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ON POINT II: Transition to the New Campaign

The United States Army in Operation IRAQI FREEDOM May 2003-January 2005





Part I

Setting the Stage


Chapter 1
Overview of Operation IRAQI FREEDOM: May 2003 to January 2005

Notes

1. Coalition Provisional Authority Order No. 1, “De-Ba’athification of Iraqi Society” (16 May 2003), http://www.iraqcoalition.org/regulations/20030516_CPAORD_1_De-Ba_athification_of_Iraqi_Society_.pdf (accessed 14 September 2006).

2. Coalition Provisional Authority Order No. 2, “Dissolution of Entities” (23 May 2003), http://www.iraqcoalition.org/regulations/20030823_CPAORD_2_Dissolution_of_Entities_with_Annex_A. pdf (accessed 14 September 2006).

3. UN Security Council, “Resolution 1483” (22 May 2003), http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N03/368/53/PDF/N0336853.pdf?OpenElement (accessed 14 September 2006).

4. General Tommy Franks, American Soldier (New York, NY: Harper Collins, 2004), 392–393 and 528–531.

5. General Tommy Franks (Retired), interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 23 June 2006, 7–9.

6. L. Paul Bremer III, My Year in Iraq: The Struggle to Build a Future of Hope (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2006), 105–107.

7. In April 2003 the commander of V Corps had received indicators that his headquarters would likely form the core of the follow-on joint task force. On 14 May CFLCC held a briefing that made the transition to V Corps official, naming the new headquarters CJTF-7 and scheduling the transition to take place no later than 15 June 2003. General William S. Wallace, Memorandum for Director, Combat Studies Institute, Subject: Review of On Point II Draft Manuscript, 20 December 2006, 1.

8. John J. McGrath, Boots on the Ground: Troop Density in Contingency Operations (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2006), 126.

9. General William S. Wallace, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 22 May 2006, 8.

10. Lieutenant General Ricardo Sanchez, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 14 August 2006, 5.

11. V Corps and CJTF-7, V Corps–CJTF-7 Transition and Challenges Briefing, 30 September 2004, slide 5.

12. Lieutenant Colonel Wesley Odum, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 17 March 2006, 7, 16.

13. Coalition Provisional Authority, CPA Vision Statement (13 July 2003), 5.

14. Lieutenant General Keith Dayton, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 14 December 2005, 3–4.

15. “DOD News Briefing—Mr. Di Rita and Gen. Abizaid,” DefenseLink, 16 July 2003, http://www.defenselink.mil/transcripts/2003/tr20030716-0401.html (accessed 18 September 2006).

16. US Government Accountability Office, GAO Report GAO-05-431T, “Rebuilding Iraq: Preliminary Observations on the Challenges in Transferring Security Responsibilities to Iraqi Military and Police,” 14 March 2005, 10.

17. Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 142.

18. See Lieutenant General Ricardo Sanchez’s comments in Michael R. Gordon, “To Mollify Iraqis, US Plans to Ease Scope of Its Raids,” New York Times (7 August 2003), 1.

19. GAO Report GAO-05-431T, see Figure 1, “Violent Incidents Against the Coalition and Its Partners, by Month, June 2003 Through February 2005,” 14 March 2005, 10. This official unclassified report of the number of attacks, which will be used throughout this study, closely resembles unofficial reports such as those in the Brookings Institution’s Iraq Index that derived its statistics from a variety of sources, including press reports. While there are differences between the reports in the precise number of attacks in specific months, the general trends in the number of attacks over time in the GAO report closely resemble those documented in the Brookings Institution’s Iraq Index. For comparison, see Michael E. O’Hanlon and Adriana Lins de Albuquerque, “Iraq Index: Tracking Variables of Reconstruction and Security in Post-Saddam Iraq, Updated April 18, 2005,” The Brookings Institution, http://www.brook.edu/fp/saban/iraq/index20050418.pdf (accessed 18 December 2006).

20. GAO Report GAO-05-431T, 14 March 2005, 10.

21. Bremer, My Year in Iraq, 253.

22. GAO Report GAO-05-431T, 14 March 2005, 10.

23. See Transitional Administrative Law, http://www.cpa-iraq.org/government/TAL.html (accessed 11 December 2006).

24. “Bremer brands Moqtada Sadr an Outlaw,” Middle East OnLine, http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=9514 (accessed 30 August 2006).

25. 1st Infantry Division, 135th Military History Detachment, “Stryker Scimitar: The Battle for Al Kut, 8 April 04–11 April 04,” CD, Fort McNair (Washington, DC: US Army Center for Military History).

26. GAO Report GAO-05-431T, 14 March 2005, 10.

27. Major General John R.S. Batiste and Lieutenant Colonel Paul R. Daniels, “The Fight for Samarra: Full-Spectrum Operations in Modern Warfare,” Military Review, May–June 2005, 3.

28. Lieutenant General John F. Sattler and Lieutenant Colonel Daniel H. Wilson, “Operation AL FAJR: The Battle of Fallujah—Dousing the Bright Ember of the Insurgency,” Marine Corps Gazette, July 2005, 14.

29. Sattler and Wilson, 16.

30. Matt M. Matthews, Operation AL FAJR: A Study in Army and Marine Corps Joint Operations (Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2006).

31. “Iraqi Elections, January 30, 2005,” US State Department Web site, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/scp/2005/41206.htm (accessed 4 September 2006).

32. Anthony Shadid, “Iraqis Defy Threats as Millions Vote,” Washington Post Foreign Service, 31 January 2005, A1.

33. Lieutenant General Thomas Metz, interview by Contemporary Operations Study Team, Fort Leavenworth, KS, 13 December 2005, 12.

34. Metz, interview, 13 December 2005, 12.

35. “Special Defense Department Briefing on Iraq Security Forces,” DefenseLink, 4 February 2005, http://www.defenselink.mil/transcripts/2005/tr20050204-2083.html (accessed 17 October 2006).


Chapter 1. Overview of Operation IRAQI FREEDOM: May 2003 to January 2005





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