Operations After the Campaign (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2005), 189.

8. Benson, “‘Phase IV’ CFLCC Stability Operations Planning,” in De Toy, ed., Turning Victory Into Success, 183.

9. Brigadier General David Perkins, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 23 January 2006, 20.

10. Garner, “Iraq Revisited,” in De Toy, ed., Turning Victory Into Success, 256.

11. Captain Warren Sponsler, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 7 December 2005, 4–5.

12. Sponsler, interview, 7 December 2005, 4–5.

13. Colonel J.D. Johnson, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 4 November 2005, 15.

14. Colonel Daniel B. Allyn, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 4 November 2005, 4.

15. George Packer, The Assassins’ Gate: America in Iraq (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005), 139.

16. Lieutenant Colonel David J. Conboy, An Interview with Lieutenant General Nasier Abadi, Deputy Chief of Staff, Iraqi Joint Forces (Carlisle Barracks, PA: US Army War College, 2005), 14–15.

17. Anthony Shadid, Night Draws Near: Iraq’s People in the Shadow of American’s War (New York, NY: Henry Holt and Co., 2005), 326.

18. Shadid, Night Draws Near, 140.

19. David Rieff, “Who Botched the Occupation?” New York Times Magazine, 2 November 2003, 44.

20. Lieutenant Colonel Rod Coffey, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 8 December 2005, 11.

21. Conboy, 13.

22. Conboy, 13.

23. Colonel Derek J. Harvey, “A ‘Red Team’ Perspective on the Insurgency in Iraq,” in John J. McGrath, ed., An Army at War: Change in the Midst of Conflict, The Proceedings of the Combat Studies Institute 2005 Military History Symposium (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2006), 193.

24. Coalition Provisional Authority Order No. 1, “De-Baathification of Iraqi Society” (16 May 2003), http://www.cpa-iraq.org/regulations/20030516_CPAORD_1_De-Ba_athification_of_Iraqi_Society_.pdf (accessed 14 Mary 2006); Coalition Provisional Authority Order No. 2, “Dissolution of Entities” (23 May 2003), http://www.iraqcoalition.org/regulations/20030823_CPAORD_2_Dissolution_Of_Entities_with_Annex_A.pdf (accessed 14 September 2006).

25. Benson, “‘Phase IV’ CFLCC Stability Operations Planning,” in De Toy, ed., Turning Victory Into Success, 188–189.

26. Lieutenant General William G. Webster, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 11 December 2007, 22–23.

27. L. Paul Bremer III, My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build a Future of Hope (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2006), 39.

28. Webster, interview, 11 December 2007, 23.

29. Colonel Marc Warren, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 15 March 2007, 7–8.

30. Office of the Staff Judge Advocate, US Army V Corps, Agreement to Disavow Party Affiliation, 1 May 2003.

31. Garner, “Iraq Revisited,” in De Toy, ed., Turning Victory Into Success, 260.

32. Peter Slevin, “Wrong Turn at a Postwar Crossroads? Decision to Disband Iraqi Army Cost US Time and Credibility,” Washington Post (20 November 2003), A01, http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A63423-2003Nov19?language=printer (accessed 12 April 2006).

33. Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 39.

34. Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 42.

35. CPA Order No 1 (appendix A).

36. For the lack of coordination between CPA and V Corps, see Warren interview, 15 March 2007, 8–9.

37. Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 39.

38. CPA Order No 2 (appendix B).

39. Garner, “Iraq Revisited,” in De Toy, ed., Turning Victory Into Success, 265.

40. Webster, interview, 11 December 2007, 10.

41. Webster, interview, 11 December 2007, 10.

42. Webster, interview, 11 December 2007, 10.

43. Webster, interview, 11 December 2007, 10.

44. Webster, interview, 11 December 2007, 11.

45. Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 54.

46. Jon Lee Anderson, “Letter From Iraq: Out on the Street,” The New Yorker, 15 November 2004, http://www.newyorker.com/printables/fact/041115fa_fact (accessed 8 November 2004).

47. Colonel Don C. Young, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 10 April 2006, 15.

48. Michael R. Gordon and General Bernard E. Trainor, Cobra II: The Inside Story of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq (New York, NY: Pantheon, 2006), 491.

49. General William S. Wallace, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 22 May 2006, 12–13.

50. Wallace, interview, 22 May 2006, 12–13.

51. Ahmed S. Hashim, Insurgency and Counter-insurgency in Iraq (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006), 69.

52. Lieutenant General David H. Petraeus, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 17 February 2006, 11.

53. Petraeus, interview, 17 February 2006, 12; Ambassador L. Paul Bremer III, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Chevy Chase, MD, 20 April 2006, 4.

54. Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 261.

55. Petraeus, interview, 17 February 2006, 12.

56. Hashim, 96.

57. Major Susan Arnold, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 25 January 2006, 13.

58. Coalition Provisional Authority, Press Release, 23 June 2003 (PR No. 006), “Good News for Iraqi Soldiers,” 1–2, http://www.iraqcoalition.org/pressreleases/23June03PR6_good_news.pdf (accessed 30 January 2008).

59. Coalition Provisional Authority, Public Service Announcement, 6 July 2003, 1.

60. 3d ACR, Desert Rifles Newsletter, Issue 11, 18 July 2003, 4.

61. 101st Airborne Division, AO North Brief 3, 21 January 2005, slide 87.

62. Coalition Provisional Authority, Iraqi Seized and Vested Assets, April 2004.

63. CPA Order No. 2, 3. The 23 June 2003 CPA Press Release that announced the stipend program also announced the beginning of a recruiting drive for the New Iraqi Army (NIA). See CPA, Press Release, 23 June 2006 (PR No. 006), 1.

64. Mr. Walter B. Slocombe, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 12 September 2006, 2–3.

65. Wallace, interview, 22 May 2006, 12.

66. Wallace, interview, 22 May 2006, 12.

67. Colonel (Retired) Paul Hughes, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1 March 2006, 9–10.

68. Mao Zedong’s most important works on revolutionary warfare can be found in Selected Military Writings of Mao Tse-tung (Peking: Foreign Language Press, 1972). To see an example of the influence of Mao’s ideas on insurgency/counterinsurgency theorists, see David Galula, Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice (St. Petersburg, FL: Hailer Publishing, 2005), first published in 1964.

69. JP 1-02, 213.

70. Anderson; Hashim, 21.

71. Andrew Krepinevich, “The War in Iraq: The Nature of Insurgency Warfare” (First in a Series), Center for Strategic Budgetary Assessments (2 June 2004), 3; Hashim, 20–21.

72. “In Their Own Words: Reading the Insurgency,” International Crisis Group, Middle East, Report No. 50 (15 February 2006), 6; Hashim, 33.

73. Colonel Derek J. Harvey, “A ‘Red Team’ Perspective,” in McGrath, ed., An Army at War, 193.

74. “In Their Own Words,” ICG, Report No. 50, 6.

75. Hashim, 115.

76. Hashim, 116.

77. “DOD News Briefing—Mr. Di Rita and Gen. Abizaid,” DefenseLink, 16 July 2003, http://www.defenselink.mil/transcripts/2003/tr20030716-0401.html (accessed 29 August 2006).

78. “In Their Own Words,” ICG, Report No. 50, 7.

79. Harvey, “A ‘Red Team’ Perspective,” in McGrath, ed., An Army at War, 193.

80. US Government Accountability Office, GAO Report GAO-05-431T, Rebuilding Iraq: Preliminary Observations on the Challenges in Transferring Security Responsibilities to Iraqi Military and Police, 14 March 2005, 10.

81. “In Their Own Words,” ICG, Report No. 50, 10–11.

82. Hashim, 37.

83. Kevin M. Woods et al., ??????????????Iraqi Perspectives Project: A View of Operation Iraqi Freedom From Saddam’s Senior Leadership (Norfolk, VA: US Joint Forces Command, 2005), 48–72, http://www.cfr.org/publication/10230/Iraqi_perspectives_project.html (accessed 12 September 2006).

84. Woods et al., 96–98.

85. Harvey, “A ‘Red Team’ Perspective,” in McGrath, ed., An Army at War, 201.

86. Harvey, “A ‘Red Team’ Perspective,” in McGrath, ed., An Army at War, 210; Hashim, 155.

87. Hashim, 157.

88. Hashim, 123.

89. Harvey, “A ‘Red Team’ Perspective,” in McGrath, ed., An Army at War, 208.

90. Hashim, 122.

91. General George W. Casey Jr., interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 27 November 2007, 4.

92. Amatzia Baram, Who Are the Insurgents? Sunni Arab Rebels in Iraq, United States Institute of Peace, Special Report No. 134 (April 2005), 3.

93. Baram, 3.

94. Baram, 3.

95. Baram, 16.

96. Michael Eisenstadt and Jeffrey White, “Assessing Iraq’s Sunni Arab Insurgency,” Military Review 3, May–June 2006, 34.

97. Hashim, 79.

98. Baram, 4; Hashim, 84.

99. Baram, 4.

100. Baram, 4.

101. Hashim, 89.

102. Baram, 4.

103. Baram, 4.

104. Baram, 6.

105. Baram, 6.

106. Baram, 6.

107. Hashim, 104.

108. Baram, 6.

109. Baram, 7.

110. Baram, 7.

111. Hashim, 29.

112. Baram, 7.

113. Baram, 7.

114. Baram, 11.

115. Baram, 12.

116. Baram, 12.

117. Baram, 12, 14.

118. Hashim, 270.

119. Giles Trendle, “Young Radicals on the Rise,” Middle East, Issue 41, January 2004, 28–30.

120. Trendle, 28–30.

121. Hashim, 248–249.

122. “NBC News’ Meet the Press,” Transcript for 26 September 2004, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6106292/ (accessed 1 September 2006).

123. Michael E. O’Hanlon and Nina Kamp, “Iraq Index: Tracking Variables of Reconstruction and Security in Post-Saddam Iraq,” The Brookings Institution, 10 April 2006, www.brookings.edu/iraqindex (accessed 11 April 2006).

124. “NBC News’ Meet the Press,” Transcript for 26 September 2004.

125. “In Their Own Words,” ICG, Report No. 50, 1–2. Loretta Napoleoni, Insurgent Iraq: Al Zarqawi and the New Generation (New York, NY: Seven Stories Press, 2005), 123.

126. Napoleoni, 78–79; Mary Anne Weaver, “The Short, Violent Life of Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi,” The Atlantic Monthly, July/August 2006 (edited for the Web 8 June 2006), http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/print/200607/zarqawi (accessed 9 June 2006).

127. Mark Mazzetti and Josh Meyer, “The Conflict in Iraq; In a Battle of Wits, Iraq’s Insurgency Mastermind Stays a Step Ahead of US,” Los Angeles Times, 16 November 2005, A.1; Napoleoni, 56, 79.

128. “In Their Own Words,” ICG, Report No. 50, 1–2.

129. “In Their Own Words,” ICG, Report No. 50, 1–2

130. Hashim, 209–210.

131. Hashim, 178.

132. “Big Iraq Ambush was Bank Heist,” BBC News, 1 December 2003, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3253236.stm (accessed 1 September 2006).

133. Ready First Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, Command Brief, 19 October 2003, slide 10.

134. O’Hanlon and Kamp, 9.

135. Colonel Karl Reinhold, A Paradigm for the System of Systems Countering Asymmetric Enemy Kinetic Attacks (Carlisle Barracks, PA: US Army War College, 2005), 1.

136. Lisa Rose Weaver, “Iraq Promises More Suicide Bombings,” CNN.com, http:www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/03/29/sprj.irq.car.bomb/index.html (accessed 6 July 2006).

137. Michael E. O’Hanlon and Andrew Kamons, “Iraq Index: Tracking Variables of Reconstruction & Security in Post-Saddam Iraq,” The Brookings Institution, 29 June 2006, 19, http://www.brookings.edu/fp/saban/iraq/index20060629.pdf (accessed September 2006).

138. GAO-05-431T, Rebuilding Iraq: Preliminary Observations, 10.

139. Reinhold, 1.

140. “DOD News Briefing—Mr. Di Rita and Gen. Abizaid.”

141. “DOD News Briefing—Mr. Di Rita and Gen. Abizaid.”

142. Lieutenant General R. Steven Whitcomb, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 7 June 2006, 6.

143. Whitcomb, interview, 7 June 2006, 6.

144. Lieutenant Colonel Wesley R. Odum Jr., interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 17 March 2006, 11.

145. 1st Armored Division, Command Brief, 3 December 2003, slide 12.

146. Lieutenant Colonel Brian J. McKiernan, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 29 April 2006, 8, 14–15.

147. S3, Task Force 1-22 IN, 03 September 2003 Briefing, 5.

148. Roger Trinquier, Modern Warfare: A French View of Counterinsurgency, trans., Daniel Lee (New York, NY: Frederick A. Praeger, 1961), 8.

149. Galula, 87. See also US Army Field Manual (FM) 100-20, Military Operations in Low Intensity Conflict (Washington, DC, 1990), E-2, E-22.

150. Galula, 89.

151. Petraeus, interview, 17 February 2006, 3.

152. Petraeus, interview, 17 February 2006, 3–4.

153. Major George H. Sarabia, interview by Operational Leadership Experiences Project Team, Combat Studies Institute, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 22 September 2005, 6.

154. Sarabia, interview, 22 September 2005, 6.

155. 2d Squadron, 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment, Sabre Squadron AO Robertson Update for 2 BDE, 3 ID, 31 May 2003, slide 41.

156. Coalition Provisional Authority, CPA Vision Statement, 13 July 2003, 5.

157. CPA Vision Statement, 13 July 2003, 9–11. The CPA would issue a more detailed plan titled Achieving the Vision to Restore Full Sovereignty to the Iraqi People in the fall of 2003. That plan included five core foundations that were very similar to the operational directions in the July 2003 Vision Statement: security, essential services, governance, economy, and strategic communications. See Coalition Provisional Authority, Achieving the Vision to Restore Full Sovereignty to the Iraqi People, 15 October 2003.

158. V Corps and CJTF-7, V Corps and CJTF-7 Transition and Challenges Briefing, 30 September 2004, slide 5.

159. Odum, interview, 17 March 2006, 4–5. For details on the V Corps planning for Phase IV operations, see V Corps, V Corps Update Briefing—V Corps Commander’s Conference, 16 May 2003, slides 1–9.

160. Odum, interview, 17 March 2006, 7.

161. JP 3-0, Doctrine for Joint Operations (Washington, DC, 2006), IV-9.

162. Odum, interview, 17 March 2006, 14.

163. FM 3-0, Operations (Washington, DC, June 2001), 5-37.

164. V Corps and CJTF-7 Transition and Challenges Briefing, 30 September 2004, slide 4; Odum, interview, 17 March 2006, 11–12.

165. Odum, interview, 17 March 2006, 4–6.

166. Lieutenant General Ricardo Sanchez, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 18 August 2006, 17.

167. TF All American, America’s Guard of Honor Briefing, 1 April 2004, slides 6 and 7.

168. TF All American, America’s Guard of Honor Briefing, slide 7.

169. 4th Infantry Division, Lessons Learned: Executive Summary (17 June 2004), 6.

170. See Gordon and Trainor, 445–448; Thomas E. Ricks, Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq (New York, NY: The Penguin Press, 2006), 142–144, 235–239.

171. Michael R. Gordon, “To Mollify Iraqis, US Plans to Ease Scope of Its Raids,” New York Times, 7 August 2003.

172. “Major General Odierno Videoteleconference from Baghdad,” DOD News Transcript, 18 June 2003, 2, http://merln.ndu.edu/merln/pfiraq/archive/dod/tr20030618-0281.pdf (accessed 25 October 2007).

173. Lieutenant Colonel Troy D. Perry, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 11 May 2006, 11, 16, 18.

174. Perry, interview, 11 May 2006, 10.

175. Lieutenant Colonel Greg Reilly, Initial Operational Assessment (September 2003), 3–4.

176. Reilly, Initial Operational Assessment, 3–4.

177. Major General Thomas G. Miller, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 23 August 2006, 7.

178. Miller, interview, 23 August 2006, 7.

179. Miller, interview, 23 August 2006, 6.

180. Major General Peter W. Chiarelli and Major Patrick R. Michaelis, “Winning the Peace: The Requirement for Full Spectrum Operations,” Military Review, July–August 2005, 7.

181. Colonel Stephen R. Lanza et al., “Red Team Goes Maneuver: 1st Cav Div Arty as a Maneuver BCT,” Field Artillery, May–June 2005, 11.

182. Lieutenant General Peter Chiarelli, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 8 May 2006, 5.

183. Martin Rodriguez, Andrew Farnsler, and John Bott, Constructive Engagement: A Proven Method for Conducting Stability and Support Operations, Land Power Essay No. 07-1, February 2007. Association of the United States Army, Institute of Land Warfare, 2–5, http://www.ausa.org/pdfdocs/LPE07-1.pdf (accessed 25 October 2007).

184. Rodriguez, Farnsler, and Bott.

185. Casey, interview, 27 November 2007, 3.

186. Casey, interview, 27 November 2007, 8–9.

187. Colonel William Hix, e-mail interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 1 November 2006, 5.

188. Hix, e-mail interview, 1 November 2006, 5.

189. Kenneth W. Estes, “Command Narrative: 1st Armored Division in Operation Iraqi Freedom, May 2003—July 2004,” Unpublished study, 39–41.

190. Estes, 39–41.

191. McKiernan, interview, 29 April 2006, 2.

192. Colonel Stephen Lanza, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 2 November 2005, 4.

193. Petraeus, interview, 17 February 2006, 8–9.

194. Petraeus, interview, 17 February 2006, 8–9.

195. Petraeus, interview, 17 February 2006, 8.

196. Petraeus, interview, 17 February 2006, 7.

 


Chapter 3. The Rise of the Iraqi Insurgency and the US Army’s Response





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