Army and Marine Corps Integration
in Joint Operations
Our national military strategy recognizes today's uncertain world requires flexible and interoperable forces that can respond quickly to the multitude of potential crises that may threaten the United States vital national interests. To respond to these crises, the nation's evolving force structure must be capable and responsive to implement and enforce the strategy that will protect our national interests. The exact composition of a given force depends on the nature of the crisis and the prevailing strategic politico-military environment. Such "adaptive force packaging" seeks to maximize the capabilities of operational execution. This publication focuses on one type of force packaging available to the joint warfighting community: the integrated employment of United States Army (USA) and United States Marine Corps (USMC) forces.
Given the expanse of options available to joint planners in task-organizing Army and Marine Corps forces, this publication assumes two "base cases" to provide a common framework for discussion. These cases focus on the command and control (C2) of a notional Army brigade by a Marine expeditionary force (MEF) and the C2 of a notional Marine expeditionary force (forward) (MEF [FWD]) by an Army corps.
Organization and Fundamentals
Chapter I provides an overview of selected USA and USMC forces and describes the organization, capabilities, and limitations of an Army division ready brigade and a MEF (FWD) respectively. It also discusses the fundamentals of integrated operations to maximize the capabilities of one force to counterbalance the vulnerabilities of the other.
Command and Control
Chapter II provides an overview of the C2 system, principles of C2, and responsibilities for C2 commander. It describes the C2 organizations and facilities and C2 communications architecture of both the division ready brigade (DRB) and MEF (FWD). It recommends tactics, techniques, and procedures that are available for the joint force and subordinate commanders and staffs to C2 forces during integrated operations. Specific topical discussions include: command relationships, organization of forces, liaison, communications, and fratricide prevention.
Chapter III addresses intelligence support of integrated Army-Marine Corps operations. It highlights selected intelligence terms and defines the responsibilities of the various intelligence organizations that support the joint force and describes intelligence organizations and systems of the DRB and MEF (FWD). Service intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) doctrine, organizations, and systems provide significant degrees of compatibility and interoperability. An integrated approach to IEW support to integrated operations builds upon the strengths and similarities of service IEW operations and organizations. The intelligence cycle described in Joint Pub 2-0, Joint Doctrine for Intelligence Support to Operations, and service intelligence doctrine provides a common framework for addressing these issues as they apply to Army and Marine Corps IEW operations. The chapter uses the cycle functions of plan and direct, collect, process, produce, and disseminate as the basis for planning and executing integrated Army/Marine Corps IEW operations.
Chapter IV defines maneuver at the operational and tactical levels of war and describes a joint Army-Marine Corps perspective on maneuver. It focuses on maneuver from the DRB and MEF (FWD) perspectives and includes a discussion of maneuver from an integrated vantage point. Specific topics include: AMCI complementary operational capabilities, tactical planning considerations, recommended employment options, and a recapitulation of major weapons systems and aircraft assigned to the DRB and MEF (FWD).
Chapter V defines fire support and describes DRB and MEF (FWD) fire support operations. It discusses diverging service perspectives on fire support and selected fire support coordinating measures and presents fire support tactics, techniques, and procedures to support integrated combat operations. Specific topical discussions include: task organizing artillery assets, characteristics of MEF (FWD) and DRB artillery, counterfire operations, Multiple Launch Rocket System support of USMC operations, close air support operations, naval air support, and artillery communications.
Chapter VI describes engineer support to combat operations. It establishes common terminology and addresses DRB and MEF (FWD) engineer C2 and organizations and equipment respectively. It also offers an integrated approach to planning and executing those operations by cross-walking the engineering capabilities of DRB and MEF (FWD) engineers regarding four common primary engineering functions of mobility, countermobility, survivability, and general engineering. Planning considerations for integrated operations are addressed and required engineer reporting procedures are established.
Chapter VII familiarizes commanders and staffs on the mission, capabilities, limitations, C2, and planning factors for employment of respective service aviation organizations. It describes the Army's and the Marine Corps' concepts, organizations, and C2 of their aviation assets, and defines the operational and augmentation requirements when employed with either the DRB or in support of USMC forces.
Air and Missile Defense
Chapter VIII addresses joint force air and missile defense operations. It provides the basis for a common lexicon and details operations from Army and Marine Corps perspectives respectively. The chapter also offers an integrated approach to planning and executing joint air defense operations.
Chapter IX defines authority and responsibilities for, and control of, logistics within and supporting the joint force. It describes DRB and MEF (FWD) logistics organizations and operations and includes a discussion of integrated logistics operations using the six logistics functions as the framework (supply, maintenance, health services, transportation, services, and general engineering).
The following commands and agencies participated in the development of this publication:
Commander, Naval Doctrine Command, Norfolk Naval Base, Norfolk, VA
US Air Force Doctrine Center, Langley AFB, VA
US Army Air Defense Artillery School, Fort Bliss, TX
US Army Armor School, Fort Knox, KY
US Army Aviation Center, Fort Rucker, AL
US Army Combined Arms Command, Fort Leavenworth, KS
US Army Combined Arms Support Command, Fort Lee, VA
US Army Engineer School, Fort Leonard Wood, MO
US Army Field Artillery School, Fort Sill, OK
US Army Health Services Command, Fort Sam Houston, TX
US Army Infantry School, Fort Benning, GA
US Army Intelligence Center, Fort Huachuca, AZ
US Army Signal Center, Fort Gordon, GA
US Army Training and Doctrine Command, Fort Monroe, VA
US Atlantic Command, Norfolk Naval Base, Norfolk, VA
US Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Marine Base Quantico, VA
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