U.S. Marine Corps - Small Wars Manual (1940 Edition)
Chapter XI. DISARMAMENT OF POPULATION.
Par. GENERAL 11-1 ESTIMATE AND PLANS 11-2 LAWS, DECREES, ORDERS ANDINSTRUCTIONS 11-3 MANNER OF COLLECTING ARMS 11-4 COLLECTING AGENCIES 11-5 CUSTODY OF ARMS 11-6 DISPOSITION 11-7 PERMITS 11-8 CONTROL OF SOURCES OF SUPPLY 11-9 MEASURES FOLLOWING DISARMAMENT 11-10
11--1. General.-a. Due to the unsettled conditions ordinarily prevailing in a country requiring a neutral intervention, and the existence of many arms in the hands of the inhabitants, the disarming of the general population of that country is not only extremely important as a part of the operation of the intervening forces but also to the interests of the inhabitants themselve. It is customary in many undeveloped or unsettled communities for all of the male population upon reaching maturity, to be habitually armed, notwithstanding that such possession is generally illegal. There is a logical reason for the large number of weapons in the hands of the inhabitants. The arbitrary political methods which frequently result in revolution, and the lawlessness practiced by a large proportion of the population, is responsible for this state of affairs. The professional politicians and the revolutionary or bandit leaders, as well as their numerous cohorts, are habitually armed, Legal institutions cannot prevail against this distressing condition; persons and property are left at the mercy of unscrupulous despots, until in self-preservation the peaceful and law abiding inhabitants are forced to arm themselves.
b. If it has not been done previously by the intervening forces, the disarming of the people should be initiated upon the formal declaration of military government, and must be regarded as the most vital step in the restoration of tranquility. The disarming of the native population of a country in which military occupation has taken place is an imperative necessity.
c. One of the initial steps of an intervention is the disarming of the native factions opposing each other. lf this action is successful, serious subsequent results may be averted, To be effective, this action must be timely, and the full cooperation of native leaders must be secured through the proper psychological approach. The disarmament can be effected only through the greatest tact and diplomacy. It is only one of several successive steps in the settlement of the local controversy, and any agreement effected must insure not only ultimate justice but immediate satisfaction to all contending parties. To secure this concession, the arbiter must have the confidence of the natives and must be ready, willing, and able to insure the provisions of the agreement. This involves the responsibility to provide security not only for the natives who have been disarmed but for the individuals depending upon them for protection. This implies the presence of the arbiter's forces in sufficient numbers to guarantee safety.
d. Peaceful inhabitants, voluntarily surrendering their arms,should be guaranteed protection by those forces charged with the restoration and maintenance of peace and order. Where it possible to disarm completely the whole population, the military features of small wars would resolve themselves into simple police duties of a routine nature. Obviously, considering the size of the population,the extent of territory, and the limited number of available troops, any measures adopted will not he 100 percent effective. However, if properly executed, the native military organizations and a large proportion of the populace may be disarmed voluntarily; many others will be disarmed by military or police measures designed to locate and confiscate arms held clandestinely, These measures will limit the outstanding arms to those held by a few individuals who will seek to hide them. In many instances, these hidden arms will be exposed to the elements or to deterioration which in time will accomplish the same end as surrender or confiscation. Although complete disarmament may not be attained, yet the enforcement of any ordinance restricting the possession of arms will result in the illegal possession of such arms oldy by opposing native forces, outlaws or bandits, and a few inhabitants who will evade this ordinance as they would attempt to do with any unpopular legislation. Comparatively few of this latter class will use their weapons except in self-defense. Thus the inhabitants are partially segregated at the outset of the negotiations. The disarming order will probably not influence the professional guerrilla fighters to give up their weapons but, such source of supp]y and replenishment of weapons and ammunition within the country will be practically eliminated.
11--2. Estimate and Plans.--a. Prior to the issuance of any order or decree disarming the inhabitants, it is necessary to make an estimate of the situation and analyze all features of the undertaking, the powers and limitations, the advantages and disadvantages, and then make plans accordingly. The plans should include the following provisions:
(1) The measures necessary to strengthen the local laws.
(2) The civil or military authority issuing the disarming orderor decree.
(3) The forms necessary to enforce the order or decree.
(4) The form of the order or decree.
(5) The method of promulgating the order or decree.
(6) The measures and supplementary instructions to place the order in effect.
(7) The designation and preparation of depots, bui]dings, and magazines in convenient places for the storage of the arms, ammunition and explosives.
(8) The disposition of the munitions collected.
(9) The method of accountability for such munitions. including the preparation of the necessary forms, receipts, tags, and permits to be used in this system.
(10) The arrangements for the funds necessary to execute the disarmament.
(11) The designation of the types and classes of munitions to be turned in.
(12) The exceptions to the order or decree, definitely and plainly stated for the information of subordinates. (Special permits to individuals.)
(13) The agencies (civil officials or military connnanders),who will collect, guard, and transport the material.
(14) The supplementary instructions for the guidance of the agencies charged with the execution of the order or decree.
(15) The instructions governing the manufacture and importation of munitions.
(16) The instructions governing the sale and distribution of munitions manufactured or imported.
(17) The time limit for compliance and penalties assigned thereafter.
b. Small wars take place generally in countries containing primitive areas where many of the inhabitants depend on game for their fresh meat. The peasants in the outlying districts accordingly are armed with shotguns for hunting, as well as for self-protection. Many demands for the retention of such arms will be made on this score and they should be satisfied in accordance with the seriousness of the situation, the justice of the request, and the character of the individual making it.
c. A feature of the disarming of the inhabitants which is a source of difficulty and misunderstanding is the question of retaining their machetes, cutachas, knives, and stilettos. Machetes in these countries are of two general types ; one is for work and the other for fighting. The working machete is practically the only implement found on the farms or in the forest; it is used for clearing and cultivating land as well as harvesting the crops. It would be obviously unfair to deprive the natives of this general utility tool. It is distinguished by its heavy weight, the blade being broader and slightly curved at the end away from the handle, and without a guard or hilt. The fighting machete or cutacha has a hilt and is narrow, light, and sharp. Sometimes working machetes are ground down into fighting weapons but these are readily distinguished. Directions issued for the collection of arms should contain instructions so that subordinates may be informed of the difference in order to insure the collection of these dangerous weapons, and to avoid depriving the peasants of their implements which mean their very livelihood. Similarly, one finds that the natives are almost always armed with some kind of knife. They are used when packing animals and for all kinds of light work; they are often the only implements used in eating; they are used in butchering, in trimming the hoofs of their animals, and for many other chores. Certain weapons are obviously for fighting only and these are banned without question; these are the stiletto or narrow blade, dagger type of weapon. They have little or no cutting qualities but they are deadly.
d. The disarming order, or supplementary instructions thereto, should describe these weapons sufficiently to properly guide the subordinates who will execute the order. They should provide that cutachas will not be permitted to be carried at any time; agricultural machetes will not be permitted on the public roads or in public gatherings; stilettos will not be permitted at any time or place.
e. Care should be taken to allow sufficient time for all inhabitants to turn in their arms, and opportunity to turn in arms must be assured. If sufficient time is allowed, or if instructions to turn in arms are not widely published, a number of inhabitants may have arms in their possession though willing to turn them in. They will be fearful of the consequences, and through their ignorance will constitute a ready field for recruiting for bandit ranks. This is particularly true in remote areas. It is therefore most important that time, notice, and opportunity be given all concerned.
11-3. Laws, Decrees, Orders, and Instructions.-a. In most countries, there are statutes restricting the possession of arms and explosives. As a rule these laws are not enforced rigidly and even at best are not sufficiently comprehensive to meet the immediate requirements. The laws and their enforcement agencies must be strengthened by appropriate measures to insure the effective execution of the measures intended.
b. The first step in disarming the population is to issue a disarming order forbidding all inhabitants to have in their possession firearms, ammunition, or explosives, except under special circumstances to be determined by a specific authority. This order is directed to the authority who will be responsible for its execution. It specifies that the prohibited articles will be turned in to the proper officers of the forces of occupation, who will receipt and care for such as are voluntarily surrendered, but that such articles as are not voluntarily surrendered will be confiscated. It will further stipulate that after a certain date the illegal possession of arms, ammunition or explosives will render the person apprehended liable to punishment. The details of carrying out this order are properly left to the discretion of appropriate military authority.
c. The official who has the authority to issue the disarming order will be indicated by the nature of the intervention. In a simple intervention where the civil authorities are still in charge, a decree might be issued by the Chief Executive, or a law might be enacted in proper form and sufficiently forceful to fit the situation. Such decrees have been issued in emergencies in the past and have proven effective. In case a military government is established, the military governor would issue the decree or order. Under some circumstances the commander of the military or naval forces might issue the disarming order.
d. To give the order the force and character of a public document it should be published in appropriate official publications of the government for the information and guidance of the citizens of the country. This method not only gives the order an official character but insures its prompt and legal distribution throughout the country. The order should be published in the native language and, as necessary, in the language of the intervening forces. Circumstances will determine the time limit in which the prohibited munitions must be surrendered; after which date their possession will be illegal. This will depend upon the ability of the natives to comply before a given date, or the availability of the forces to make it effective. The necessity for explosives required for the routine peaceful vocation of some inhabitants should not be overlooked. Prohibitory restrictions against their possession or use would materially interfere with industrial and commercial enterprise and development. So, in keeping with the policy of fair and liberal treatment of the natives, provision must be made for these special cases. Before incorporating in the disarming order any exception thereto, the military authorities should consider first, the conditions which might result under legalized use of firearms and explosives by certain favored individuals (civil officials, land owners, etc.,), and second, the extent and character of supervision that will be required to control their use and their sources of supply. Once these points have been determined, the order should be prepared to incorporate the necessary provisions. The disarmament of that portion of the native population living in remote and lawless districts should only be undertaken with a full appreciation of the responsibilities involved. Ranch overseers, mine superintendents, paymasters and local civil authorities should be given special consideration in the matter of arms permits. There is such a thing as being over-zealous in the matter of disarmament, and it is often advisable to make certain concessions to responsible parties in order to secure their full cooperation in the enforcement of the laws.
11-4. Manner of Collecting Arms.-a. When opposing native forces are operating in the field, the intervening forces, if acting as an arbiter, should institute measures to secure the arms of all the opposing forces by organizations prior to their disbanding. Every endeavor should be made to have the full cooperation of the leaders and to prevent the escape or departure of any subordinate leader and his followers with arms in their possession. Disarming such organizations involves disbanding them and providing for their return home. With the twofold purpose of insuring the turning in of their arms and the return of the natives to their homes, a price is often paid to individuals for their weapons in accordance with a schedule fixing the rates for the various types of firearms and ammunition. This is a reasonable charge against the native government and the money from this source must be assured before proceeding. This procedure may be a source of chicanery and fraud to deceive the authorities and get money dishonestly. Every precaution should be taken to see that money is paid only for the arms of men regularly serving with the units at the time of the agreement. Precautions must be taken that the armories and magazines are not raided after the agreement is in effect and that the same individuals do not repeatedly return with such rifles for payment. On the other hand, ready money in sufficient quantity from the local government must be available at the time and place of payment agreed upon or where the forces are found.
b. If part of the native forces renmain armed, the full benefits of disarmament are not obtained, and serious consequences may later develop. When this occurs, some of these small armed groups may take the field and continue their operations not only against the local government but also against the intervening forces. This would place the intervening forces in an embarrassing position. After having disarmed the forces which might have been capable of controlling the movement, the intervening forces may be required either to halt the disarming negotiations and again rearm those forces or send out its own troops to take the field against these armed groups. In other words, to be fully effective, disarmament must be practically complete.
11-5. Collecting Agencies.-a. The following agencies may be employed to collect firearms, ammunition, explosives, etc.:
Provincial governors and local police authorities, particullarly the communal chiefs, the chiefs of police, and the rural policemen.
The military forces of occupation.
Special agents or operators of the Force Intelligence office, or the Provost Department.
The native constabulary forces.
If military government has been instituted, the Provost Department may very appropriately be assigned the task of collecting the munitions, the responsibility for the storage and custody of same, keeping records and submitting necessary reports. In other situations where a native constabulary has been organized there may be advantages in assigning this duty to that organization.
b. (1) When employed as a collection agency, the civil authorities are issued supplementary instructions at the time the disarming order is promulgated, stating explicitly the manner in which firearms, ammunition, and explosives will be collected and stored or turned over to the military forces. These instructions may be amplified where necessary by field commanders who will visit the various communities and issue instructions to the local officials, imposing such restrictions as to the time and place the prohibited articles will be surrendered. The civil officials may be required to make personal delivery of the collected articles to the military forces or to make report of same and the material collected periodically by designated agencies.
(2) The success attained through employment of civil officials depends upon the spirit and conscientious effort which they display. Some who have been thoroughly indoctrinated with the advantages of the idea will have remarkable success; others who consider the disarming order an unjust imposition will perform their duties in a perfunctory manner, and still others will use the order to promote dishonest practices, disarming some of the people and permitting others to retain their arms, for personal, political, or monetary reasons.
(3) The disarming of the inhabitants through the intervening instrumentality of the civil officials possesses many redeeming features over the utilization of the armed forces for the same purpose. It is the most peaceful means of accomplishing the desired object, less provocative, and the least likely to engender antagonism Or create friction. It gives the peaceful, law-abiding citizens, who are worn ont by the constant political abuse of the past, the opportunity to hand over gracefully their weapons without being subjected to what they might consider the indignity of making a personal surrender to the military authorities. Misunderstanding will thus be avoided that might otherwise occur if the armed forces are employed, because of a difference of language and custom. Moreover, it relieves the armed forces of the unpleasant responsibility and eliminates the factor of personal contact, at a time when the population views the intentions of the forces of occupation with doubt and suspicion.
c. It is not to be assumed that an order as exacting and far reaching in its effect as this disarming order will meet with willing and universal compliance. As a consequence , it may be necessary to resort to more stringent enforcement in order to compel the recalcitrants to surrender their weapons. The civil officials may be directed to secure the prohibited articles, or the armed forces may conduct a house-to-house search for concealed weapons. Both means may be employed simultaneously. Stringent measures may be unavoidable and wholly justifiable, in an effort to promote an early return to peace and order.
d. (1) Special agents or operators of the Force Intelligence office or the Provost Department, may trace, or make collections of weapons. Their action is taken on what is considered reliable information and generally applies to comparatively large quantities of firearms and ammunition held by certain prominent individuals. The success of these operations depends upon the skill and courage of the agents Who have to rely in a great measure upon their own initiative and resources.
(2) The Intelligence Service through special operatives may be employed to trace imports of arms and ammunition during a period of several years preceding the occupation, Government permits and correspondence, custom house files, and other records will aid in identifying receipts of these munitions, and a search for their subsequent disposition may be undertaken. Deliveries of rifles, special weapons, automatics, machine guns, howitzers, artillery pieces, ammunition, and explosives are noted and compared with issues, sales, and expenditures.
e. (1) Upon the establishment of a native constabulary, this organization may assist the military forces in the collection and confiscation of firearms, These troops may perform valuable service in this connection through their knowledge of the country and their familiarity with the habits of the people.
(2) After a reasonable time has elapsed, or when it appears that the civil officials have exhausted their usefulness in the collection of arms, the military authorities may issue an order to the effect that after a given date the military forces will be responsible for the collection of arms and the gathering of evidence for the conviction of persons involved.
11-6. Custody of Arms.-a. Included in the plans for disarming the population must be the designation of personnel necessary to receive and care for the material turned in. Buildings and storerooms suitable for the safekeeping of the weapons, munitions, and explosives must be provided prior to the actual receipt of the material; the volume of this material may assume unwieldy proportions by the large increments arriving during the early days of the disarmament. An accurate system must be devised to keep a complete record of everything received, and the material tagged and stored in such manner as to identify it easily; the place should be of such construction as to preserve the material and also to make it secure. When material is received in condition which makes its keeping dangerous, authority should be requested to destroy it or to dispose of it otherwise. A frequent inventory and inspection of all such material in custody should be made not only by the custodian official but by inspecting officers.
b. Receipts should not be given for weapons delivered upon payment of money, nor for arms and material confiscated. There will be, however, a number of reputable citizens including merchants authorized previously to deal in these stocks, who wish to comply with the latest order and turn their stocks in to the custody of the military forces. The latter are obliged to accept this material and must be prepared to deliver it when a legitimate demand is made for its return.
c. Instructions should be issued designating and limiting the agencies which will accept the material and give receipts for same. There have been instances in the past, where sufficient time has not been allowed for proper organization and preparation for the methodical receipts of arms; in the avalanche of arms turned in simultaneously at many places, junior officers, in good faith, have accepted the material and have given personal receipts for it without having a proper place for its safe keeping. In the rush of official business, they did not demand a receipt from other officers to whom they delivered the material collected. No records were made of the ultimate disposition of the material. When proper authorities subsequently requested information concerning the final disposition of special material, the information was furnished only after a most difficult search. In many cases, the material could not be located or its disposition determined due to the lack of records.
d. If only certain officers are designated to issue receipts on the prescribed forms, and if the material is assembled by areas or districts, confusion may be avoided. Such confusion may arise from junior officers giving personal receipts in several different districts in which they may serve during the disarming period with no record being mmde of the receipts. The receipts should be in standard form, and should indicate the name and residence of the owner of the weapon, and the date and the place of issue of the receipt. The material or weapon should be properly identified and other appropriate remarks should be added. This receipt should be signed by the officer authorized to receive the material.
e. District Commanders should be required to submit monthly reports of all arms and ammunition collected within their respective districts. The larger part of the weapons collected will be obsolete and in such poor condition as to render them of little or no practical value; those which have been paid for or confiscated may be destroyed by burning or dumping at sea. Those of better type and condition may be retained or issued to the native constabulary troops. The collection of arms cannot be said to be terminated at any given time; it is a process which continues throughout the occupation.
11-7. Disposition.-a. When arms have been received from various sources, they are classified as follows:
(1) Material for which a receipt has been issued.
(2) Material confiscated, collected upon payment of money, or otherwise received.
b. The custody of material under "class one" implies responsibility to guard and preserve it for return to the rightful owner when law or decree permits.
c. The material under "class two" is further divided into serviceable, unserviceable, and dangerous material. The serviceable material may be of a type, caliber, and condition suitable for reissue to native troops, local police, special agents or others whom it is desired to arm. The question of uniformity, adaptability, and ammunition supply is involved. The unserviceable. material, or that whose keeping is hazardous, is disposed of as directed; firearms are burned, the metal parts being used in reinforcing concrete, or disposed of in other effective ways to preclude any possible future use as a weapon. Sometimes material is dumped in deep water beyond recovery. Dangerous material, such as explosives, should be stored in special places apart from other material.
d. Whenever any material is disposed of in any manner, permanent records should be made of the transaction. Receipts should be demanded for that which is reissued or transferred no matter in what manner. When material is destroyed or otherwise disposed of, a certificate should be made, attested to by witnesses, which voucher should set forth in sufficient detail by name, mark, and quantity, the identity of the material disposed of. This will prove a valuable aid if and when information is ever demanded at a later date.
e. In general, records are made and subscribed to by witnesses whenever material is destroyed or disposed of otherwise. Appropriate receipts should be demanded whenever material is issued in accordance with orders from higher authority. Care must be taken that no weapon or material is issued or otherwise disposed of except in an authorized manner.
f.. Great care should be exercised in keeping material which has been confiscated, or whose ownership is transferred to the government, segregated from that material which the government simply holds in custody. The latter is not subject to destruction nor available for issue, Beware of the ever present souvenir hunters of all ranks who wish to get possession of articles of unusual design, of historical interest, or of special value. All such unusual weapons or articles create a peculiar interest whenever they come into our custody. They arouse the attention and interest of enlisted men or civilian workers who assist around the magazines or storerooms in the receipt or storage of such material. These unusual articles which are in greatest demand as souvenirs, and the disposition of which is most closely watched and remembered by subordinates, are the very articles that the original owners wish to have returned sooner or later. Minor indiscretions in the disposition of material received assume serious proportions in the minds of the natives which are not at all in keeping with their actual importance.
11-8. Permits.-a. The military authorities determine who shall be empowered to issue arms permits, to whom they may issue them, and any other pertinent restrictions. Under certain circumstances District Commanders and District Provost Marshals may be the designated agencies. In any event the process must be coordinated to prevent conflict or overlapping authority. Certain civil officials, such as provincial governors, judges, and others exercising police functions, may be authorized to carry arms. Certain permits are issued which are honored throughout the country; some are issued which are good for more than one district or jurisdiction but not for the whole country; in either case the higher authority approving same notifies the responsible officers in the several subordinate jurisdictions concerned. When permits are requested, information is furnished concerning the nationality, character, commercial and political affiliations, occupation, and address of the applicant and the necessity for the granting of the permit. Officers issuing permits must exercise great care to the end that permits be issued only where real necessity exists; any application which has the appearance of being made simply to enhance the prestige of the individual making it, as often happens, should be promptly refused.
b. Permits should be issued on a standard form with a description of the person to whom issued, together with the character and serial number of the firearm, the purpose for which it is to be used, and the locality in which it is to be carried, These permits should be nontransferable and should be renewed each year or the firearms must be turned in to the authorized agency. Holders of permits should be warned that the unauthorized use of their firearms will result in certain disciplinary measures in keeping with the gravity of the offense and the punitive authority of the official; this may include revocation of the permit and confiscation of the firearm, and even fine or imprisonment or both.
c. Permits should be issued only for the possession of pistols,revolvers, and shotguns. The privilege of possessing rifles should be refused consistently. It should be exceedingly difficult to secure any kind of permit.
d. In order to maintain a strict account of all arms permits in effect, all issuing officers should be directed to keep a record of all permits issued by them, copies of which should be forwarded to the district commander. The district commanders in turn should submit to Force Headquarters, annually or semiannually, a list in duplicate of all permits issued within their respective districts. In addition to this annual or semiannual report, they should also render a monthly change sheet in duplicate, containing a list of permits issued and cancelled during the month.
11-9. Control of Sources of Supply.-a. As the military force is charged with the preparation and execution of regulations concerning the possession and use of firearms, ammunition, and explosives, it is only proper that it should exercise similar supervision over the sources of supply.
b. The military forces should control the entire legal supply of arms and ammunition. This control may be exercised either (1) by requiring purchases to be made from official sources by the Provost Marshal General and turning this ammunition over upon requisition to the District Commanders, who may distribute it to their provost marshals for sale in limited and necessary quantities to persons having permits, or (2) certain merchants may be authorized to sell munitions. If there are munitions manufacturing plants in the country, they must be controlled; in addition, the introduction of munitions into the country must be restricted vigorously.
c. Any person, or representative of a business or firm desiring to import these articles should make written application for permission for each separate shipment of arms, ammunition, or explosives, in which application should appear in detail, the quantity and character of the stores to be imported, the use for which supplies are contemplated, the name of the firm from which the stores are to be purchased, and the port from which they will be exported. All applications should be forwarded through local Provost Marshals or other designated authorities who should endorse the request with such information or recommendation as will establish the character and identity of the applicant. In case there is a legal restriction on the importation of arms, the approved application should be forwarded to the office of the Minister of Foreign Relations for request on proper authorities through diplomatic channels.
d. There have been two methods used by marines in the past to control the sale of munitions in the occupied territory. Either of these two methods shown below appears to be effective.
(1) Immediately upon the. arrival of the arms, ammunition, or explosives at the port of entry, the customs officials should notify the local Provost Marshal, who receives the shipment and deposits it in the provost storeroom or other suitable place. The articles may then be drawn by the consignee in such quantities or under such conditions as the Provost Marshal may indicate. Except for an exceptional shipment of explosives for some engineering project, the shipments will ordinarily be small.
(2) Immediately upon the arrival of the approved munitions shipment at the port of entry, the customs officials should notify the local Provost Marshal. This officer should notify the consignee, and with him check the shipment for its contents and amount. An enumerated record of the contents and the amounts should be prepared by the Provost Marshal, one copy given to the consignee and the other retained by the Provost Marshal. The shipment is then turned over to the consignee, after payment of all duties and with the written approval of the Provost Marshal. A monthly check should then be made by the Provost Marshal of all munitions stores in the hands of the approved sales agency; the sales agency making a monthly report of all sales (on individual approved permits) to the Provost Marshal.
11-10. Measures Following Disarmament.-a. Even after the population has been effectually disarmed, energetic measures must be taken to discourage or prevent rearming. Some plan must be evolved without delay to make it impracticable or dangerous to procure firearms illegally, either from within or without the country. If the existing laws of the country prohibiting possession of arms are sufficient in themselves, measures should be taken to make them effective. To the extent that authority is delegated or assumed, additional or new laws should be put into effect restricting the possession of firearms. This latter method can be applied only if military government is established. In issuing these laws one must bear in mind the responsibility assumed by the military forces in enforcing the laws and guaranteeing the security of life and property. If there be remote sections where law enforcement is difficult due to the limited number of the military forces, certain concessions may have to be made in order to permit the local inhabitants to protect themselves against the lawless element. On the other hand if the lawless elements remain in the field in numbers greatly in excess of the military forces, special considerations may make it advisable to provide means for arming a certain proportion of the reliable and responsible natives, to compensate in a degree for that inferiority in numbers; this should not be prejudicial to the other law-abiding elements. Sometimes this fiction will greatly discourage the lawless factions.
b. The military forces, or native constabulary, in conjunction with the customs officials, should be particularly alert along the coast and frontiers of the occupied country to prevent illegal entry of munitions. Where a native constabulary exists or is later established, a portion of such organiztition should be constituted a coast guard, equipped with fast boats, to prevent such arms being smuggled along the coast and rivers. Until such a constabulary is constituted, a unit of our own military forces, adequate in size and equipment, should be established as soon as active intervention takes place.
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