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Military


FM 71-3
The Armored and Mechanized Infantry Brigade


APPENDIX B
JOINT AND MULTINATIONAL OPERATIONS


In future operations the brigade may not always fight under conventional Army control. The brigade may operate as part of a Marine Expeditionary Force under joint command. It may also participate in multinational operations with a combined staff.

CONTENTS
Section I. The Joint Environment
Section II. Marine/Army Integration
Section III. Multinational Operations

SECTION I. THE JOINT ENVIRONMENT

GENERAL

Joint operations are the integrated military activities of two or more service components of the US military. These service components include the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines. The Army must continue to expand its operations within a joint environment due to the force projection nature of its doctrine. Future Army employment is difficult to predict and could result in a multitude of combinations of joint forces being employed. The armored brigade plays an increasingly important role in joint operations.

COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS

Armored brigades normally operate as part of an Army or Marine functional component command. Marine Corps combat forces are assigned to the Fleet Marine Forces of the Atlantic and Pacific Commands. These Fleet Marine Forces are provided to support unified commands as directed by the national command authorities. The Marine Corps focus is on furnishing readily deployable, tailored combined arms Marine air-ground task forces. A Marine air-ground task force is composed of a command element, a ground combat element, an air combat element, and a CSS element. A Marine air-ground task force may vary in size from a Marine Expeditionary Force down to a Marine Expeditionary Unit (see Figure B-1). When the armored brigade is employed by the Marine Corps, they will normally operate as part of a joint force. The joint force commander will determine the command relationship between Army forces and Marine forces based on METT-T.

If the brigade is organized under the control of a Marine Expeditionary Force, it generally operates directly under the Marine Expeditionary Force commander as an independent unit. See Section II for details on Marine/Army integration.

In some circumstances, it is possible for all the Army forces involved in an operation to organize under a brigade headquarters. In this case, the brigade may function as the Army forces headquarters.

If the brigade is organized under Army forces headquarters, it either operates directly under the Army forces headquarters, or operates under an Army division or corps headquarters. If the brigade is the Army forces headquarters, it is normally OPCON to the joint forces command.

IAW FMs 100-7 and 100-10, the roles of the Army service component commander (ASCC) are

  • Provide Army force packages to the CINC and advise on their employment.
  • Provide all Title X support to the Army forces in theater.
  • If designated by the CINC, the ASCC may exercise OPCON of the war fight.

The brigade exercises tactical control over its subordinate units. This command relationship is the detailed and usually local direction and control of movement and maneuver necessary to accomplish missions and tasks. It allows the commander to apply force and direct the tactical use of logistical assets.

The ASCC operates as a component commander under one of the three following types of joint commands:

  • Unified and specified commands.
  • Subordinate unified commands.
  • Joint task forces.

Unified and Specified Commands

The President establishes unified commands through the Secretary of Defense, with the advice and assistance of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to perform a broad, continuing mission. Unified commands are also known as combatant commands. A unified command is composed of two or more services under a single commander. The unified commander normally exercises combatant command through service component commanders.

Examples of unified commands include US European Command and US Pacific Command. Unified commands provide the CINC with areas of responsibility that include all associated land, sea, and airspace. Other unified commands are given functional responsibilities such as transportation or special operations. An example of a functional unified command is the US Special Operations Command.

A specified command is also established to perform a broad, continuing mission. A specified command differs from a unified command in that the specified command is primarily a single service command. The specified command may, however, have some elements of other services assigned.

Subordinate Unified Commands

The unified commander may establish a subordinate unified command to carry out broad, continuing missions under his command.

Joint Task Forces

The Secretary of Defense and the commanders of unified, specified, and subordinate unified commands along with existing joint task forces may establish a joint task force. Elements of two or more services under a single joint task force commander comprise the task force. The joint task force performs missions of specific, limited objectives or missions of short duration. It normally dissolves when its purpose is achieved.

RESPONSIBILITIES AND ROLES OF THE ARMY SERVICE COMPONENT COMMANDER

As previously stated, the Army service component commander or his equivalent will be the next higher headquarters for the armored brigade assigned the role of an Army forces headquarters. The responsibilities and roles of the Army service component commander include

  • Assuming responsibility for properly employing subordinate forces and accomplishing operational tasks assigned by the joint task force commander.
  • Establishing the link between Army forces and the joint command.
  • Planning and executing operations in support of the joint campaign plan.
  • Planning and executing support operations to sustain subordinate Army forces
  • Assuming responsibility for overseeing internal administration and discipline, training Army doctrine, and TTPs.
  • Designating specific units to meet joint force requirements.
  • Providing logistics functions normal to the component.
  • Ensuring tactical employment of service components.
  • Providing service component intelligence operations.

A combatant commander can establish an Army command that reports directly to him instead of the Army service component commander. The Army service component commander would then plan and execute operations to sustain this command and other Army units.


SECTION II. MARINE/ARMY INTEGRATION

TASK ORGANIZATION

The armored brigade provided to the Marine Corps may be an active or reserve component divisional brigade or a separate armored brigade. The brigade normally operates with a proportional share of division assets. The brigade uses these assets to provide armor support to the Marine Corps mission. The divisional brigade deploys with its assigned maneuver units plus habitual support slice. This includes two tank battalions, one mechanized infantry battalion, one engineer battalion, one DS FA battalion, an ADA battery, a forward area signal platoon, an MP platoon, combat IEW elements, a TACP, and an FSB. The USMC will provide air and NGLO assets and one SALT per maneuver battalion when working in support of Marines.

BATTLEFIELD OPERATING SYSTEMS

Intelligence

The armored brigade has its habitually associated GSR teams. Successful combat operations depend on the ability of the combined arms team to find, fix, fight, and finish enemy forces through a combination of offensive and defensive operations. The Marine air-ground task force intelligence functions are coordinated by the surveillance, reconnaissance, and intelligence group (SRIG). The SRIG has signals intelligence (SIGINT), HUMINT, and reconnaissance assets that provide intelligence to the Marine air-ground task force. A key to successful joint operations is the ability to gather, analyze, evaluate, and disseminate combat intelligence. Minor differences in intelligence doctrine exist between the Army and the Marine Corps. Leader and liaison training must focus on the differences in intelligence reporting procedures and techniques. Training must also address the different intelligence requirements of armored forces as compared to light forces.

Maneuver

There are no major doctrinal changes required to permit effective integration of an armored brigade in support of Marine Corps operations. However, there are areas in doctrine that contain inconsistencies or differences in interpretation. The armored brigade executes the same missions and roles as prescribed throughout this manual. The armored brigade's potential as a combat multiplier is the basis for cross attachment with the Marine Division. The capabilities of the armored brigade provide a new dimension to the Marine Division by closing the armor vulnerability window and providing an increased level of overall security and flexibility.

During maneuver operations, some of the following planning considerations should apply:

  • Marine air-ground task force vehicles are designed for amphibious operations.
  • Marine Corps armor is primarily used to support infantry.
  • A preferred Marine Corps maneuver is the "recon pull" in which reconnaissance forces find gaps and pull the bulk of attacking forces through those gaps to exploit the situation.
  • The defense is not part of a Marine air-ground task force's essential training and little training is done for complex defenses.

Fire Support

The Marine Corps relies on NGF and the aviation combat element for CAS. The brigade receives representatives and equipment to effectively integrate NGF and air support operations. The armored brigade receives two SALTs to control the Marine Corps CAS. The SALTs are normally assigned to any two of the maneuver battalions in the armored brigade. Army and Marine Corps FS doctrine, TTP, and employment principles are very similar. There are, however, some areas that could allow for some inconsistencies or differences in interpretations in the areas of FS control measures, CAS, and establishing liaison.

Air Defense

The armored brigade has its habitual BSFV battery. Successful air defense during joint operations requires strong airspace control procedures and an integrated system of mutual and complementary defenses. Strong liaison teams, excellent communications, and standardized procedures as a minimum are essential when conducting joint operations.

The primary differences between Marine and Army air defense are weapon systems and communications. Both the Marines and the Army use the Stinger, Avenger, and Hawk weapon systems, but only the Army uses the Patriot system. However, the Marines do not have a tracked ADA system, such as the BSFV. The light armor vehicle air defense (LAVAD) is the Marine armored ADA system. The BSFV battery can provide air defense protection to the brigade with some modifications. The BSFV battery must have its ADA sensor/scout section and maintenance contact team from the main support battalion. The Army and the Marines use the same employment guidelines and principles. Both services use the same IFF system and have similar doctrine terminology, air defense control measures, and the same air defense mission: protect the force from the air threat; integrate into the supported unit's scheme of maneuver.

The brigade staff should consider integrating AM communications within the battery to allow interface with the Marine Corps early warning net. Currently, Army BSFV batteries use FM communications to interface on the Army early warning net. The brigade should position an LO team at the Marine Division replicating the functions of the Army division LO (assistant division air defense officer [ADADO], division A2C2 cell).

Mobility and Survivability

The armored brigade should include its normal slice of a combat engineer battalion and chemical and decontamination assets. Both Army and Marine Corps maneuver units are supported by engineer forces to enhance their mobility and survivability. Much of the terminology and procedures are similar. However, the major difference between the two services is the employment philosophies for engineer forces. Army forces go to great lengths to enhance their defensive situations through engineer operations. Marine Corps units do not normally pay a great deal of attention to defensive enhancements. As a result, liaison between engineer headquarters should be established if integrated defensive operations are required. Construction, countering, and reporting barriers, obstacles, and minefields can be facilitated by using joint reporting formats and procedures during joint operations. There are no conflicts between Army and Marine Corps engineer doctrine and TTP. The Marine Corps uses Army engineer field manuals. The Marine Corps also uses the same NBC warning and reporting system as the Army.

Combat Service Support

The Army sustains the armored brigade. Normally, an armored brigade integrates with the Army support structure by receiving support from the DISCOM and corps assets. However, these units may not be in theater and the Marine Expeditionary Force is incapable of supporting the brigade. In this case, a logistics structure is provided to augment the FSB as well as to provide operations normally conducted by division and corps assets at the port.

Corps support group (CSG)(-) under the control of the Army forces headquarters arrives in theater to provide support as a function of Army executive agency support to all ground forces. The CSG(-) provides the Materiel Management Center (MMC) POL, transportation, maintenance, ordnance, supply and medical support to the brigade above the support provided by the brigade FSB. The Marine Corps Expeditionary Force provides limited Class I, Class III, common Class V, Class VIII, and Class IX to the Army armor unit. The brigade staff needs to conduct detailed planning and execution of the logistics operation.

CSS doctrine requires expansion to encompass joint operations. The Army and Marine Corps must resolve CSS terminology differences to effectively work together. The Army provides dedicated and habitual support to its combat units as well as area support. The Marine Corps task organizes its CSS elements at each level depending on the mission. The Marines have a force service support group that has eight battalions assigned. These battalions are task organized, based on the mission, into CSS detachments that provide the required logistical support to the combat units. The Marines normally conduct CSS operations within 50 miles of the beach or ship support. Deeper inland operations may mean potential CSS problems for the Marines.

Because the Marines cannot sustain the armored brigade, the US Army must be prepared to provide all necessary logistical support (see Figures B-2 and B-3).


Figure B-2. Recommended logistical support for divisional brigade with approximate personnel strengths.

PORT

CORPS SPT GP(-)

FSB AUGMENTATION

TRANS GROUP - 2226 HHD, AMMO ACTG - 17
HQ AMMO CO - 13
ORD PLATOON - 87
ORD PLATOON - 68
TAC PETROLEUM ELEMENT - 150
NONDIV MAINT CO - 250
DIV PERS MGT CNTR - 15
PERSONNEL DET - 23
POSTAL PLT - 10
JAG - 1
FINANCE DET - 19
MED TRUCK - 80
MMC ELEMENT - 3
FWD SPT PLT - 18
WATER PLATOON - 15
BATH TEAM - 15
LAUNDRY TEAM - 19
SPLIT OPS - 25
ORD SECTION - 25
POL PLATOON - 40
MLRS MAINT TM - 6
COMMEL PLATOON - 10
AVIM - 12
HET ELEMENT - 8
MED TRUCK ELEMENT - 20
MCC ELEMENT - 3
FWD SURGICAL TM - 20
AIR AMB SECTION - 26
MED OPS CELL - 10
MORTUARY AFFAIRS TM - 8
AVIM - 7
828 TOTAL 195 TOTAL

Figure B-3. Recommended logistical support for separate brigade with approximate personnel strengths.

PORT

CORPS SPT GP (-)

SPT BN AUGMENTATION

TRANS GROUP - 2226 HHD, AMMO ACTG - 17
HQ AMMO CO - 13
ORD PLATOON - 87
ORD PLATOON - 68
TAC PETROLEUM ELEMENT - 150
NONDIV MAINT CO - 250
DIV PERS MGT CENTER - 15
PERSONNEL DET - 23
POSTAL PLT - 10
FINANCE DET - 19
MED TRUCK - 80
MMC ELEMENT - 3
WATER PLATOON - 15
BATH TEAM - 15
LAUNDRY TEAM - 19
SPLIT OPS - 25
ORD SECTION - 25
POL PLATOON - 40
MLRS MAINT TM - 9
COMMEL PLATOON - 10
AVIM - 12
MCC ELEMENT - 3
MEDICAL OPS CELL - 6
AIR AMB SECTION - 26
AVUM SPT PACKAGE - 7
MORTUARY AFFAIRS TM - 8
809 TOTAL 146 TOTAL

Command and Control

The brigade works best as a unified entity. Changing its task organization could reduce its effectiveness. However, when the armored brigade is in reserve, the ground combat element commander can request artillery or engineer assets through the Marine Expeditionary Force commander to support division operations.

Tactical telephone connectivity into the Marine Corps system is provided by the Marine Corps. The Marine Corps establishes the multichannel link to the Army armor unit and provides encryption devices to link single channel radio (FM) from the Marine headquarters to the Army armor force headquarters.

To facilitate planning and execution with the command and control process as well as the logistics process, the Army will send LOs (based on TOE) to higher Marine Corps headquarters and adjacent headquarters. IAW Joint Publication 3-0, liaison from the Marine headquarters to the Army armor force headquarters will be established to enhance the understanding of the roles, missions, and commanders intent at both the sending and receiving unit. All liaison teams must exchange procedures, guidelines, and SOPs when providing critical information such as missions, tactics, organizational structure, doctrine, and weapons capabilities.

Joint Publication 1 reads, "Experience shows liaison is a particularly important part of command, control, and communications in a joint force." Liaison team members need appropriate rank and experience and must have adequate mobility and communications equipment. All liaison teams should bring supplies and life support equipment to assist in operations. Liaison teams should arrive at the designated locations with three days worth of supplies. The receiving unit is then responsible for providing logistical support to the liaison team. When liaison support is complete, the liaison team returns with three days worth of supplies.


SECTION III. MULTINATIONAL OPERATIONS

GENERAL

Combined operations involve the military forces of two or more nations acting together in common purpose. If the relationship is long standing and formalized by mutual political, diplomatic, and military agreements, it is referred to as an alliance. If the relationship is short term, ad hoc, and less formal, it is referred to as a coalition. This type of structure calls for each contributing nation to have forces that the allied commanders can assign to specific geographic areas. This is similar to a commander in a coalition operation. Three types of combined command organizations are:

  • By nationalities.
  • By function.
  • By nationalities and function.

Organization by Nationalities

This type of structure calls for each contributing nation to have forces that the allied or coalition commander can assign to specific geographic areas. This structure requires a combined staff only at supreme coalition or allied headquarters. However, the armored brigade may need to perform various liaison functions with combined forces.

Organization by Function

This type of structure organizes forces by function regardless of nationality. It requires a combined staff at the lowest level of command where two nationalities participate. If the armored brigade is acting as the Army forces headquarters, it is possible that the armored brigade requires a combined staff within this structure. A combined staff at brigade level could also occur during some types of OOTW that large armored forces (above brigade) are not employed.

Organization by Nationalities and Function

This is a combination of the above two structures. Units are organized by nationalities as well as by function. See FM 101-5 and FM 100-8 for further explanations of combined staffs.

PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS

Intelligence

During tactical operations, the brigade commander and staff must arrange for rapid dissemination of intelligence information. This presents a challenge when operating with combined forces. The brigade needs to provide intelligence LOs and dedicated communications networks with allied or coalition forces. Since the brigade is not currently organized with these additional assets, the Army service component commander or next higher headquarters may need to augment the brigade staff.

Maneuver

Tactical cooperation requires a great deal of precision, since it deals with immediate combat actions. Adjacent and supporting units must coordinate differences in tactical methods and operating procedures; differences in using other service capabilities such as CAS, varying organizations, and their capabilities; and differences in equipment. Vehicle recognition is critical. In addition, tactical plans at the brigade level should address people and equipment, fire control measures, air support arrangements, communications, signals, liaison operations, and movement control. The commander's intent and the concept of the operation should also receive special attention to avoid confusion that might occur because of differences in doctrine and terminology.

Fire Support

The focus of FS at the tactical level is the effective synchronization of the full range of fires provided by all friendly forces. This involves the integration of FA, CAS, NGF, and electronic countermeasures. The brigade must fully integrate into a rigid adherence to a common set of FS control measures established at higher levels. The brigade commander must give early and continuous emphasis to this process.

Mobility and Survivability

The armored brigade must focus on differences in engineer equipment, differences in types of mines and employment techniques of obstacles, and the exchange of all friendly information concerning obstacle employment with special emphasis on the reporting systems.

Air Defense

As with maneuver, aircraft recognition is of extreme importance. The brigade needs to consider synchronization of aircraft control measures such as ACAs, differences in the warning and reporting systems, and the integration of all friendly forces into an early warning communications net.

Combat Service Support

The armored brigade should consider the differences in logistics doctrine, stockage levels, logistics mobility, interoperability, and infrastructure. Often, US forces supply allied and coalition forces with materiel and receive CSS in exchange. The armored brigade needs to effectively operate with various host-nation support (HETs are a good example) and coordinate movement plans, road usage, and port activities.

Command and Control

The focus of successful combined operations centers on achieving unity of effort. All the considerations of combined operations must be involved, to include:

  • Differences in military doctrine, training, and equipment.
  • Differences in culture and language.
  • Teamwork.
  • Trust.

Effective coordination, liaison, and communications must be established with combined units on the brigade's flanks, front, and rear.


Forward to Appendix C.
Return to Appendix A.
Return to the Table of Contents.



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