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U.S. Marine Corps - Small Wars Manual (1940 Edition)




Chairman				14-8
Electoral mission staff			14-9
Commissioned officers			14-10
Enlisted personnel			14-11
Civilian personnel			14-12
Instruction of personnel		14-13
Replacements				14-14
Pay and allowances			14-15

14--8. Chairman.-The Chairman of the Electoral Mission is designated by the President of the United States. Usually, he is a flag officer or general officer, and holds the title of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary during the period covered by his assignment to the Electoral Mission. In order to carry out his duties in connection with the elections, he holds the appointive position of President of the National Board of Elections of the foreign country concerned.

14-9. Electoral mission staff.-The Electoral Mission staff consists of such officers as are required to carry out the mission in a particular case. Although the size and requirements may vary to some extent, the following tabulation covers the usual staff requirements:

Vice Chairman.
Executive Officer.
Secretary of Electoral Mission.
Secretary of National Board of Elections.
Assistant Secretary of National Board of Elections.
Intelligence and Press Relations Officer.
Assistant Intelligence and Press Relations Officer.
Legal Advisor.
Assistant Legal Advisor.
Communications Officer.
Disbursing and Supply Officer.
Assistant Disbursing and Supply Officer.
Medical Officer.

14-10. Commissioned officers.- a. The officer personnel of the Electoral Mission should have rank commensurate with the importance of their duties. Whenever practicable, officers who have had prior duty with electoral missions should be selected for the more important positions. A knowledge of the language of the country concerned is one of the most important qualifications.

b. When United States forces are present in the country concerned for the purpose of restoring law and order, the officers assigned to duty with the Electoral Mission should not be taken from the United States forces unless suitable replacements are immediately available. In normal small wars situations, a proportionately large number of officers are required, and the United States forces present cannot be expected to have extra officers available. In general, the qualifications for officers assigned the Electoral Mission are identical with the qualifications required in the case of officers serving with the United States forces. The selection of a few of the latter officers for duty with the Electoral Mission may be practicable. The replacement of a large number of the officers serving with the United States forces by officers who are unacquainted with the local situation appears to be inadvisable during this critical period.

14-11. Enlisted personnel.-a. The most important qualification of enlisted personnel selected for duty with an Electoral Mission is fitness for independent duty requiring a large measure of responsibility. They should be able to speak, read, and write the language of the country concerned. Men selected should have a scholastic background of at least 2 years of high school, and preferably should be high school graduates. A clear record is an important qualification together with a reputation for tact, good judgment, and patience. For duty in remote areas, in districts known for their unhealthful living conditions, and in sections of the country where it is known guerilla bands operate, it is a decided advantage to assign men who have previously served in those areas to electoral duty with the boards of minor political subdivisions. Their prior experience with the military and police situation, in combating unhealthful conditions, and in the procurement of food and shelter, will enable them to assume their electoral duties with less difficulty than men who are unaccustomed to their surroundings.

b. In the event that United States forces have been in the country concerned for some length of time to preserve law and order, the majority of the enlisted personnel for electoral duty should be taken from among those forces. Since the employment of a number of men on electoral duty will tend to reduce the activities of the forces engaged in purely military pursuits, it is obvious that they must be replaced by an equal number of troops from the continental United States or other source. Inasmuch as the electoral period is one which requires a maximum effort in maintaining law and order, it may be necessary to increase the military forces during the electoral period.

14--12. Civilian personnel.-A number of United States civilians should be included in the personnel of the Electoral Mission. This is done to reduce the likelihood of the charge that the elections are being controlled by the military, a charge to which an enterprise of this nature is peculiarly susceptible. Since employment of any considerable number of qualified civilians will generally be impracticable due to the expense involved, it will be possible to employ only a small number of expert legal advisors and technical men, particularly individuals who have made the study of elections and government their life work.

14--13. Instruction of personnel.-As stated in paragraph 14-11a, one of the most important qualifications of enlistecl personnel selected for electoral duty is a knowledge of the language of the country concerned. In order to improve that knowledge, a language course is included in the instruction received prior to taking over their electoral duties. The language course is confined to the essentials of the language, with particular emphasis placed upon vocabulary adapted to the particular requirements of electoral duty. In addition, they receive instruction in the electoral law and procedure. The electoral law is studied by sections. Each section is discussed in connection with its historical background, its applications, and weaknesses that may have been disclosed in prior elections. The course covered by such a school depends primarily upon the time available and the need for the instruction. One month's instruction may be considered the minimum time required. A longer course of instruction will probably be found to be advantageous.

14-14. Replacements.-The personnel of the Electoral Mission will have the same losses, due to sickness and other casualties, as other United States forces serving in the same country. For the proper execution of electoral procedure, certain positions of the various electoral boards are filled by members of the Electoral Mission. In order that their work may continue, trained replacement must be available in sufficient number to take care of the estimated number of losses due to sickness and other casualties. Losses among United States forces who are already in the country may be used as a basis for computing the radio of replacements required.

14-15. Pay and allowances.- a. The government of the country in which the elections are being conducted normally should provide a monthly money allowance for officers of the United States forces performing duty with the Electoral Mission. This allowance is to cover extra expenses incurred in the performance of electoral duties.

b. When performing electoral duty in cities and towns garrisoned by United States forces, enlisted personnel of the Electoral Mission may be subsisted with those forces. If this is impracticable, they should be furnished a per diem cash allowance for subsistence and lodging. This allowance should be ample to provide them with suitable subsistence and lodging, and should be uniform for all enlisted personnel serving on electoral duty throughout the country.

Functions of Electoral Mission and National Board of Elections

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