U.S. Marine Corps - Small Wars Manual (1940 Edition)
Chapter IV. TRAINING.
TRAINING PROGRAMS AND SCHEDULES
Par. Training instructions 4-24 Training programs 4-25 Training schedules 4-26
4-24. Training instructions.-Training programs and training schedules are the means generally used to outline the training for the various units, thus providing uniformity in training. Training memoranda may supplement training programs and training schedules.
4-25. Training programs.-a. Training programs are issued by all commands down to and including the company. They express the general plan of training of the command over a considerable period of time, usually a training cycle of 1 year, but may be issued to cover periods of 6 months, 3 months, or 1 month.
b. The essential elements of the training program include the training objective or objectives, the time available in which to accomplish the mission or missions, and such special instructions relating to the conduct of the training as may be necessary. A feature of the training program with which unit commanders are primarily concerned is the total amount of time allotted for the training of their own units. The authority issuing a training program should indicate clearly the time available, whether the training period covered by the program is 1 year, 6 months, 3 months, or 1 month.
c. Prior to the preparation of a training program, a careful estimate is made of the entire training situation. The following factors must be taken into consideration: (1) Analysis of order from higher authority; (2) mission (training objective ) ; (3) essential subjects; (4) time available; (5) equipment and facilities available; (6) personnel; (7) local conditions (climate and terrain) ; (8) existing state of training; (9) organization for training; and (10) obstacles to be overcome.
d. The amount of information that should appear in the training program (order) depends upon the size of the unit and the particular situation. A small unit requires a training program in more detailed form than does a larger unit. A situation pertaining to a mobilization will demand more centralized control than will a situation normal to peacetime training. During peacetime training, brief orders containing only essential information may be considered satisfactory, since the various units will usually contain a number of experienced officers.
e. It is assumed that the First Battalion, Fifth Marines, has received the regimental training program (order), with annex showing regimental "losses" for the training period, October 1, 19..--, to March 31, 19----- The battalion training program is then prepared and is sent to the various companies of the battalion and such other units as may be concerned. An annex showing battalion "losses" accompanies the battalion training program. The following is an example of such a battalion training program (order) :
General Order] Headquarters 1st BN 5th Marines No.........10] Marine Barracks, Quantico, Va August 20, 19__
1. The following training program governing the training of the 1st Bn 5th Marines during the period, 1 October, 19_..., to 31 March, 19--__, is published for the information and guidance of all concerned.
2. A conference, at which all officers of the battalion will be present, will be held at battalion headquarters at 0930, 25 August, 19---, to discuss this training program. All officers will make a careful study of the training program prior to the conference.
A---------------- B. (!------- ----- ----, Lieutenant Colonel, U. S. Marine Corps, Commanding. Official: D-------------------- E. F-------------------- First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps, 3-BN Distribution : A, B, X. Training Program Headquarters 1st BN 5th Marines Marine Barracks, Quantico, Va 20 Aug, 19__
1. Training Missions.-The training missions of this battaljon are:
a. To secure in this command a maximum of efficiency for the march, camp,and battlefield, with a view to possible active service at any time.
b. To prepare organizations for expansion to war strength.
c. To develop instructors for training recruits in case an emergency should arise.
d. To provide personnel (individuals as well as groups) for increasing units to war strength and to provide personnel for newly organized units.
e. To develop the science and art of war.
2. TIME AVAILABLE.-a. Training period.-- Six months, 1 October, 19____, to 31 March, 19____ (both dates inclusive ).
b. Training week.-Six days, except when shortened by holidays, guard duty, police details, and working details.
c. Training day.-Normally, 4 hours, 0730 to 1130. During periods devoted to marksmanship, the training will be 7 hours, 0700 to 1200 and 1300 to 1500. No limiting hours are prescribed for field exercises. Calculations for field exercises should be based upon a 7-hour day. No instructional periods will be scheduled for mornings that follow night operations. As al general rule, afternoons will be available for administrative work, additional training for deficient men, athletics, troop schools, and ceremonies. Rifle companies will devote one afternoon each weekk to instruction in rifle marksmanship. This may take the form of gallery practice and competition. No training will be scheduled for Wednesday or Saturday afternoons, except that during marksmanship and field exercise periods, training will be scheduled for Wednesday afternoons. Saturday mornings will be set aside for inspection except during marksmanship periods or when other instruction has been ordered by the battaIion commander.
d. Training losses.-( 1) One company will be detailed each day to perform the necessary guard duty and furnish police and working parties for the regiment. The Regimental Headquarters Company and Regimental Service Company will not be so detailed. Guard schedules will be issued every 2 weeks. The normal order of detail will be A, B, (', D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, and M Company. During regimental and battalion field exercises the necessary guard duty will be performed by the regimental band. Guard mounting will be held at 1145, daily, commencing on 30 September, when Company A will take over the duty as guard company. Further details relative to guard mounting will be issued later. Instruction in interior guard duty will be carried on during the days each company is detailed to perform guard duty.
(2) The following holidays are announced: 23November (Thanksgiving Day); 24 December to 1 January (both inclusive) ; 22 February (WdShingtOn's Birthday). (3) Regimental losses are shown in annex A. (4) Battalion losses are shown in annex B.
3. SCOPE OF INSTRUCTION.--a. Training subjects and references --The applicatory system of training will be employed. Training of units and individuals will be conducted as prescribed in the following orders and publications, as applicable:
Marine Corps Order No. 146.
Landing Operations Manual, U. S. Navy.
Landing Force Manual, U. S. Navy.
Field Manuals, U. S. Army,
Small Wars Manual, U. S. Marine Corps.
b. Use of schools Schools will be established and conducted, as follow:
(1) Officers' school.(a) Advanced course.(2) Enlisted men's schools.
(b) Orientation course (current training).(a) Basic course.
(b) Specialist courses.
(c) Drills and tactical training
(d) Field training.
A scheclule of instruction for the officers' school will be issued by this headquarters every 2 weeks. The names of officers who will act as instructors in the several subjects will be included in the schedule. Specialist courses for enlisted personnel will be conducted by the heads of their respective sections; that is, communication ofticers will conduct the instruction of communication personnel, pioneer officers will conduct the instruction of pioneer personnel, etc. With the exception of the specialist courses, all other courses of instruction for enlisted personnel will be conducted under the direction and supervision of company commanders.
c. Standards of proficiency--All material to be inspected shall be complete, immaculately clean, and serviceable. In all training covered by published regulations, the standard for all ranks is accuracy as to knowledge and precision as to execution. In tactical training, the objective is the development of the tactical judgement of all leaders and their replacements by the application of accepted tactical principles and methods to a variety of tactical situations.
d. Inspection.--A proficiency test will be held at the conclusion of each phase of training. It is to be expected that the required standard of proficiency will have been developed on the last day of training in any given subject and it is on that day that the final test will be conducted. However, instruction in a given subject may be discontinued at any time that it becomes apparent that the desired standard has been reached. The time thus saved may be utilized for other instruction. Unit progress charts will be kept by each company commander. Inspections to test proficiency in a subject will be practical and informal in nature and will not interfere with the training.
4. Miscellaneous--a. Programs and schedules. -- (1) Training programs.- Company commanders will Prepare companY training programs for the period indicated and will submit them to this headquarters prior to 15 September. The company training program is not to be regarded as a rigid schedule of execution. It is merely the plan of the company commander, showing the approximate allotment of time and the general scheme for using that time. It is intended to be flexible and must be so considered.
(2) Training schedules.--Weekly training schedules will be submitted to this headquarters before noon on the Wednesday preceding the training week covered by the schedule. Alternate instruction for 1 day will be added to weekly schedules to provide for possible interruption due to inclement weather.
b.Attendance.-Men detailed to special duty will receive not less than 8 hours instruction weekly, except during weeks shortened by holidays or guard duty. Company commanders will submit requests to this headquarters, 1 week in advance, when the attendance of special duty men is desired for instructional periods. Administrative details will be so arranged that every man performing special duty will receive at least 4 hours training each week.
c. Ceremonies.--Weather perrmitting, there will be one regimental ceremony and one ceremony for each battalion weekly, except during the marksmanship period. All units will normally participate in the regimental ceremony. Days for ceremonies are assigned as follows: Monday, First Battalion; Tuesday, Second' Battalion; Thursday, Third Battalion; Friday, Fifth Marines.
d. Athletics.--Participation in athletics is voluntary. Company commanders will encourage intercompany sports and company competition. The battalion athletic officer will coordinte the use of the various athletic facilities.
c. Junior officers.--Except as otherwise prescribed in regulations, each lieutenant will be given a permanent assignment to a clearly defined duty pertaining to the daily command training and administrative activities of his organization.
f. Exercises in leaving post-- Organizations will be prepared to leave the post at any time upon order of the regimental commander. The order for the exercise will include instructions relative to the amount of equipment to be carried and whether preparations will be made for prolonged field service or for only a short period of time.
g. Uniform.--Post regulations prescribe the uniform of the day for different seasons of the year. During training, the uniform of the day may be modified at the discretion of company commanders, depending upon the nature of the training; i. e., dungarees may be worn by Company D during gun drills and by all companies during instruction in scouting and patrolling; shooting coats may be worn during marksmanship training, etc.
h. Instructional methods,-- Instructions in oral orders, messages, range estimation, target designation, hasty sketches, care and display of equipment, and similar subjects, will be carried on concurrently with other training.
A----------- B. C'___________ Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps, Commanding. Official: D----------- E------------- First Lieutenant, U.S. Marine Corps 3-BN Annexes : A-Regimental losses. B-Battalion losses. Distribution: A, B, X.
f. Company training programs are ordinarily made up in tabular form and list the training subjects, the estimated number of hours to be devoted to each subject, and the allocation of these hours by weeks. These forms are convenient and useful, provided they are regarded as flexible. At best, they only estimate the time factor and indicate a proposed scheme for employing that time. They are understood to be tentative programs and should be so considered. It is assumed that Company B, Fifth Marines, has received a copy of the training program of the First Battalion. Using the battalion training program as a guide, the following is an example of the company training program prepared to cover the period October 1, 19.-__, to March 31, 19---- :
4-26. Training schedules.--Training schedules are issued by a commander for that part of the training of his unit that is to be accomplished under his direct command. They are based upon the training programs and orders of higher commanders. The amount of time devoted to the several subjects is dependent upon the state of proficiency of the unit for which the training schedule is prepared, more time being allotted to instruction in those subjects in which the unit is deficient. Training schedules are generally made up in tabular form and include the name of the subject, hours, place, uniform
and equipment, references, and name of the instructor. When properly prepared, no additional information is required for training during the period covered by the schedule. Training schedules are issued to cover relatively short periods of time. The usual period covered
is 1 week, since schedules covering a longer period are likely to be interrupted. In addition to imparting the information necessary to conduct the training, schedules are so arranged that the required standards of proficiency are reached in a minimum of time. When approved by higher authority, training schedules become instruments of execution. This does not mean, however, that a training schedule is to be followed blindly. Should it become apparent that the instruction is not accomplishing the desired result, the schedule should be varied immediately. It is assumed that Company B, Fifth Marines, has received a copy of the battalion training program of the First Battalion and that the company training program has been
prepared. Using these programs as a guide, the following is an example of the weekly training schedule prepared to cover the week ending October 6, 19____.
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