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U.S. Marine Corps - Small Wars Manual (1940 Edition)

Chapter I. Introduction.

Section III

Foreword 							1-10
Characteristics					1-11	
Fundamental Considerations 		1-12
Revolutionary Tendencies 			1-13
Basic Instincts					1-14
Attitude and bearing 				1-15
Conduct of our troops 			1-16
Summary							1-17

110. Foreword. -- a. While it is improbable that a knowledge of psychology will make any change in the fundamentals of the conduct of small wars, it will, however, lead to a more intelligent application of the principles which we now follow more or less unconsciously through custom established by our predecessors.

b. Psychology has always played an important part in war. This knowledge was important in ancient wars of masses; it becomes more so on the modern battlefield, with widely dispersed forces and the complexity of many local operations by small groups, or even individuals, making up the sum total of the operation. In former times the mass of enemy troops, like our own, was visible to and under the immediate control of its leaders. Now troops are dispersed in battle and not readily visible, and we must understand the psychology of the individual, who operates beyond the direct control of his superiors.

c. This difficulty of immediate control and personal influence is even more pronounced and important in small wars, on account of the decentralized nature of these operations. This fact is further emphasized because in the small wars we are dealing not only with our own forces, but, also with the civil population which frequently contains elements of doubtful or antagonistic sentiments. The very nature of our own policy and attitude toward the opposing forces and normal contacts with them enable the personnel of our Force to secure material advantages through the knowledge and application of psychological principles.

d. This knowledge does not come naturally to the average individual. A study of men and human nature supplemented by a thorough knowledge of psychology should enable those faced with concrete situations of this type to avoid the ordinary mistakes. The application of the principles of psychlogy in small wars is quite different from their normal application in major warfare or even in troop leadership. The aim is not to develop a belligerent spirit in our men but rather one of caution and steadiness. Instend of employing force, one strives to accomplish the purpose by diplomacy. A Force Commander who gains his objective in a small war without firing a shot has attained far greater sucsses then one who has resorted to the use of arms. While endeavoring to avoid the infliction of physical harm to any native, their is always the necessity of preventing, as far as possible, any casualties among our own troops.

e. This is the policy with which our troops are indoctrinated; a policy which governs throughout the period of intervention and finds exception only in those situations where a resort to arms and the exercise of a belligerent spirit are necessary. This mixture of combined peaceful and warlike temperament, where adapted to any single operation, demands an application of psychology beyond the requirements of regular warfare. Our troops at the same time are dealing with strange people whose racial origin, and whose social, political, physical and mental characteristics may be different from any before encountered.

f. The motive in small wars is not material destruction. It is usually a project dealing with the social, economic, and political development of the people. It is of primary importance that the fullest benefit be derived from the psychological aspects of the situation. That implies a serious study of the people, their racial, political, religious, and mental development. By analysis and study the reasons for the existing emergency may be deduced; the most practical method of solving the problem is to understand the possible approaches thereto and the repercussion to be expected from any actions which may be contemplated. By this study and the ability to apply correct psychological doctrine, many pitfalls may be avoided and the success of the undertaking assured.

g. The great importance of psychology in small wars must be appreciated. It is a field of unlimited extent and possibilities, to which much time and study should be devoted. It cannot be stated in rules and learned like mathematics. Human reactions cannot be reduced to an exact science, but there are certain principles which should guide our conduct. These principles are deduced by studying the history of the people and are mastered only by experience in their practical application.

111. Characteristics. -- The correct application of the principles of psychology to any given situation requires a knowledge of the traits peculiar to the persons with whom we are dealing. The individual characteristics as well as the national psychology are subjects for intensive study. This subject assumes increasing importance in minor operations. A failure to use tact when required or lack of firmness at a crucial moment might readily precipitate a situation that could have been avoided had the commander been familiar with the customs, religion, morals, and education of those with whom he was dealing.

112. Fundamental considerations. -- The resistance to an intervention comes not only from those under arms but also from those furnishing material or moral support to the opposition. Sapping the strength of the actual or potential hostile ranks by the judicious application of psychological principles may be just as effective as battle casaulties. The particular methods and extent of the application of this principle will vary widely with the situation. Some of the fundamental policies applicable to almost any situation are:

1. Social customs such as class distinctions, dress, and similar items should be recognized and receive due consideration.

2. Political affiliations or the appearance of political favoritism should be avoided; while a thorough knowledge of the political situation is essential, a strict neutrality in such matters shonld be observed.

3. A respect for religious customs.

Indifference in all the above matters can only be regarded as a lack of tact.

113. Revolutionary tendencies. -- a. In the past, most of our interventions have taken place when a revolution was in full force or when the spirit of revolution was rampant. In view of these conditions (which are so often encountered in small wars) it may be well to consider briefly some of the characteristics of revolutions.

b. The knowledge of the people at any given moment of history involves an understanding of their environment, and above all, their past. The influence of racial psychology on the destiny of a people appears plainly in the history of those subject to perpetual revolutions. When composed largely of mixed races-that is to say, of individuals whose diverse heredities have dissociated their ancestral characteristics-those populations present a special problem. This class is always difficult to govern, if not ungovernable, owing to the absence of a fixed character. On the other hand, sometimes a people who have been under a rigid form of government may affect the most violent revolutions. Not having succeeded in developing progressively, or in adapting themselves to changes of environment, they are likely to react violently when such adaptation becomes inevitable.

c. Revolution is the term generally applied to sudden political changes, but the expression may be employed to denote any sudden transformation whether of beliefs, ideas, or doctrines. In most cases the basic causes are economic. Political revolutions ordinarily result from real or fancied grievances, existing in the minds of some few men, but many other causes may produce them. The word "discontent" sums them up. As soon as discontent becomes general a party is formed which often becomes strong enough to offer resistance to the government. The success of a revolution often depends on gaining the assistance or neutrality of the regular armed forces. However, it sometimes happens that the movement commences without the knowledge of the armed forces; but not infrequently it has its very inception within these forces. Revolutions may take place in the capital, and by contagion spread through the country. In other instances the general disaffection of the people takes concrete form in some place remote from the capital, and when it has gathered momentum moves on the capital.

d. The rapidity with which a revolution develops is made possible by modern communication facilities and publicity methods. Trivial attendant circumstances often play highly important roles in contributing to revolution and must be observed closely and given appropriate consideration. The fact is that beside the great events of which history treats there are the innumerable little facts of daily life which the casual observer may fail to see. These facts individually may be insignificant. Collectively, their volume and power may threaten the existence of the government. The study of the current history of unstable countries should include the proper evaluation of all human tendencies. Local newspapers and current periodicals, are probably the most valuable sources for the study of present psychological trends of various nations. Current writings of many people of different classes comprise a history of what the people are doing and thinking and the motives for their acts. Thus, current periodicals, newspapers, etc., will more accurately portray a cross section of the character of the people. In studying the political and psychical trends of a country, one must ascertain whether or not all news organs are controlled by one political faction, in order to avoid developing an erroneous picture of the situation.

e. Governments often almost totally fail to sense the temper of their people. The inability of a government to comprehend existing conditions, coupled with its blind confidence in its own strength, frequently results in remarkably weak resistance to attack from within.

f. The outward events of revolutions are always a consequence of changes, often unobserved, which have gone slowly forward in men's minds. Any profound understanding of a revolution necessitates a knowledge of the mental soil in which the ideas that direct its course have to germinate. Changes in mental attitude are slow and hardly perceptible; often they can be seen only by comparing the character of the people at the beginning and at the end of a given period.

g. A revolution is rarely the result of a widespread conspiracy among the people. Usually it is not a movement which embraces a very large number of people or which calls into play deep economic or social motives. Revolutionary armies seldom reach any great size; they rarely need to in order to succeed. On the other hand, the military force of the government is generally small, ill equipped, and poorly trained; not infrequently a part, if not all of it, proves to be disloyal in a political crisis.

h. The majority of the people, especially in the rural districts, dislike and fear revolutions, which often involve forced military service for themselves and destruction of their livestock and their farm produce. However, they may be so accustomed to misgovernment and exploitation that concerted effort to check disorderly tendencies of certain leaders never occurs to them. It is this mass ignorance and indifference rather than any disposition to turbulence in the nation as a whole, which has prevented the establishment of stable government in many cases.

i. Abuses by the officials in power and their oppression of followers of the party not in power, are often the seeds of revolution. The spirit which causes the revolution arouses little enthusiasm among the poor natives at large unless they are personally affected by such oppression. The revolution, once started, naturally attracts all of the malcontents and adventurous elements in the community. The revolution may include many followers, but its spirit emanates from a few leaders. These leaders furnish the spark without which there would be no explosion. Success depends upon the enthusiastic determination of those who inspire the movement. Under effective leadership the mass will be steeped in revolutionary principles, and imbued ,with a submission to the will of the leader and an enthusiastic energy to perform acts in support thereof. Finally, they feel that they are the crusaders for a new deal which will regenerate the whole country. In extremely remote, isolated, and illiterate sections an educated revolutionary leader may easily lead the inhabitants to believe that they, in the act of taking up arms, are actually engaged in repelling invasion. Many such ruses are employed in the initial stages and recruiting is carried on in this manner for long periods and the inhabitants are in a state of ignorance of the actual situation.

j. How is this situation to be met? A knowledge of the laws relating to the psychology of crowds is indispensable to the interpretation of the elements of revolutionary movements, and to their conduct. Each individual of the crowd, based on the mere fact that he is one of many, senses an invincible power which at once nullifies the feeling of personal responsibility. This spirit of individual irresponsibility and loss of identity must be overcome by preventing the mobilization or concentration of revolutionary forces, and by close supervision of the actions of individuals.

k. Another element of mob sentiment is imitation. This is particularly true in people of a low order of education. Attempt should be made to prevent the development of a hero of the revolutionary movement, and no one should be permitted to become a martyr to the cause. Members of a crowd also display an exaggerated independence.

l. The method of approaching the problem should be to make revolutionary acts nonpaying or nonbeneficial and at the same time endeavor to remove or remedy the causes or conditions responsible for the revolution. One obstacle in dealing with a revolution lies in the difficulty of determining the real cause of the trouble. When found, it is often disclosed as a minor fault of the simplest nature. Then the remedies are also simple.

m. The opposing forces may employ modern weapons and technique adapted to regular organized units, but the character of the man who uses these weapons remains essentially the same as it always was. The acts of a man are determined by his character; and to understand or predict, the action of a leader or a people their character must be understood. Their judgments or decisions are based upon their intelligence and experience. Unless a revolutionary leader can be discounte in the eyes of his followers, it may be best to admit such leadership. Through him a certain discipline may be exercised which will control the actions of a revolutionary army; for without discipline, people and armies become barbarian hordes.

n. In general, revolutionary forces are new levies, poorly trained, organized, and equipped. Yet they can often be imbued with an ardent enthusiasm and are capable of heroism to the extent of giving their lives unhesitatingly in support of their beliefs.

114. Basic instincts. -- a. It is perfectly natural that the instinct of self-preservation should be constantly at work. This powerful influence plays an important part in the attitude of the natives in small wars. It is not surpising that any indication of intervention or interposition will prompt his instinct of self-preservation to oppose this move. Every means should be employed to convince such people of the altruistic intention of our Government.

b. Fear is one of the strongest natural emotions in man. Among primitive people not far removed from an oppressed or enslaved existence, it is easy to understand the people's fear of being again enslaved; fear of political subjugation causes violent opposition to any movement which apparently threatens political or personal liberty.

c. Another basic instinct of man is self-assertion. This is a desire to be considered worthy among his fellow beings. Life for the individual centers around himself. The individual values his contacts as good or bad according to how he presumes he has been treated and how much consideration has been given to his own merits. This instinct inspires personal resentment if his effort is not recognized. Pride, which is largely self-assertion, will not tolerate contradiction. Self-respect includes also the element of self negation which enables one to judge his own qualities and profit by the example, precept, advice, encouragement, approval, or disapproval of others. It admits capacity to do wrong, since it accepts the obligation of social standards. In dealing with foreign peoples the credit should be readily accorded where merited, and undue criticism avoided.

d. There are also peoples and individuals whose instinctive reaction in contact with external influence is that of self-submission. Here is found a people who, influenced by the great power of the United States, are too willing to shirk their individual responsibility and are too ready to let others shoulder the full responsibility for restoring and, still worse maintaining order and normalcy. In this event, if the majority of the natives are thus inclined, the initial task is quite easy but difficulty arises in attempting to return the responsibility to those to whom it rightfully belongs. As little local responsibility as possible to accomplish the mission should be assumed, while the local government is encouraged to carry its full capacity of responsibility. Any other procedure weakens the sovereign state, complicating the relationship with the military forces and prolonging the occupation.

e. States are naturally very proud of their sovereignty. National policy demands minimum interference with that sovereignty. On occasion there is clash of opinion between the military and local civil power in a given situation, and the greatest tact and diplomacy is required to bring the local political authorities to the military point of view. When the matter is important, final analysis may require resort to more vigorous methods. Before a compromise is attempted, it should be clearly understood that such action does not sacrifice all the advantages of both of the opposing opinions.

f. The natives are also proud individually. One should not award any humiliating punishments or issue orders which are unnecessarily hurtful to the pride of the inhabitants. In the all-important interest of discipline, the invention and infliction of such punishments no matter how trivial must be strictly prohibited in order to prevent the bitterness which wonld naturally ensue.

g. In revolutions resort may be had to sabotage. Unless the circumstances demand otherwise, the repair of damage should be done by civilian or prison labor, This will have a more unfavorable psychological effect on the revolutionists than if the occupying forces were employed to repair the damage.

h. Inhabitants of countries with a high rate of illiteracy have many childlike characteristics. In the guidance of the destinies of such people, the more that one shows a fraternal spirit, the easier will be the task and mthe more effective the results. It is manifestly unjust to judge such people by our standards. It should be understood that these illiterate and uneducated people live close to nature. The fact that they are simple and highly imaginative and that their background is based on some mystic form of religion gives rise to unusual kinds of testimony. It becomes a tedious responsibility to elicit the untarnished truth. This requires patience beyond words. The same cannot be said for all the white-collar, scheming politicians of the city who are able to distinguish between right and wrong, but who flagrantly distort the truth.

i. The "underground" or "grapevine" method of communication is an effective means of transmitting information and rumors with unbelievable rapidity among the natives. When events happen in one locality which may bring objectionable repercussions in another upon receipt of this information, it is well to be prepared to expect the speedy transmission of that knowledge even in spite of every effort to keep it localized or confidential. The same means might be considered for use by intelligence units in disseminating propaganda and favorable publicity.

j. Often natives refuse to give any information and the uninitiated might immediately presume that they are members of the hostile forces or at least hostile sympathizers. While the peasant hopes for the restoration of peace and order, the constant menace and fear of guerrillas is so overpowering that he does not dare to place any confidence in an occasional visiting patrol of the occupying forces. When the patrol leader demands information, the peasant should not be misjudged for failure to comply with the request, when by so doing, he is signing his own death warrant.

k. Actual authority must not be exceeded in demanding information. A decided advantage of having military government or martial law is to give the military authorities the power to bring legal summary, and exemplary punishment to those who give false information. Another advantage of such government is the authority to require natives to carry identification cards on their persons constantly. It has been found that, the average native is not only willing and anxious, but proud to carry some paper signed by a military authority tn show that he is recognized. The satisfaction of this psychological peculiarity and, what is more important or practical, its exploitation to facilitate the identity of natives is a consideration of importance. This also avoids most of the humiliating and otherwise unproductive process often resorted to in attempting to identify natives or their possible relationship to the opposing forces.

l. There are people among whom the spirit of self-sacrifice does not exist to the extent found among more highly civilized peoples or among races with fanatical tendencies This may account for the absence of the individual bravery in the attack or assault by natives even where their group has a great preponderance of numbers; among certain peoples there is not the individual combat, knifing, machete attacks by lone men which one encounters among others. This may be due to the lack of medical care provided, lack of religious fanaticism, lack of recognition for personal bravery, or lack of provision for care of dependents in case of injury or death. Psychological study of the people should take this matter into consideration and the organization, tactics, and the security measures must be adapted accordingly.

m. It is customary for some people to attempt to place their officials under obligation to them by offering gifts, or gratuitous services of dlifferent kinds. This is their custom and they will expect it to prevail among others. No matter how innocent acceptance may be, and in spite of the determination that it shall never influence subsequent actions or decisions, itis best not to be a party to any such petty bribery. Another common result of such transaction is that the native resorts to this practice among his own people to indicate that he is in official favor, and ignorant individuals on the other hand believe it. Or practically impossible needless to say, when it is embarrassing, to refuse to accept a gift or gratuity, such acceptance should not influence subsequent decisions. To prevent subsequent requests for favors the following is suggested: Accept the gift with the proper and expected delight; then, before the donor has an opportunity to see you and request a favor, send your servant with a few American articles obtainable in our commissaries and which are considered delicacies by the natives. The amount should be about equal in value, localy, to the gift accepted; and usually the native will feel that he has not placed you under an obligation.

n. Sometimes the hospitality of the natives must be accepted, and it is not intended to imply that this should not be done on appropriate occasions. On the contrary, this social intercourse is often fruitful of a better mutual understanding. Great care must be exercised that such COnacts are not limited to the people of any social group or political party. This often leads to the most serious charges of discrimination and favoritism which even though untrue, will diminish the respect, confidence, and support of all who feel that they are not among the favored. If opportunities are not presented, they should be created to demonstrate clearly to all, that contacts are not discriminateory and that opinions and actions are absolutely impartial.

1-15. Attitude and bearing -- a. A knowledge of the character of the people and a command of their language are great assets. Political methods and motives which govern the actions of foreign people and their political parties, incomprehensible at best to the average North American, are practically beyond the understanding of persons who do not speak their language. If not already familiar with the language, all officers upon assignment to expeditionary duty should study and acquire a working knowledge of it.

b. Lack of exact information is normal in these operations, as is true in all warfare. Lack of information does not justify withholding orders when needed, nor failing to take action when the situation demands it. The extent to which the intelligence service can obtain information depends largely on the attitude adopted toward the loyal and neutral population. The natives must be made to realize the seriousness of withholding information, but at the same time they must be protected from terrorism.

c. From the very nature of the operation, it is apparent that military force cannot be applied at the stage that would be most advantageous from a tactical viewpoint. Usually turbulent situations become extremely critical before the Government feels justified in taking strong action. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance to determine the exact moment when the decision of a commander should be applied. In a gradually developing situation the "when" is often the essence of the decision. Problems which illustrate the results of too hasty or tardy decisions will be of value in developing thought along these lines. The force commander should determine his mission and inform all subordinates accordingly. Commands should be kept fully informed of any modification of the mission. The decisions of subordinate commanders should be strictly in accordance with the desires of their commanders. For the subordinate commander, the decision may be to determine when he would be justified in opening fire. For example, the patrol leader makes contact with a known camp and at the last moment finds that women camp followers are present in the camp. Shall he fire into the group? Insofar as it is practicable, subordinate military leaders should be aided in making such decisions by previously announced policies and instructions.

d. Delay in the use of force, and hesitation to accept responsibility for its employment when the situation clearly demands it, will always be interpreted as a weakness. Such indecision will encourage further disorder, and will eventually necessitate measures more severe than those which would have sufficed in the first instance. Drastic punitive measures to induce surrender, or action in the nature of reprisals, may awaken sympathy with the revolutionists. Reprisals and punitive measures may result in the destruction of lives and property of innocent people; such measures may have an adverse effect upon the discipline of our own troops. Good judgment in dealing with such problems calls for constant and careful surveillance. In extreme cases, a commanding officer may be forced to resort to some mild form of reprisal to keep men from taking more severe action on their own initiative. However, even this action is taken with the full knowledge of possible repercussions.

e. In dealing with the native population, only orders which are lawful, specific, and couched in clear, simple language should be issued. They should be firm and just, not impossible of execution nor calculated to work needless hardship upon the recipient. It is well to remember this latter injunction in formulating all orders dealing with the native population. They may be the first to sense that an order is working a needless hardship upon them, and instead of developing their support, friendship, and respect, the opposite effect may result.

f. An important consideration in dealing with the native population in small wars is the psychological approach. A study of the racial and social characteristics of the people is made to determine whether to approach them directly or indirectly, or employ both means simultaneously. Shall the approach be by means of decisions, orders, personal appeals, or admonitions, unconcealed effort, or administrative control, all of which are calculated to attain the desired end? Or shall indirect methods by subtle inspiration, propaganda through suggestion, or undermining the influential leaders of the opposition be attempted? Direct methods will naturally create some antagonism and encourage certain obstruction, but if these methods of approach are successful the result may be more speedily attained. Indirect approach, on the other hand, might require more time for accomplishment bu the result may be equally effective and probably with less regrettable bitterness.

g. Propaganda plays its part in approach to the people in small wars, since people usually will respond to indirect suggestion but may revolt against direct suggestion. The strength of suggestion is dependent upon the following factors:

(1)Last impression -that is, of several impressions, the last is most likely to be acted upon.

(2)Frequency-that is, repetitions, not one after another but intervals separated by other impressions.

(3) Repetition-this is distinguished from frequency by being repetitions, one after the other, without having other kinds of impressions interspersed.

h. The strongest suggestion is obtained by a combination of "frequency" and "last impressions." Propaganda at home also plays its part in the public support of small wars. An ordinary characteristic of small wars is the antagonistic propaganda against the campaign or operations in the United States press or legislature. One cannot afford to ignore the possibilities of propaganda. Many authorities believe that the Marine Force should restrict publicity to a minimum in order to prevent the spread of unfavorable and antagonistic propaganda at home. However, it is believed that when representatives of the press demand specific information, it should be given to them, if it is not of a confidential nature or such as will jeopardize the mission. Sometimes marines are pressed with the question: "Why are you here ?" The best method to follow when a question of public policy is involved is to refer the individual to appropriate civil authorities.

i. There is an axiom in regular warfare to strike the hardest where the going is the easiest. In small wars also, it is well to strike most vigorously and relentlessly when the going is the easiest. When the opponents are on the run, give them no peace or rest, or time to make further plans. Try to avoid leaving a few straggling leaders in the field at the end, who with their increased mobility, easier means of evasion, and the determination to show strength attempt to revive interest by bold strokes. At this time, public opinion shows little patience in the enterprise, and accepts with less patience any explanation for the delay necessary to bring the operation to a close.

j. In street fighting against mobs or rioters, the effect of fire is generally not due to the casualties but due to the fact that it demonstrates the determination of the authorities. Unless the use of fire is too long delayed, a single round often is all that is necessary to carry conviction. Naturally one attempts to accomplish his mission without firing but when at the critical moment all such means have failed, then one must fire. One should not make a threat without the intention to carry it out. Do not fire without giving specific warning. Fire without specific warning is only justified when the mob is actively endangering life or property. In disturbances or riots when a mob has been ordered to disperse, it must be feasible for the mob to disperse. Military interventions are actually police functions, although warlike operations often ensue. There is always the possibility of domestic disturbances getting beyond the control of local police. Hence the necessity of employing regular forces as a reserve or reenforcements for varying periods after the restoration of normal conditions.

k. The personal pride, uniform, and bearing of the marines, their dignity, courtesy, consideration, language, and personality will have an important effect on the civilian attitude toward the forces of occupation. In a country, for example, where the wearing of a coat, like wearing shoes, is the outward and unmistakable sign of a distinct social classification, it is quite unbecoming for officers who accept the hospitality of the native club for a dance, whether local ladies and gentlemen are in evening clothes or not, to appear in their khaki shirts. It appears that the United States and their representatives have lost a certain amount of prestige when they place themselves in the embarrassing position of receiving courteous note from a people ordinarily considered backward, inviting attention to this impropriety. On the other hand, care should be exercised not to humiliate the natives. They are usually proud and humiliation will cause resentment which will have an unfavorable reaction. Nothing should be said or done which implies inferiority of the status or of the sovereignty of the native people. They should never be treated as a conquered people.

l. Often the military find themselves in the position of arbiters in differences betwetm rival political factions. This is common in serving on electoral missions. The individual of any faction believes himself in possession of the truth and cannot refrain from affirming that any-one who does not agree with him is entirely in error. Each will attest to the dishonest intentions or stupidity of the other and will attempt by every possible means to carry his point of view irrespective of its merits. They are excitable beings and prone to express their feelings forcibly. They are influenced by personal partiality based upon family or political connections and friendship. Things go by favor. Though they may appear brusque at times they feel a slight keenly, and they know how to respect the susceptibilities of their fellows.

m. In some revolutions particularly of econcmic origin, the followers may be men in want of food. A hungry man will not be inclined to listen to reason and will resort to measures more daring and desperate than under normal conditions. This should be given consideration, when tempted to burn or otherwise destroy private property or stores of the guerrillas.

n. In the interior there are natives who have never been 10 miles from their home, who seldom see strangers, and much less a white man or a foreigner. They judge the United States and the ideals and standards of its people by the conduct of its representatives. It may be no more than a passing patrol whose deportment or language is judged, or it may be fairness in the purchase of a bunch of bananas. The policy of the United States is to pay for value received, and prompt payment of a reasonable price for supplies or services rendered should be made in every instance. Although the natives of the capitals or towhs may have a greater opportunity to see foreigners and the, forces of occupation, the Marine Corps nevertheless represents the United States to them also, ancl it behooves every marine to conduct himself accordingly. There is no service which calls for greater exercise of judgment, persistency, patience, tact, and rigid military justice than in small wars, and nowhere is more of the humane and sympathetic side of a military force demanded than in this type of operation.

1-16. Conduct of our troops. -- a. In addition to the strictly military plans and preparations incident to the military occupation of a foreign country, there should be formulated a method or policy for deriving the greatest benefit from psychological practices in the field. To make this effective, personnel of the command must be indoctrinated with these principles. While it is true that the command will generally reflect the attitude of the commander, this will or desire of the supreme authority should be disseminated among the subordinates of all grades. The indoctrination of all ranks with respect to the proper attitude toward the civilian population may be accomplished readily by means of a series of brief and interesting lectures prepared under the direction of the military commander and furnished all units. These lectures may set forth our mission, the purpose of our efforts, our accomplishments to date in the betterment oi conditions, our objectives of future accomplishment, etc.

b. Uncertainty of the situation and the future creates a certain psychological doubt or fear in the minds of the individual concerned; if the individual is entirely unaccustomed to it, and the situation seems decidedly grave, his conduct may be abnormal or even erratic. This situation of uncertainty exists ordinarily to a pronounced degree in small wars, particularly in the initial phases of landing and occupation. The situation itself and the form of the orders and instructions which the marine commander will receive are often indefinite. In regular warfare, clear cut ordera are given, or may be expected, defining situations, missions, objectives, instructions, and the like, in more or less detail; in small wars, the initial orders may be fragmentary and lack much of the ordinary detail. However unfortunate this may be, or how difficult it may make the task, this is probably the normal situation upon landing. In order to be prepared to overcome the usual psychological reaction resulting from such uncertainty, studies and instructions in small wars should be accompanied by practice in the issuance of orders.

c. The responsibility of officers engaged in small wars and the training necessary are of a very different order from their responsibilities and training in ordinary military duties. In the latter case, they simply strive to attain a method of producing the maximum physical effect with the force at their disposal. In small wars, caution must be exercised, and instead of striving to generate the maximum power with forces available, the goal is to gain decisive results with the least application of force and the consequent minimum loss of life. This requires recourse to the principles of psychology, and is the reason why the study of psychology of the people is so important in preparation for small wars.

d. In major warfare, hatred of the enemy is developed among troops to arouse courage. In small wars, tolerance: sympathy, and kindness should be the keynote of our relationship with the mass of the population. There is nothing in this principle which should make any officer or man hesitate to act with the necessary firmness within the limitation imposed by the principles which have been laid down, whenever there is contact with armed opposition.

1-17. Summary. -- a. Psychological errors may be committed which antagonize the population of the country occupied and all the foreign sympathizers; mistakes may have the most far-reaching effect and it may require a long period to reestablish confidence, respect, and order. Small wars involve a wide range of activities includinq diplomacy, contacts with the civil population and warfare of the most diflicult kind. The situation is often uncertain, the orders are sometimes indefinite, and although the authority of the military coinmander is at time in doubt, he usually assumes full responsibility. The military individual cannot afford to be intimidated by the responsibilities of his positions, or by the fear that his actions will not be supported. He will rarely fail to receive support if he has acted with caution and reasonable moderation, coupled with the necessary firmness. On the other hand inaction and refusal to accept responsibility are likely to shake cconfidence in him, even though he be not directly censured.

b. The purpose should always be to restore normal government or give the people a better government than they had before, and to establish peace, order, and security on as permanent a basis as practicable. Gradually there must be instilied in the inhabitants' minds the leading ideas of civilization, the security and sanctity of life and property, and inndividual liberty. In so doing, one should endeavor to make self-sufficient native agencies responsible for these matters. With all this accomplished, one should be able to leave the country with the lasting friendship and respect of the native population. The practical application of psychology is largely a matter of common, sense.

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