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U.S. Marine Corps - Small Wars Manual (1940 Edition)




Recruits 			l2-19
Unit training			12-20
Officers			12-21
Field operations		12-22
Troop leading			12-23

12-19. Recruits.-The methods adopted for the training of recruits are dependent upon the military situation at the time of enlistment. Normally, recruits are sent to a central recruit depot for a stated period of training. Several recruit depots may be conducted in different sections of the country. In some cases, recruits may be retained at the local station or military post, trained at that station, and later assigned to duty in that locality or sent to another military post that may have been unsuccessful in obtaining the required number of recruits. The adoption of a singler method may be practicable in some areas while in others a combination of training methods may be necessary in order to meet local conditions. Some troops are more effective when serving in their own community, while others will be found to operate more effectively in other localities due to changes in climate, environment, and food. In some situations, it is better to employ troops away from their home localities to prevent the use of their authority improperly against personal enemies or for the benefitof friends. Recruiting officers should be supplied with uniforms and equipment sufficient to outfit the number of recruits desired from the various sections of the country. The training of the recruit has two distinct objects in view, namely, training as a member of a military combat organization and training for police duties. The military instruction of a recruit covers the basic individual training of a soldier including target practice and drill. A recruit training textbook in the language of the country concerned will be found extremely useful. Instruction of the recruit in police duties includes instruction in the constitution of the country, civil and criminal laws, powers and limitations in making investigations and arrests, and the assistance the constabulary is to render local civil officials. A handbook in the language of the country concerned, covering the police duties will materially aid in presenting this instruction and will also provide a useful guide to all members of the constabulary. For the larger cities, it may be advisable to train units for the primary duties of municipal police with only secondary instruction in military duties. The early training of competent police forces for the larger cities is one of the most effective methods to strengthen the local government and secure the good will of the better class of inhabitants. Medical enlisted personnel is obtained by enlistment of qualified individuals for duty with the medical service.

12-20. Unit training.-Unit training is carried out by individual units of the constabulary as a part of their routine training in order to maintain their military and police efficiency. This training embraces unit combat training, target practice, field firing, specialist training, instruction in law enforcement and, in some cases, instruction in elementary academic subjects. Instruction schedules are so arranged that training does not interfere with the normal military and police duties of the unit. In preparation for special operations, units may be more effectively trained at a central point prior to engaging in such operations.

12-21. Officers.-As soon as practicable after the formation of the constabulary, a school for the training of native cantlidates for commission should be organized. The staff of this school is composed of officers of the United States forces, who are specially qualified for this work. Rigid physical qualifications are adopted to cover the admittance of candidates. All candidates should have sufficient scholastic qualifications to insure their ability to absorb the military instruction. The period of instruction for such a school is 1 year. At the end of this period, the candidate is given a probationary commission that is confirmed after 1 year of service with the troops. This method of instruction provides a steady supply of native officers to replace the members of the United States forces. The gradual replacement of commissioned medical personnel of the United States forces is effected by commissioning native physicians as vacancies occur. This is usually commenced just prior to withdrawal of all United states forces.

12-22. Field operations.-a. Each race of people has its peculiar characteristics and customs. These may be modified somewhat under influence, but cannot, be entirely destroyed or supplanted. These characteristics and customs should always be recognized and considered when dealing with persons of different races.

b. In the organization of the constabulary, consideration should be given the form of warfare to which the troops are accustomed. No attempt should be made to impose entirely new forms of tactics unless a long period of training and indoctrination is available. In emergencies, or when only a limited time is available for training, it may be better to organize the troops according to native methods. Different types of organizations, equipment, and tactics will often be required in various localities.

12-23. Troop leading.-u. Strict justice exerts a marked influence on the discipline of native troops. A few lessons suffice, as a rules to impress upon them that orders are to be obeyed. When this idea has been implanted in their minds, they generally become amenable to discipline.

b. During the earlier field operations of the constabulary, it is usually advisable to employ mixed units composed of members of the United States forces and the constabulary. Later, the United States forces are used ouly as a reserve available to support the constabulary in emergencies. The constabulary gradual]y assumes full responsibility for the maintenance of law and order. In active operations, the officers of the constabulary should be models of leadership, inspiration, and an example to their troops. Members of the United States forces serving with the constabulary must possess good judgment and extreme patience, coupled with tact, firmness, justice, and control. Firmness without adequate means of support may degenerate into bluff. Tact alone may be interpreted as weakness.

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