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Force-projection operations are generally sequential in nature, although the stages (discussed in Chapter 2) may overlap in space and time. Activities of one stage will often mingle with those of another stage. For example, force buildup and preparation for major operations may occur while other units are mobilizing or deploying. Although all the stages of force projection are important, this appendix focuses on one critical to all divisions-deployment.

Divisions may deploy from CONUS, Europe, or other locations. Deployment is a joint operation that requires planning and coordination with members from all services. For successful deployments, each division must have a precrisis deployment system (based on its location). This system is activated immediately on notification of a crisis or pending crisis. The system ensures that the division delivers an appropriate force mix and support to the crisis area within the required times using many previously planned and coordinated joint assets.

Each division's deployment system will be unique because of force type, environmental conditions, and proximity to its ports of embarkation (POE); however, some elements are common to all. These include mission, mission essential task lists (METLs), organization of forces, and readiness.


During peacetime operations, the division identifies, trains, and prepares its units to accomplish critical wartime tasks. Units are organized, trained, equipped, and led to successfully complete these tasks. Because divisions must deploy forces quickly with little notice, preparation and deployment of forces become critical tasks.

Deployability must become a "state of mind" for everyone in the organization. All division units recognize deployment as a mission-essential task and annotate it as such on their METLs. It is through METL that the


division focuses training. (See the 25-series field manuals for information on training for mobilization.) The division organizes its assets to rapidly assemble, prepare, and move upon alert notification. The division task-organizes, echelons, and tailors forces prior to moving them. (See Chapter 2 for information on task-organizing, echeloning, and tailoring forces.)

Divisions are normally alerted for force projection missions through the Joint Operations Planning and Execution System (JOPES) deliberate or crisis-action procedures. Initial alert messages provide critical information that initiates division actions. Early decisions on force package modifications permit the efficient integration of changes into the deployment sequence. The division's precrisis organization enables the commander to rapidly modify his force list to include joint and non-Army assets, depending on METT-T factors and availability of strategic lift.

Precrisis, task-organized force packages facilitate division deployment. The division organizes these force packages around a combined arms task force (TF) core which can be tactically employed. When possible, the division maintains habitual unit relationships, capitalizing on cohesion, habitual training, and interoperability.

The division normally task-organizes for deployment (and training) into brigade-sized elements. A combat arms brigade of three ground maneuver battalions serves as the base for each brigade TF. It is complemented with appropriate combat, CS, and CSS units (brigade slice). These brigade TFs are designated division ready brigades (DRBs), according to their stage of readiness and sequence in a deployment schedule (for example, DRB1, DRB2, DRB3).

The DRB1 will be the first brigade TF to deploy. It is postured to meet the division's initial


deployment time lines. Units following the DRB 1 (in the precrisis plan) are in a lesser deployment posture. This allows greater flexibility for unit training and related support activities.

The division ready brigades' ground maneuver battalions form the nucleus of the division ready force (DRF). These battalions also maintain various stages of readiness, depending on where they fall in the planned deployment sequence. One battalion task-organized with combat, CS, and CSS forms the DRF1 battalion. It is the first unit in the DRB1 to deploy. The DRF 1 designates one of its companies as the initial ready company (IRC). The IRK is the first unit to respond to division crisis requirements.

Combat, CS, and CS S elements not task-organized with a DRB or DRF are organized into separate support packages (SUPPACs) according to the division plan. These elements are also task-organized to initially provide an advance party and operational elements. This advance party prepares for the reception of follow-on forces. Initial operational elements provide the necessary support to sustain operations of the DRB 1. These advance parties also establish a support base for the arrival of the remainder of the division. With this organization, the division can rapidly tailor and deploy SUPPACs for a separate brigade operation if the entire division does not deploy.

A core force-package structure helps to modify and deploy forces quickly when a crisis occurs. The division commander tailors his forces and echelons them for movement based on current contingency plans (which may be modified through JOPES), his mission, the enemy situation, available lift, and access to host nation or prepositioned resources.

The division relies on organic, installation, and contracted transportation for the movement of personnel and equipment to the division's POE. The USTRANSCOM provides the division transportation for strategic movement. Divisions, responding to short-notice contingencies for which no CONPLANs or OPLANs exist, quickly assess their strategic transport requirements. They assist USTRANSCOM (or their corps headquarters) in computing requirements and time of embarkation. Headquarters higher than division may dictate the amount of available transportation.

Divisions establish internal movement procedures and

responsibilities for moving personnel, equipment, and logistics from installations to strategic embarkation points. Since divisional equipment will eventually be deployed, divisions use as few organic assets to outload their units as possible. Installations maximize all installation and higher headquarters resources to support the division's outload. Divisions also develop procedures to conduct a self-outload.

The complexity of deployment requires a dedicated C2 system with fixed communications. The division establishes an emergency operations center (EOC) with at least minimal staffing at all times. When the division is alerted, the EOC is fully staffed to execute operations, intelligence, logistics, and administration functions. The EOC is the controlling agency as the division's various command posts and command groups are moved in accordance with the division's plan. If the entire division is alerted to deploy, the installation or garrison staff performs duties in the EOC.


The division establishes a formal division deployment system to synchronize resources and events for an effective and efficient deployment. This system is documented in the division's readiness standing operating procedures (RSOP). The RSOP prescribe unit procedures for preparation and overall conduct of deployment activities.

Divisions develop their RSOP on planning guidance established by their parent headquarters and the 55-series field manuals. (CALL Newsletter No. 90-11, December 1990, Getting To The Desert, also provides excellent, specific lessons learned on readiness and deployment.) The RSOP address-

  • An overall concept.

  • Force-package training requirements.

  • The division's notification system.

  • Logistics support.

  • Personnel readiness (to include family support plans).

  • Equipment readiness.

  • Outload support.

  • Command and control at all critical points.

JOPES is the national system for joint military planning and execution of operations. It provides all services a formal system to develop, coordinate, approve, and publish OPLANS and CONPLANs. Divisions are involved with two types of JOPES planning-deliberate and crisis action. Their major difference is the availability of time. The Army Mobilization and Operations Planning and Execution System (AMOPES) is the Army supplement to JOPES. Army components plan Army forces and resources to meet combatant commanders' needs using the AMOPES. It provides the interface between unified plans for deployment and Army plans for mobilizing forces and resources. Division planners must be familiar with the JOPES and AMOPES processes. (See FM 100-11 and FM 100-17-1.) Deployments normally begin with the receipt of an alert message, which is a product of JOPES and AMOPES. Division crisis-action planning (CAP) takes place on receipt of an alert or a warning order. On receipt of a warning order from the higher headquarters, crisis-action team (CAT) members (normally selected division staff members) are alerted and assemble in the EOC. There the team modifies an existing OPLAN or develops a new OPLAN and prepares to issue it to the division. The following paragraphs describe critical pieces of the division's readiness procedures. Alert Notification At the appropriate time, the EOC initiates the division's alert notification and begins the CAP sequence. Critical events are set into motion. On alert, notification units initiate personnel-assembly procedures, strength accounting, and mission planning and commence deployment activities outlined in the division's RSOP. Notification from the EOC follows an established chain. It uses dedicated communications to major subordinate commands, separate battalions, and companies. The EOC should have the ability to simultaneously communicate emergency action messages to all designated units and activities. (For example, some civilian support may deploy.) This notification provides subordinate units with essential information needed to begin actions for deployment.


Outload procedures are established to quickly move the division. Outload procedures lay out events and activities by hour, from the time of notification through the deployment of the division's trail unit.

The outload sequence is based on the division's standard precrisis task organization into DRBs. METT-T requirements may require tailoring the standard task organization. The outload sequence is flexible enough to accommodate such changes.

Agencies and organic units (if required) assist pushing the deploying units. If possible, the division should minimize using organic assets for outload support. The installation or garrison is responsible for outloading the division. If, however, the garrison or associated nondivisional elements are unable to perform all outloading tasks, the divisional units perform outload support. The division identifies if special assets are needed, and the installation obtains them from other installations or commercial resources.

Division outload-support procedures must fix responsibilities for support activities. Examples of outload activities include-

  • Formation of POE control groups.

  • Transportation of personnel.

  • Conduct of Soldier Readiness Program (SRP).

  • Establishment of personnel and vehicle processing centers and holding areas.

    Personnel Readiness

Integral to deployment proficiency is personnel readiness. Units, soldiers, and deployable civilians regularly perform personnel readiness actions. These actions include-

  • Maintenance of personnel readiness folders.

  • Updates to individual SRP requirements.

  • Maintenance of individual special equipment.

  • Personnel actions that must be accomplished regardless of mission.

Most personnel actions are completed prior to an actual alert. There will always be last-minute requirements however.

Final requirements may include-

  • Prepare for overseas movement of 100 percent of deploying soldiers and finalize deployment rosters.

  • Conduct final immunization based on expected area of deployment.

  • Request POM, postal, and Red Cross support.

  • Create manifests.

  • Conduct final weapons qualification.

  • Create shortage lists.

  • Conduct minimum mission-essential equipment checks.

Logistics Readiness

Combat service support is a component part of the division's task organization. The DRBs are task-organized with appropriate CSS assets that enable the force to sustain itself for a designated time period. Assigned missions may require logistics support beyond the DISCOM's responsibilities. Therefore, the division quickly assesses logistics requirements, taking into account host nation capabilities. The division then requests and sequences augmentation by corps CSS units into the division's deployment.

Logistics requirements of deploying forces are of two categories: unit-related supplies and equipment, and nonunit-related supplies and equipment. The first includes the unit's organic equipment, basic load, and accompanied supplies. The latter includes all sustainment support requirements not assigned to a specific unit. Nonunit-related supplies and equipment support the division's forces until lines of communication (LOC) are open.

Procedures for the storage, accountability, and deployment of supplies are essential to the division's deployment readiness. Logistics requirements at every divisional level must be clearly stated and documented. Procedures that cover logistics support, ranging from uploading equipment to issuing ammunition, must be thoroughly documented and synchronized with other parts of the deployment plan. The desired end state of these logistics actions is to deploy and sustain an

effective force capable of conducting assigned missions on arriving in the area of operations.

Transportation Considerations

A key issue is transporting the division. The Army depends on the Air Force and the Navy for strategic lift. The division identifies its transportation requirements and constraints through the Transportation Coordinator Automated Command and Control Information System (TC-ACCIS). This is an information management and data communications system used to plan and control movement for deployments. The TC-ACCIS ties together (through a computer network) the installation transportation office, unit movement coordinators, intermediate unit movement officers (such as the division transportation officer, brigade movement officers), and unit movement officer (FM 55-65). By establishing a detailed precrisis movement data base, the division can tailor its unit loads according to METT-T and available transportation.


Security measures are vital to protecting the division's forces. The division establishes procedures and ROE to prevent hostile or unwanted monitoring of division activities. Laxness in division security procedures jeopardizes soldiers and the mission.

Security measures include-

  • Establishing procedures and safeguards to limit military and commercial communications.

  • Designating unit security areas.

  • Developing unit OPSEC measures.

  • Conducting counterintelligence evaluations prior to the deployment and executing countermeasures during the deployment sequence.

Public Affairs

Media impact on deployment operations is substantially greater today than in any previous time in history. The news media's capability to gain and transmit ongoing deployment activities globally cannot be discounted. News technology requires the division to establish a single point of contact for releasing information regarding ongoing operations. The division's public affairs office (PAO) coordinates all media actions. Additionally, PAO responds to public requests for

information as appropriate. The division develops procedures and guidelines for releasing information within security, propriety, and safety considerations of the ongoing operation.

Family Support

Procedures for family support while soldiers are gone are critical in deployment planning. These procedures are established and documented. They may include forming family support groups that assist in resolving problems and formally interacting with Army Community Services, the Installation Ministry Team, and Family Life Center to meet family needs. Soldiers need assurance that their families will be cared for after they deploy. Single soldiers must be considered and assured that their families are kept abreast on their situation. Family support is the responsibility of both the deploying commander and the garrison or installation commander. The garrison, installation, or rear detachment commander supervises family support actions when the division deploys.

Rear Detachment

Rear detachment requirements always exist when units deploy. Nondeployable personnel and equipment (organizational and personal) will require positive control. Rear detachments must be established and trained to perform their critical tasks in the areas of-

  • Installation or facility control.

    • Administrative responsibility of nondeployed personnel.

    • Storage of privately owned vehicles (POVs) and weapons.

    • Disposition of personal property.

    • Family assistance.

    • Unit property management.

    • Provision of Class A agent.

    • Security management.


    Since force-projection missions are accomplished rapidly with little or no warning, divisions must train as they intend to operate. Once alerted, the division may have little time to correct training deficiencies.

    When not deployed, divisions normally establish three DRB TF operating cycles-mission, training, and support. These rotational cycles ensure that one DRB is fully prepared to deploy while the second DRB is postured to support or augment the division' 5 outload. The third DRB concentrates on training. Such cycles facilitate the division's readiness and support METL and battle task training. FM 25-5 addresses unit training for deployments.

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