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Military

U.S. Marine Corps - Small Wars Manual (1940 Edition)

Chapter II. Organization.

Section II
THE STAFF IN SMALL WARS

Command and staff responsibility in small wars				2-10
The force commander							2-11
Staff procedure								2-12
The chief of staff							2-13
The first section (personell) F-1					2-14
The second section (intelligence) F-2					2-15
The third section (plans and training) F-3				2-16
The fourth section (supply) F-4						2-17
The special staff							2-18
The adjutant								2-19
The inspector								2-20
The law officer								2-21
The officer in charge of civil affairs					2-22
The chaplain								2-23
The paymaster								2-24
The provost marshal							2-25
The commanding officer of special troops				2-26
The artillery officer							2-27
The air officer								2-28
The communications officer						2-29
The engineer officer							2-30
The surgeon								2-31
The quartermaster							2-32
The chemical officer							2-33
The tank officer							2-34
The munitions officer							2-35
The post exchange officer						2-36
The amusement and welfare officer					2-37

2-10. Command and staff responsibility in small wars. -- A force engaged in small wars operations, irrespective of its size, is usually independent or semi-independent and, in such a campaign, assumes strategical, high tactical, and territorial functions. Strategical decisions and territorial control are usually matters for the attention of the high command in major warfare. In small wars the Force Commander must be prepared to make or recommend decisions as to the strategy of the operation, and his staff must be able to function as a GHQ staff. In short, the force must be prepared to exercise those functions of command, supply, and territorial control which are required of the supreme command or its major subdivisions in regular warfare. More extensive planning is required than would ordinarily be expected of the same size unit that is part of a higher command. For these reasons, it is obvious that a force undertaking a small wars campaign must be adequately staffed for independent operations even if the tables of organization do not specify a full staff complement. Whether or not the executive staff is relieved of all operative functions will depend on the size and composition of the force and the situation. It is possible to visualize an independent regiment in such a situation that the demands placed upon the organization would make it inadvisable for a member of the Executive Staff to operate the various activities pertaining to his Executive Staff section. Likewise it is possible that the Executive Staff of a much larger force can operate the activities of their sections after the situation is thoroughly under control. The staff organization must be fitted to the unit after consideration of its size, composition, and the situation confronting it.

2-11. The Force Commander. -- One of the first decisions of the force commander must make is the size and composition of his staff. He then considers the extent to which he will decentralize authority to his staff and to subordinate commanders. This decision will greatly influence his assignments of officers to specific staff and command duties. The assignment of officers according to their attainments, temperaments, and special qualifications, is one of the most important measures to insure smooth and efficient operation of the organizations or establishments. The larger the unit, the more important this becomes. The force commander must be able to issue directives only, leaving the details to his subordinates. He contents himself with seeing that the work is properly done and that the principle of the directive is not departed from, always holding himself ready to rule on doubtful points and to advise subordinates who are having difficulty.

2-12. Staff procedure. -- a. The staff of a unit or organization consists of those officers specifically provided for the purpose of assisting the commander in exercising his command functions. It is divided into two groups: the Executive, or General, Staff (Chief of Staff; , F-1, Personnel; F2, Intelligence; F3, Plans and Training; and F4, Supply), who comprehend all the functions of command; and the Special Staff, which includes the heads of technical, supply; and Usually, administrative services, and certain technical specialists. Usually, the Executive Staff is not an operating agency; in a small force, Executive Staff officers may, or may not, actually operate one or more of the services under their sections. The organization of the staff is shown diagrammatically in Plate 1. Staff principles and functions, as defined in the "War Department Field Manual 101-5," remain fundamentally the same irrespective of the type of operation.

b. The staff, in close cooperation, works out the plans enunciated by the commander, formulates the orders and instructions for putting the plans into execution, and by observation and inspection insures proper execution. Staff officers must keep themselves informed of the situation at all times, and be able to place before the commander information in such thoroughly digested form as will enable him to come to a sound and prompt decision without having to consider an infinite number of details.

c. Staff conferences, staff visits, staff inspections, measures to insure adequate liaison, and provision for administrative details are the usual methods employed by all staif organizations to facilitate the proper performance of their specific duties. This procedure unifies the efforts of the staff in furthering the accomplishment of the will of the commander.

d. Administrative procedure and the details of the organization and routine of the various staff offices are largely dependent on the requirements of the particular situation. It is important that essential information be immediately available and that every item coming under the cognizance of the staff section or special staff officer concerned receive proper attention and be disseminated to individuals concerned. This entails the formulation of a systematic office routine and proper allocation of duties to individuals. Executive staff sections are not offices of permanent record. Each of these sections keeps a journal (Plate II) which is the daybook of the section. It contains briefs of important written and verbal messages, both received and sent, and notations of periodic reports, orders, and similar matters that pertain to the section, If an item is received or issued orally, it is entered in detail; if written, the entry may be either a reference to the file number of the document or a brief of its contents. A brief notation is also made of instructions and directions pertaining to the section which have been given by the commander or a member of the section to someone outside of the section. The journal is closed when directed by the commander, at the end of the day, a phase, or other period. These journals are the permanent records of the activities of the sections; combined, they form the record of events of the organization. For further details, see FM 1015.



The foregoing diagram shows the staff of a small wars force consisitng of a reinforced brigade. Special Staff Officers are here grouped under Executive Staff Sections under which they would normally perform the major portion of their functions. The diagram presumesa situation in which the function of the Executive Staff is that of direction, and the function of the Special Staff is that of operation.

Arrows indicate important functions with other staff sections.

Asterisks indicate assignments of staff oficers in certain situations, although their functions may be assumed by other members of the staff if not of sufficient importance to warrant the detail of a separate officer.


2-13. The chief of staff. -- a. In a force no greater than a regiment or a reinforced regiment, the executive officer may perform all of the duties of chief of staff. In larger forces, the chief of staff usually will be an officer specially detailed for the purpose. His principal duties are to act as military adviser to the commander and to coordinate the activities of the staff. (See "War Department Field Manual 1015.") He conducts all routine business in order to enable the commander to devote his time and efforts to more important matters. During the temporary absence of the commander, the chief of staff makes such decisions as the situation may demand; in each case he is guided by the policies, general instructions, or his intimate knowledge of the commander's wishes.

b. The chief of staff prescribes the internal organization of the various sections so as to fix responsibility for the initiation and supervision of work in order to secure efficiency and teamwork. He decides which members of one staff section will understudy the members of another staff section. He makes sure that the special staff is properly organized. Each chief of section will be so engrossed in his own work that, at times, one section will infringe on the duties of another. The chief of staff must adjust this at once. His diplomacy and tact in adjusting such situations at the start will have a favorable reaction on the entire command.

c. As the organization progresses, it often develops that certain duties should be shifted from one unit to another. The chief of staff should see that such changes are made promptly. The map section of the engineers has been shifted logically, at times, from that unit to the second section. If a military government has not been established, civil relations may be shifted from the first to the second section.

d. During the concentration period, the chief of staff will be particularly interested in the plans of the staff sections and their arrangements for:

(1) Receiving incoming details and individuals.
(2) Prompt issue of equipment.
(3) Prompt completion of medical and other administrative inspections.
(4) Facilities for training.
(5) Coordination of training of all units.
(6) Organization of the Intelligence Service to meet the probable requirements of the situation.
(7) Organization of the Provost Service to meet adequately the probable demands that will be made upon it in the theater of operations.

e. The chief of staff should supervise the plans for increasing the intelligence personnel and for the establishment of provost services if it can be foreseen that the operations may result in the occupation of a country or a large section of it. The forces of occupation have four weapons with which to act: (a) Moral effect of the presence of troops; (b) intelligence service; (c) provost service (including Exceptional Military Courts); and finally (4) offensive action. The intelligence and provost services should be carefully considered in connection with "peaceful occupation." In the past, scant attention has been given to these services in the preparation of operation plans for small wars operations. As a rule, they have been established only when the necessities of operation forced it upon the higher command. In most cases an increase of personnel in intelligence units will be required over that allowed in organization tables when the operations include the complete occupation of a country or of large areas of it.

f. The provost service, including the exceptional military-court system, represents the military government to the mass of the people, with whom it comes in direct contact, and is the normal active instrument for the maintenance of tranquility, freeing the natives from agitation and intimidation by their own countrymen. The provost service, more than any other element of the forces except the Intelligence Service, should understand the people, their temperment, customs, activities, and the everyday working of the average native mind. It warrants a well-founded and complete organization, including provost marshals and judges with legal knowledge, good and loyal interpreters, and sufficient clerical assistance to dispatch business with justice and celerity.

2-14. The first section (personnel) -- F-l. -- a. The assistant chief of staff, F-1, coordinates the activities of those agencies performing the functions that he is charged with in the "War Department Field Manual 1015." He cooperates with the second section on matters pertaining to prisoners of war, espionage, etc., and with the third and fourth sections in regard to quartering, priorities of replacement, and allotment of time for recreational work. He is responsible for certain provisions of the administrative order, and must cooperate with the fourth section in this matter. Because he is charged with those functions which relate to the personnel of the command as individuals, he is brought into close contact with the adjutant, the inspector, the chaplain, the law officer, the surgeon, the provost marshal, the paymaster, the communications officer, the exchange officer, and the commanding officer, special troops.

b. The first section organizes the personnel of the staff section, and makes assignments of the clerical personnel, orderlies, and specialists therein.

c. Prior to leaving the United States, this section formulates a plan covering the replacements to accompany the force, numbers and classes of replacements to be dispatched later, dates that such replacements are desired, and priorities. This plan may appear as an annex to an appropriate administration order. In determining the number of replacements to be provided, the losses which may be incurred among the various classes of troops must be estimated. An ample margin should be allowed for casualties in transit and during the landing, and consideration given to the climatic and sanitary conditions en route and within the area of operations, the types of operations contemplated, the branch of service, and the time required for replacements to arrive. After arrival in the theater of operations, F-1 should insure by timely planning that complete information as to the needs of the force reaches the appropriate headquarters in the United States in sufficient time for replacements to arrive when needed. He should cooperate closely with the third section in estimating, well in advance of actual needs, changes in conditions that will require replacements, augmentation, or reduction of the Force. When replacements o r reinforcements are recieved, they are distributed in accordance with priorities formulated by the third section.

d. F-1, in collaboration with the Commanding Officer, Special Troops, is charged with the allocation of space to the various headquarters' offices. Whatever the contemplated duration of the occupation, force headquarters should be so located and space so allocated thereat as to facilitate either the expansion or the reduction of its In selecting and allocating office space, the first section activities. confers with all members of the staff relative to their needs, and particularly with the fourth section, which supervises rentals and purchases.

e. Until personnel is specifically designated to take active charge of military government, the first section prepares plans as necessary for its establishment. Usually it will be advisable to organize a special staff section for this purpose. If the military government is an independent organization apart from the force, the first section acts as the liaison agent between the force commander and the staff of the military governor. For details, see Chapter XIII, "Military Government."

f. Since post exchanges are established for the welfare and convenience of the enlisted men, supervision of this activity comes under the first section. See paragraph 236.

g. The first section is charged with the rendition of reports concerning, and the handling of, civilian prisoners or prisoners taken from hostile forces. If a local constabulary is operating in cooperation with the intervening force, such prisoners usually are turned over to the former for trial by the constabulary courts martial or by civil courts; otherwise they are held at the disposal of the force commander.

h. The first section prepares and promulgates regulations governing the conduct of personnel in their associations with friendly natives in an effort to further cordial public relations. Social customs in countries in which small wars operations usually occur differ in many respects from those in the United States. Violation of these customs, and thoughtless disrespect to local inhabitants, tend to create animosity and distrust which makes our presence unwelcome and the task of restoring law and order more difficult.

i. The first section prepares and transmits to the fourth section such parts of the force administrative orders as affect the activities of the first section. These are principally: Replacements; military police; postal service; care and disposition of civilian prisoners and prisoners taken from the hostile forces; payment of the command; and post exchange supplies.

j. The records kept in the office of the first section should be reduced to the minimum. See paragraph 2-12, d. The following documents are needed in order to function efficiently:

(1) Section journal.
(2) A suspense file of orders, memoranda, and letters of instructions, which later are turned over to the adjutant.
(3) Copies of important communications which affect the force continuously. (The originals are kept in the adjutant's files.)
(4) A situation map should be kept posted, showing the status of matters pertaining to the first section at all times.

2-15. The second section (intelligence) F-2. -- a. General. -- (l) The assistant chief of staff F2 constitutes the Bureau of Enemy Information. This section must keep in close touch with all other staff sections and is responsible for the dissemination of enemy information which may affect the operations of those agencies. This includes not only information of the military situation, but the political, economic, and social status of the occupied area, together with the attitude and activities of the civil population and political leaders insofar as those elements may affect the accomplishment of the mission.

(2) The duties of the intelligence officer are outlined in "War Department Field Manual 101-5." In addition, the following are of special importance in small wars "operations:

(a) The names and descriptions of leaders, areas in which they operate, and the methods and material means which they employ in combat.
(b) Hostile propaganda in occupied territory, adjacent territory or countries, and our own country; and the methods, means, and agents used for its propagation.
(c) Liaison with government and local officials of the occupied country or areas, and with the civil representatives of our own and foreign governments therein.
(d) Close liaison with the commander of aviation in arranging for aerial reconnaissance.
(e) Maintenance of cordial relations with the local, American, and foreign press, and censoring of all press releases.

b. Duties prior to embarkation. -- (1) During the concentration phase prior to embarkation, the second section will be primarily concerned with obtaining all available information relative to the country in which it is proposed to operate. Monographs, maps, and other pertinent information normally should be furnished by the Force General Staff. In no type of warfare is the latest current information more vital. For this reason the second section should immediately establish liaison with the correspnding sections of the naval and military services and with the nearest representatives of the State Department.

(2) The selection, organization, and training of the commissioned and enlisted intelligence personnel of both the headquarters and combat units should be carried on concurrently with the F2 estimate of the situation. (See paragraph 2-13, e.) Every effort should be made to obtain personnel conversant with the language of the country. The force of interpreters will generally be augmented by the employment of natives. The second section, in conjunction with F4, should compile and obtain approval of an "Allowance and Pay Table for Interpreters," based on the scale of wages of the country concerned, and funds should be allocated for payment thereunder prior to embarkation.

(3) A resume of the available information of the theatre of operations should be completed as soon as practicable and reproduced and disseminated throughout the command. The following form is suggested for compiling this information. Some items listed therein may not be applicable in every situation, and additional items may be of great value in certain situations.

A FORM OF STUDY OF THE TEATER OF OPERATIONS

1. POLITICAL -- a. History.
        b. System of Government.

          (1) Form of government (dictatorship, republic, etc.).
          (2) Organization and method of operation.
          (3) Political subdivisions.
        c. Internal political situation.
          (1) Present government (head of state and other political leaders; personalities).
          (2) Political issues.
          (3) Analysis of parties.
          (4) Regional and social differences.
          (5) The press.
        d. International politics.
          (1) Bearing of internal political situation on international policies.
          (2)Foreign policies
          (3)Foreign relations
        e. Summation (How does this affect the contemplated operations?).

2. ECONOMIC --a. General economic characteristics.
        (1) Natural resources
        (2) Foreign policies
        (3) Foreign relations
      b. National productive capacity
        (1) Agriculture.
        (2) Mining.
        (3) Manufacture.
        (4) Shipbuilding.
      c. Commerce.
        (1) Domestic trade.
        (2) Foreign trade.
      d. Transportation.
        (1) Railroads.
        (2) Highways.
        (3) Water.
        (4) Air.
      e. Communication.
        (1) Cables.
        (2) Radio.
        (3) Telegraph.
        (4) Telephone.
      f. Finance (method of financing government).
      g. Population (economic aspects; present population analysis of population, labor, and social conditions).
      h. Plans for industrial mobilization.
      i. Economic penetration by foreign interests.
      j. Influence of economic situation on foreign relations.
      k. General conclusions (reference to economic self-sufficiency, capacity for production of war supplies and food supplies, and degree of dependence on maintenance of trade routes).

3. GEOGRAPHY (PHYSICAL).1--a. General topography and hydrography.
      b. Rivers and water supply.
      c. Climatic conditions.
      d. Critical areas (areas the loss of which would seriously hamper the country under consideration).
      e. Vital areas (areas essential to the country concerned).
        (1) Routes of approach.
        (2) Roads, trails, and railroads.
        (3) Harbors and beaches near critical areas.
        (4) Communications.
        (5) General terrain considerations.
      f. Conclusions (the effect of general terrain considerations on operations. The most favorable theater of operation from a standpoint of physical geography).

4. PHYSCOLOGICAL SITUATION.2--a. General racial characteristics; types, races, etc.
      b. Education.
      c. Religion.
      d. Attitude of inhabitants toward foreigners.
      e. Susceptibility to propaganda (influence of church, press, radio, or other agency).
      f. Conclusions.

5. COMBAT ESTIMATE.--a. Coordination of national defense.
        (1) Military forces (government and opposition).
        (2) Supreme commander (government and opposition).
      b. Personnel.
        (1) Estimated strength of components of both government and hostile forces.
        (2) Government forces and leaders.
        (3) Hostile forces and leaders.
      c. Training, efficiency, and morale (government and hostile forces).
        (1) Individual.
        (2) Unit and combined training.
        (3) Training of reserves.
        (4) System of promotion of officers.
        (5) Efficiency.
        (6) Morale.
      d. Recruiting methods.
        (1) GOvernment forces.
        (2) Hostile forces.
      e. Equipment and supplies available.
        (1) To government forces.
          (a) On hand.
          (b) Replacement possibilities and sources.
        (2) To hostile forces.
          (a) On hand.
          (b) Replacement possibilities and sources.
      f. Method of conducting combat.
      g. Navy.
        (1) Strength.
        (2) Organization.
        (3) Training, efficiency, and morale.
      h. Conclusions.

6. GENERAL CONCLUSION (Relative value should be given to all factors and final conclusions must be based on the study as a whole).

(4) (a) Available maps are usually inaccurate and of small scale; their procurement is costly and the supply limited. They have often proved so unreliable as to detail as to be valueless except for the purpose of correction. It is often more practical and economical to obtain maps only for headquarters and executive staff sections of all units, providing means for the reproduction and distribution of corrected sections or of new maps made after arrival in the theater of operations. In small-wars operations where engineer troops have not been present, map reproduction has been made a responsibility of the second section; in other cases, the map-reproduction section of the engineers has been transferred to the force headquarters intelligence section. In any event, the second section is responsible for the procurement and distribution of maps.

(b) Aerial photography, in addition to its other military uses, will play an important part in the development of new maps and obtaining accurate information for the correction of old ones after reaching the theater of operations. The procurement of an initial supply of film and other materials for this purpose is essential.

(5) In order to establish favorable press relations at the start, and to avoid the publication of harmful and incorrect information, a definite policy must be adopted as to who will receive representatives of the press, what information will be furnished, and what means will be provided for obtaining it. Even though the campaign may be too insignificant to have correspondents and photographers attached for the entire operation, they will invariably be present at the beginning. In some cases, officers have been permitted to act as correspondents; if this is done, a definite agreement must be made relative to the class of information which will be furnished.

(6) If a military government is not established, civil relations with the local officials, native civilians, and foreign nationals, including citizens of the United States, become a function of the second section. Best results will be obtained if the policy for dealing with the various elements is established before the force arrives in the theater of operations. After arrival, the local representatives of the State Department should be consulted and such changes made in the policy as appear to be desirable.

(7) Organizations which are opposed to intervention in the affairs of other nations, regardless of the cause, have at times disseminated their propaganda to the force. The second section is responsible for guarding against this by locating the source and notifying, through official channels, the proper civilian officials. An early statement of the facts relating to the situation, by the commander, will usually forestall any ill effects from such propaganda.

(8) Intelligence funds, which are not a part of the quartermaster allotment, are required for the proper functioning of the second section. F2 is responsible for requesting the allotment of such funds prior to the embarkation of the force.

c. Duties in the theater of operations.-- (1) The F2 section is primarily an office for the consolidation of information supplied by lower units, special agents, and outside sources; and for the prompt distribution of the resulting information to other staffs, sections, and organizations concerned. If circumstances require the second section to assume the duties of the duties of the officer in charge of civil affairs or other functions, additional divisions must be organized within the section under competent assistants.

(2) The following intelligence agencies are available to F-2 for the collection of information: Secret agents, voluntary informers, aviation, intelligence agencies of lower organizations (brigades, regiments, areas, etc.), other governmental departments.

(a) Secret agents, hired from among the inhabitants in the theater of operations, have proved valuable collectors of information in the past. They must be carefully selected and, once employed, a close watch should be kept on their activities. Usually such agents have been politically opposed to the native forces whose activities have resulted in the intervention. If they attempt to use their position for their own aggrandizement or to embarrass personal enemies, they are useless as sources of information and handicap the intervening force in gaining the confidence of the population. However, when reliable agents have been obtained in past operations, they have provided extremely valuable information. It is often advisable to pay them low regular wages and to reward them with bonuses for timely and accurate information.

(5) The major portion of the information obtained from voluntary informers is often false, grossly distorted, or too late to be of value unless the informer has personal reasons for making the report. Liberal cash payments for information that proved correct and timely have sometimes brought excellent results. Hired agents and informers have been of assistance in the past in uncovering the hostile sources of supply. The source of the information must be kept inviolable in order to protect the informers and to insure an uninterrupted flow of information. The universal tendency of even reliable hired agents and voluntary informers is to protect anyone with whom they are connected by politics, business, or blood.

(c) It is not improbable that high officials of both the party in power and the opposition may "secretly support insurrectionary activities in order to insure themselves an armed following in the field in case the intervention should be ended suddenly. Such a condition increases the difficult task of securing agents who will report impartially on all disturbing elements.

(d) Excellent results have been obtained through the cooperation of business establishments which maintain branches or other contacts throughout the occupied areas. For financial reasons, the central office of such concerns must have timely and impartial knowledge of actual or prospective conditions throughout the country. In many cases they are dependent upon the intervening forces for protection of their personnel and property, and it is to their advantnge to restore peaceful conditions as rapidly as possible. In seeking to establish such a contact, the intelligence officer should look for a business establishment with which the force normally does business. Liaison should be maintained through members of the command who visit the business house in the routine course of duty and who are publicly known to do So. It is unfair, as well as poor intelligence technique, to risk the life or the business career of a man in his community through carelessness or loose talk. Many companies have accurate and detailed maps or surveys on file which may be obtained and reproduced to supplement the small-scale maps available to the force.

(e) Aerial reconnaissance is invaluable in locating large movements, encampments, and affected areas. When the opposition has been broken into small groups, the lapse of time between gaining information and the arrival of a ground patrol is usually too great to give effective results. The use of observation aviation in close support of infantry patrols operating against small hostile forces is of doubtful value. The airplane discloses the presence and location of the patrols and enables the hostile groups to avoid them or to choose the time and place for making contact. Any ambush that can be located from the air should be uncovered in ample time by the exercise of a little care on the part of the patrol leader. Aerial photographic missions often will be the best or only means for securing accurate information of the terrain in the theater of operations. For further details, see Chapter IX, "Aviation."

(f) Subordinate units provide the force commander with detailed information on hostile activities, the terrain and geography, and the political and economic situation in the areas in which they operate. As combat intelligence for the purpose of gaining contact with and destroying hostile armed opposition, such information usually will be of value only to the unit first gaining it. But such information, when collected from the entire theater of operations and transformed into military intelligence, provides the commander with the information he must have to dispose his forces in accordance with the situation and to prepare for eventualities. F2 should coordinate the activities of the intelligence sections of subordinate units. The second section of a subordinate organization, quartered in the same city or town as force headquarters, should not be used as an appendage to the force intelligence section, but should be permitted and required to function in its normal manner. However, F-2 should utilize every opportunity to develop a close understanding and personal relationship with subordinate intelligence officers.

(g) F-2 should maintain close liaison with other agencies of our government established in the theater of operations. Information from such agencies concerning the higher officials of the government of the occupied state and of the opposition party, as well as of the economic condition of the state, may be accepted as sound. But because of the limited circle within which they move, as well as for other reasons, their opinion concerning the effect of the national economy on the peace of the state, and of political and social trends to which the higher classes are unsympathetic, must be accepted with care. The same applies to the opinions of America businessmen domiciled in the country. An officer possessing a working knowledge of the language, a knowledge of the psychology of the people, good powers of observation, and who has associated with the average civilian in the outlying districts for a month, is in a position to possess a sounder knowledge of the fundamental disturbing factors at work in the country that an official or businessman who may have spent years in the capital only.

(h) Close contact should be maintained also with representataives of our government in bordering states, especially with naval and military attaches. This is particularly applicable when the affected area borders the frontier.

(3) The same agencies for securing information are available to brigade (if the force consists of more than a reinforced brigade) and regimental intelligence officers as are available to F2, except that it will be unusual for them to contact representatives of our own or foreign governments directly. Reconnaissance aviation is usually available on request. If a regiment is operating independently in a small wars situation, the regimental intelligence section should be strengthened to fulfill adequately the functions of the F2 section.

(4) (a) Even the battalion in small wars rarely operates as a unit. Its companies often occupy the more important villages in the battalion area and, in turn, send out subdivisions to occupy strategically located settlements and outposts. The battalion intelligence officer should spend as much time as possible in the field in order that he may become thoroughly familiar with the situation throughout the area.

(b) As soon as it is established, every detached post or station must organize and develop its own intelligence system. Each garrison must initiate active patrolling for the purpose of becoming familiar with the routes of communication, topography and geography of the district, the inhabitants, and the economic and political forces at work in the community. Routine patrols over the same roads or trails and at regular intervals of time should be avoided; rather the objective should be to discover new trails and to explore new areas with each successive patrol and to confuse the opponents by varying the dates and hours of departure. Local garrisons must become so familiar with their subdistricts that any changes or unusual conditions will be immediately apparent. Local commanders and their noncommissioned officers should be able to proceed to any point in their subdistrict via the shortest and quickest route and without the assistance of a guide or interpreter.

(c) Maps furnished from the higher echelons must be supplemented by road, sketches and the correction or addition of all pertinent military information. This work should be undertaken immediately upon arrival, beginning with the most important unmapped roads or trails and continuing throughout the occupation until accurate large-scale maps are available of all subdistricts. A supplementary chart should be compiled indicating the distances between all points of military importance and the time factor involved for each type, of transportation available and for each season of the year.

(d) A record should be kept of all prominent citizens in the locality, whether friendly or hostile to the intervention. Each record should show: The full name of the individual as taken from the baptismal or birth certificate (both when these records (differ); the name by which the person is customarily known; all known aliases, if any; and his reputation, character, and activities. Additional information should be entered on the record as it becomes availfible. Duplicates are forwarded to the next higher echelon. It is only by this means that accurate and continuous information can be maintained on the inhabitants of the occupied areas, which will prove invaluable when questioning individuals, for orienting newly arriving officers, and for preparing charges when it is desired to bring suspects to trial for their activities.

(e) Intelligence activities are greatly handicapped if the officers attached to battalions and smaller units in the field are not familitir with the local language. This is especially true with Bn-2. Each officer should endeavor to learn the language sufficiently well to engage in social activities and to dispense with interpreters as soon as possible.

(f) Outpost commanders mity obtain information by:
Establishing a service of information through the local mayor or senior civil official;
Weekly reports from the senior civil official in each settlement within the subdistrict;
Questioning commercial travelers;
Interrogating persons or the relatives of persons injured or molested by the hostile forces;
Close surveillance of relatives of hostile individuals;
Examination of prisoners; and
Constant observation of the movements of all able-bodied men in the district.

(g) Methods of extracting information which are not countenanced by the laws of war and the customs of humanity cannot be tolerated. Such actions tend to produce only false information and are degrading to the person inflicting them.

d. Intelligence records.-- (1) Study of the theater of operations.-- A thorough knowledge of the theater of operations in small wars is highly important to all officers from the force commander tQ the junior patrol or outpost commander. Information compiled prior to arrival in the theater must be supplemented by reconnaissance and research on the ground. See paragraph 2-15, b.

(2) Special studies.--From time to time the intelligence officer may be called upon to make special studies of particular localities, situations, or other factors arising during the course of the campaign.

(3) The intelligence annex.-- A complete intelligence annex may be issued at the beginning of the operations to accompany the campaign plan. Such an annex is not usually necessary in small wars operations unless strong, organized resistance to the intervention is anticipated. The form for the intelligence annex given in "War Department Field Manual 1015" may be used as a guide.

(4) The intelligence estimate.-- (a) The intelligence estimate during the early phases of intervention may closely parallel the F2 estimate of a major war. It is that part of the commander's estimate of the situation which covers the hostile forces and their probable course of action. The following outline may be used m n guide for such an estimate:


F-2 ESTIMATE

(Heading)

File No.
Maps:
1. HOSTILE FORCES: Dispositions; strength; physical conditions; morale; training; composition; supply and equipment; assistance to be expected from other sources. 2. ENEMY'S CAPABILITIES: Enemy's mission; plans open to enemy; analysis of courses open to the enemy. 3. MOST PROBABLE COURSE OF ENEMY ACTION. (Signature.)

    (b) As the intervention continues and the hostile forces are dispersed into small groups, purely military operations usually become subordinate to civil problems. The following form may be used as a guide for an F-2 estimate of the political, economical, and civil situation:

    ESTIMATE OF THE POLITICAL, ECONOMICAL, AND CIVIL SITUATION
    From: Date and hour
    To: Date and hour

    Unit
    Place
    Date and hour

    File No.
    Maps:
    1. GENERAL STATE OF TERRITORY OCCUPIED:
    State under the appropriate number of subparagraphs, a general summary of hostile activities as it exists in each subdivision of the state or territory, alloting a subparagraph to each geographic subdivision.

    2. ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION: Discuss attitude of the leaders, whether political or military. The general attitude of the population, whether friendly, tolerant, apathetic, or hostile. Local assistance or obstruction we may expect to our efforts.

    3. ECONOMIC SITUATION:
    Condition of business. Employment situation. Price of foodstuffs. Condition of crops. Influx or outflow of laborers. Conditions amongst laborers.

    4. POLICE OPERATION:
    Police conditions. Cooperation of native forces and native Civil Police with our own. Type of crime for which most arrests are made, whether major or minor offenses. Amount and reliability of information furnished by local force or police. Arms in use by local police, type and number. If police are subject to local political leaders for their jobs. Sources of their pay and a comparison of it with other salaried positions in the locality.

    5. MILITARY OPERATION:
    Either discuss or refer to B-2 Reports.

    6. POLITICAL SITUATION:
    A discussion of the local political situation in various sections of the state or territory, as it affects the state as a whole. A discussion of national politics and political questions. The statements or actions of national political leaders or the national political governing body. Political situation in adjacent states which may have an immediate bearing on the local situation.

    7. MISCELLANEOUS:
    Such items of interest bearing on the political, economic, and civil situation as does not come belong under the proceeding paragraphs.
    (s) B
    Major
    F-2

    (5) The Journal.--See paragraph 2-12, d.

    (6) The Intelligence Report.--(a) The information which has been collected and evaluated during a given period is disseminated by means of an intelligence report or an intelligence memorandum. The period of time to be covered by the report is prescribed by higher authority, or by the unit commander. It is issued by all combat units down to and including the battalion or corresponding command for the purpose of informing superior, adjacent, and subordinate organizations of the situation confronting the unit preparing the report. It may be supplemented by a situation map or overlay. In small wars operations, it may be advisable to prepare separate reports on the military, economic, and political situations, or, if they interlock, a combined report may be submitted. The military report is similar to that given in "War Department Field Manual 1015." The following form may be used as a guide in preparing a combined report:

    PERIODIC REPORT OF INTELLIGENCE


    From: Date and hour
    To: Date and hour
    File No.
    Confidential
    (Heading)



    1. ATTITUDE OF CIVIL POPULATION TOWARD MILITARY GOVERNMENT OR OCCUPATION:
    Hostile, neutral, or friendly; by social classes.
    2. POLITICAL ACTIVITIES:
    Activity of political parties during period-deductions.
    3. ECONOMIC CONDITIONS:
    Condition of crops, prices of foodstuffs, if low or high, reason therefor, pests, epidemics, disasters, labor and wages, economic conditions which may tend to produce disorder and unrest.
    4. LOCAL DISTURBANCES:
    Agitation or disorder caused by rumors, secret organizations, disputes over property, criminal element.
    5. PROSECUTIONS:
    Prosecution of prominent people such as newspaper men, civil officials, etc.
    6. HOSTILE FORCES:
    Names of leaders, strenght; number and kinds of arms, localities frequented--activity during period, normal or abnormal--deductions.
    7. HOSTILE ACTIVITIES:
    8. MILITARY OPERATIONS:
    Synopsis of military activity to offset hostile operations and unsettled conditions.
    9. ARMS AND EQUIPMENT:
    Number of arms and equipment captured, surrendered, or taken up, with general locality.
    10. MISCELLANEOUS.
    11. CONCLUSIONS:
    (a) General state of territory occupied.
    (b) Possible future trend of events or courses of action open to the opposition.
    (c) Most probable future trend and course of action, based on a sound estimate only.


    (Signature.)

    (b). Reports submitted by organization commanders in the field should be complete and detailed. It is better to send in too much information than too little. A report which is meaningless to the commander of a small detachment may be essential to the next higher echelon when considered with the information received from other sources. On the other hand, F-2 reports to higher authority may be in the form of brief summaries, omitting the mass of detail collected by the combat organizations. Where the immediate transmission of items of information is necessary, the most rapid means of communication available is employed.

    (c) The rapid dissemination of military intelligence to all organizations concerned is fully as important as the collection of original information. The distribution of intelligence reports should include the smallest separate detachment in the field. Because of the wide dispersion of troops in usual small wars operations, intelligence reports are often the only means by which a patrol commander can be kept informed of hostile activities, or plan his operations to intercept probable enemy movements.

    (d) In view of the peculiar status of our forces in small wars operations, in which they frequently become involved for the sole purpose of providing military aid to the civil power of a foreign nation in order to restore peace within the boundaries of the state, the use of the term "enemy" should be avoided in all records, reports, and other documents.

    (7) The intelligence work Sheet.--As information is received by the second section, it must be recorded in an orderly fashion preliminary to the preparation of the intelligence report. This is done by means of the intelligence work sheet. No form for this is prescribed, but a convenient method is to classify the information as it is received under the headings used in the intelligence report, starting each heading with a new sheet. This provides a satisfactory means for segregating the information, and greatly facilitates the preparation of the intelligence report.

    (8) The intelligence situation map.--A situation map, showing the latest reported disposition of the hostile forces, is kept by the second section.

    2-16. The third section (plans and training)--F-3.-a. The assistant chief of staff F3 performs the specific duties outlined in "War Department Field Manual 1015."

    b. One of the first duties of F3 may be to prepare letters of instruction for the immediate subordinate organization commanders as outlined by the force commander. Such instructions are secret. They indicate the successive steps to be taken if the operations progress favorably, or contemplated plans in case of reverse or other eventualities. In major warfare, letters of instruction are not common in units smaller than a corps but in small wars situations, which are usually extremely vague and which present so many possibilities,some instructions of this nature will assist the commander's immediate subordinates in the execution of his scheme of maneuver and campaign plan.

    c. The third section prepares the necessary organization, movement, communications, and tactical plans. Organization of the combat units includes the priority of the assignment of replacements, and recommendations for desirable changes in armament and equipment. In conjunction with F2, he estimates the strength, armament, equipment, and tactics of the opposing forces, and determines the necessity for the attached supporting arms with the Force such as aviation, artillery, tanks, etc., and the appropriate strength thereof. Every available means of communication must be utilized; generally additional equipment and personnel will be required as a shortage of The communication material may influence the plan of campaign. The prompt preparation of an air-ground liaison code is very important.

    d. In conjunction with the special staff and F-4, the third section determines the number of units of fire of normal and special ammunition to be carried with the force initially, and requests replacements from the United States as necessary.

    e. F3 prepares and issues orders for all troop movements. However, he prescribes only the general location and dispositions of the technical, supply, and administrative units and the actual movement orders for these units are issued by the staff section concerned after consultation with and approval of F-3. In considering the combat missions to be assigned to the various organizations, areas, or districts in the theater of operations, he makes appropriate redistribution of personnel or requests replacements when necessary. Because of the time factor involved in the redistribution of men or the arrival of replacements from the United States, troop movements must be planned farther in advance in small wars operations than in regular warfare.

    f. In small wars, the units of the force are generally so widely distributed throughout the theater of operations that the commander may have difficult y in keeping abreast of the situations existing in the various elements. Operations orders should usually be phrased in general terms and the details of execution delegated to subordinate commanders. This necessary decentralization of authority is simplified by partition of the theater and the organization of the command into areas, districts, and subdistricts.

    g. By intimate contact with other staff sections, F3 keeps informed of all pertinent matters affecting the combat efficiency of the force. He maintains close liaison with the special staff officers concerning all matters in which their duties, technical knowledge, and functions will affect the operations. He coordinates the efforts of subordinate units or the various area organizations, the supporting arms (aviation in particular), and armed native organizations, to the end that the greatest combat effectiveness is assured.

    h. In addition to situation maps, overlays, and other data permitting a ready grasp of the tactical situation, the third section keeps a suspense file of all memoranda or orders emanating therefrom, and a work sheet and a section journal.

    2-17. The fourth section (supply )--F-4.-a. The assistant chief of staff F1 is charged with the preparation of plans, policies, priorities, and decisions incurred in the supervision and coordination of the technical, supply, and administrative services, in matters of supply, transportation, evacuation, hospitalization, and maintenance. F4 must so exercise his supervision of these services that the troops will not be incapacitated by the lack of sufficient clothing, food, and ammunition, and so as to relieve their commanders of the worry as to whether these articles will be furnished. The specific duties of the fourth section are outlined in "War Department Field Manual 1015."

    b. F4, in conjunction with the third section, recommends changes in types and amounts of individual, organization, combat, supplementary, and special equipment, and the units of fire of normal and special ammunition to be carried initially. In cooperation with the first section, F4 estimates the civilian labor needed and obtainable in the theater of operations and the number and composition of specialists units to be attached to the force for the service of supply, hospitalization, communication, and transportation. He determines the amount of supplies that can be obtained from local sources and prepares a schedule for shipment of replacements. The amounts and types of transport to be taken will depend upon the tactical and administrative requirements, the general nature of the terrain in the theater of operations, and the availability and suitability of native transport. In many situations, a large reduction in allowances or a complete change in type from that specified in organization tables, or both, may be required. See Chapter III, "Logistics."

    c. The fourth section normally coordinates, supervises, and directs the supply services without in any way operating their specialities. Ordinarily these services deal directly with F-4, who settles routine matters and refers those which involve new policies to the chief of staff for decision.

    d. Since our relations with the local government in the theater of operations is usually friendly, F-4 makes the necessary arrangements with the customs officials relative to the clearance of supplies and material for the force.

    2-18. The special staff.--a. The special staff consists of all officers, other than the executive staff (chief of staff, F1, F2, F-3, and F4), specifically provided for the purpose of assisting the commander in exercising his command functions. This special group includes the heads of the technical, supply, and administrative services, and certain technical specialists. In the Force, the executive staff and the special staff are separate and distinct, while in lower units they usually merge into each other, one officer frequently being charged with the duties of one or more special staff officers as well as with those of a member of the executive staff. Special staff officers normally assigned to a small wars force of a reinforced brigade or larger organization are listed in the succeeding paragraphs.

    b. Although the special staff sections usually function under the coordination of the executive staff sections (See Plate I, paragraph 2-12, a), such staff officers are not precluded from dealing directly with the chief of staff or the force commander when necessary. Special staff officers are not "under" any one officer of the executive staff but function with any or all of them, and with each other.

    2-19. The adjutant.--The functions of the adjutant correspond with those prescribed for the adjutant general in "War Department Field Manual 1015." In lower units, these functions are combined with those of F1.

    b. (1) The Force postal service is operated, under orders of the adjutant, by the postal officer, or enlisted mail clerk when no postal officer is appointed. It is advisable, however, to place an officer in charge of the post office, particularly when a large portion of the force is in the field, and cash for the purchase and payment of money orders must be handled by messenger.

    (2) The postmaster at the point of concentration or port of embarkation should be consulted for information on the postal forms required.

    (3) Prior to sailing, and periodically thereafter as may be necessary, an order should be published giving the correct mailing address of the command, and recommending that officers and men advise their correspondents to send money only by domestic, rather than by international money orders.

    (4) If the prompt and efficient dispatch cannot be effected by the authorized postal section complement, the adjutant should not hesitate to request the temporary or permanent assignment of additional personnel. Officers and men of the command must be able to send and receive mail with facility; valuables must be secure while in transit within the Force; and the mail clerk must receive promptly the signed receipt of the addressee for registered and insured articles on the postal form provided for that purpose.

    c. Combat organizations conducting operations in the field should be relieved of as much routine administrative work as possible . Company first sergeants and company clerks may be assembled at battalion or area headquarters where, under the supervision of Bn-1, they are responsible for the preparation of muster rolls, pay rolls, service record-book entries, routine correspondence, etc.

    2-2o. The inspector.--a. In addition to the functions prescribed in "War Department Field Manual 1015," the inspector in small wars operations is usually required to investigate claims for damages resulting from the occupation.

    b. Inspections.--(1) Inspections should not interfere with tactical operations.

    (2) When patrols escort the inspector from one outpost to another, they should be of a reasonable strength; it is preferable that the inspector accompany ordinary patrols demanded by routine operations.

    (3) The inspector assumes no authority while making his inspection and issues no orders unless specifically authorized to do so by the force commander.

    (4) No report should be made of minor discrepancies which can be and are corrected locally.

    (5) When the inspector makes recommendations or notes deficiencies in his report, he should see that proper action is taken in accordance with the policy or orders of the force commander. This is particularly true with reference to matters affecting the morale and efficiency of the troops.

    c. Investigations.-One of the of the most important duties of the inspector in small wars is to investigate matters which involve controversies between individuals of the force and local inhabitants. These investigations should be promptly, thoroughly, and fairly made, bearing in mind the interests of the individuals concerned and those of our Government. The finding of facts should be recorded and filed for future reference to meet those charges of impropriety which so often follow our withdrawal from the theater of operations.

    d. Claims and damages.--(1) Claims and damages may be a source of embarrassment to the command if they are not investigated and acted upon promptly. When a special claim board is not designated, the inspector generally acts in that capacity.

    (2) In ever small war, claims, involving personal injury or property damage, are presented which could be settled immediately and at great savings to the Government if funds were made available for that purpose.

    (3) If an injury has been done to any individual or private property is damaged, it should be reported to the proper authority without delay. The latter should order an immediate investigation even though no claim has been presented. Damages which are the result of neglect or misconduct on the part of members of the command should be determined before the departure of the individuals concerned from the locality. The investigation should determine whether the damages are the result of a wilful act, negligence, accident, unintentional injury, or of ordinary wear and deterioration. Private or public property occuped or employed by our forces should be inspected by the local commander or his representative and the native inhabitants concerned and a record made of all deficiencies or irregularities. Such an inspection is made upon taking possession of and upon vacating the property.

    (4) Prior to withdrawal from the theater of operations, the force commander may issue a proclamation indicating that all claims for damages must be submitted to the designated authority before a given date. This enables the investigation and adjustment of the claims before the evacuation of the area. It has the disadvantage of encouraging a flood of unreasonable claims.

    (5) No claims should be allowed to damage to property or for personal injury which is incident to military operations or the maintenance of public safety, when no criminal intent or carelessness is in question.

    (6) Records of all data affecting claims, including receipts and releases, should be retained with the files of the Force or otherwise disposed of as directed by higher authority.

    2-21. The law officer.--In small wars operations, the law officer is the legal adviser to the force commander and his staff on questions of local civil law, in addition to the functions prescribed for the "Judge Advocate" in "War Department Field Manual 101-5."

    2-22. The officer in charge of civil affairs.See "War Department Field Manual 101-5."

    2-23. The chaplain.--See "War Department Field Manual 101-5."

    2-24. The paymaster.--a. The paymaster is charged with those duties prescribed for the "Finance Officer" in the "War Department Field Manual 101-5," which pertain to the payment of the command, including mileage and traveling expenses of commissioned officers. In small wars operations, he must be prepared to advise the force commander regarding the trend of foreign exchange, especially whether the command shall be paid in whole or in part in United States currency or local currency.

    b. The paymaster does not pay travel expenses of enlisted men, except when travel by air is involved, nor does he handle the expenses of transportation of dependents, which payments are made by the disbursing quartermaster. In the absence of a disbursing quartermaster, the paymaster may make disbursements of funds pertaining to the Quartermaster's Department, charging such disbursements to the quartermaster's appropriation involved.

    2-25. The provost marshal.--a. In addition to the normal duties prescribed for the provost marshal in "War Department Field Manual 101-5," in small wars operations he has many functions relative to the control of the local civilian population, some of which are listed below:

      (1) Control of circulation of civilian population.
      (2) Detention of and bringing to justice offenders against the Executive Orders and the Proclamation of Intervention.
      (3) Repression of crime.
      (4) Enforcement of the Executive Orders and execution of the mandates of the military authority.
      (5) Execution of sentences of military courts.
      (6) Arrest and detention of suspects. Investigation of reports bearing on civilian activities.
      (7) Special investigation of complaints made by civilians against the members of the occupation, municipal police, etc.
      (8) Observe civil officials in performance of their duties and report any official violation of this trust.
      (9) Custody of certain prisons and their inmates; enforcement of prison regulations; and supervision of prison labor.
      (10) Issue and cancel firearms permits in accordance with Force Orders.
      (11) Control the storage and release of firearms, ammunition, and explosives imported into the country. The sale of ammunition to persons possessing arms on permits in accordance with Force Orders.

    b. Native prisonsers should never be confined with personnel of the Intervening force; separate prisons should be used. F-2 is permitted to have free access to all native prisoners for interrogation and examination. The first section is responsible for such action as may be necessary concerning prisoners in the hands of hostile forces, and for individuals who become embroiled with the friendly civil population or are arrested by the local authorities.

    2-26. The commanding officer of special troops.--The commanding officer of special troops normally performs those duties prescribed for the "Headquarters Commandant" in "War Department Field Manual 101-5." In many cases he will also be the provost marshal, and charged with the duties of that officer.

    2-27. The artillery officer.--The artillery officer has the functions set forth for the "Chief of Artillery" in "War Department Field Manual 101-5," and, in addition, normally serves in the dual capacity of commander of the artillery units with the force. If a landing against opposition is anticipated, the artillery officer is responsible for the artillery annexes attached to the operations orders.

    2-28. The air officer.--See "War Department Field Manual 101-5." In his dual capacity of commander of the force aviation, he is responsible for the execution of all duties and operations assigned to such aviation by the force commander.

    2-29. The communications officer.--a. General duties.--(1) The communications officer performs those functions prescribed for the "Signal Officer" in "War Department Field Manual 1015." In addition he:

    (a) Coordinates communication activities with the U. S. Naval Forces, native communication agencies, and communication establishments owned by commercial concerns.

    (b) Assumes responsibility for all naval codes and ciphers.

    (c) Supervises all encoding and decoding of dispatches.

    (2) If the headquarters of the force is so located that its communication system becomes of primary importance in the chain of Naval Communication and is the principal agency for handling dispatches for the State Department, a separate communications officer with rank corresponding to that of the chiefs of section of the executive staff should be assigned to the special staff. This officer would not necessarily have to be a communications technician. By virtue of his rank and position he would be able to advise the force commander relative to communication matters, and in generalexecute the communication policy, leaving the technical details of training and operation to a technical assistant or to the commander of the force communication unit.

    b. Classes of communication.--The classes of communication to be handled as wire or radio messages, and the classes to be handled by letter, should be determined prior to embarkation. Authority to handle class E (personal messages) by radio should be obtained.

    c. Additional communication personnel and equipment.-Organization tables do not provide sufficient personnel or material, especially radio equipment, to meet the normal requirements of small wars operations. The communication officer is responsible for augmenting the trained personnel and obtaining the additional equipment demanded by the situation.

    d. Communication policy.-- (1) Irrespective of the size of the force, there are certain duties relative to policy which fall to the communications officer in small wars. The more extended the force, the more involved the policy will be. Part of the policy will be dictated by the Naval Communication Service, as defined in Naval Communication Instructions, while a part will be incident to the type of intervention.

    (2) The communications officer should ascertain whether the communication facilities of the country concerned are privately or publicly owned and operated, their extent, and the communication agencies employed. He should determine what, if any, communication agencies are devoted exclusively to military activities, obtaining the call signs and frequencies of the radio establishment. He should also ascertain what communication facilities are owned and operated by foreign companies. Upon arrival in the theater of operations, he should verify this information.

    2-30. The engineer officer.--See "War Department Field Manual 101-5."

    2-31. The surgeon.--a. See "War Department Field Manual 101-5."

    b. In small wars operations, when the force maybe widely dispersed, the force surgeon should consider:

    (1) The necessity for additional medical personnel.

    (2) Extra supplies of medical materials, quinine, and similar medicaments.

    (3) Portable dental outfits.

    (4) The preparation of medical supplies for airplane drops.

    2-32. The quartermaster.-- In addition to the functions prescribed in "War Department Field Manual 1015," the force quartermaster is charged with:

    a. The operation of sales stores.

    b. The procurement of local transportation, including riding, draft, and pack animals, either by hire or purchase.

    c. Recommending changes in existing system of accountability, when required.

    d. Making estimates and requests for quartermaster funds, and supervising the allotment of funds as approved by the force commander.

    e. Custody and disbursement of quartermaster funds, and funds from other branches of the naval service, as authorized.3

    f. Payment for supplies and services purchased; and for damages and claims, when authorized.3

    g. Payment for labor and transportation hired.3

    2-33. The chemical officer.--See "War Department Field Manual 101-5."

    2-34. The tank officer.--The commanding officer of the tank unit attached to the force is the technical and tactical advisor to the force commander in all matters pertaining to the use of tanks or armored cars, and to defense against mechanized forces.

    2-35. The munitions ofiicer.--The munitions officer performs those functions specified for the "Ordnance Officer" and the "Munitions Officer" in "War Department Field Manual 101-5."

    2-36. The post exchange officer.-The post exchange officer is a distinct member of the force special staff. His duties are:

    a. To obtain initial funds for establishment of the exchange.

    b. To procure exchange supplies by purchase or on consignment.

    c. To plan for the distribution of post exchange stores to outlying garrisons.

    d. To conduct the exchange in accordance with regulations.

    2-37. The amusement and welfare officer.--a. An officer may be specifically designated as the amusement and welfare officer and assigned to the force special staff, or these duties may be delegated to a staff officer in addition to his regular duties

    b. His duties are:

    (1) To obtain amusement funds from proceeds of the post exchange, and from the government fund "Recreation for enlisted men."

    (2) To procure and administer Red Cross and Navy relief funds.

    (3) To establish libraries at the bases and hospitals.

    (4) To purchase and distribute current periodicals.

    (5) To obtain and distribute athletic equipment and material for other forms of recreation.

    c. In the initial phases of a small wars operation, the duties of the amusement and welfare oflicer often may be assigned to the chaplain.


    1Such geographical items as have been considered under political or economic headings should be omitted.
    2Discuss only such items not covered fully elsewhere in the study. Refer to other paragraphs where appropriate.
    3If an officer other than the force quartermaster is designated as disbursing assistant quartermaster, the duties specified under e, f, and g are performed by that officer.



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