* FM 7-0 (FM 25-100)

Field Manual
No. 7-0

Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 22 October 2002

Training the Force




Chapter 1
How the Army Trains

The Training Imperative
The Strategic Environment
Joint, Interagency, Multinational (JIM) Training
How the Army Trains the Army
Leader Training and Development
The Institutional Domain
Initial Military Training (IMT)
Professional Military Education (PME)
The Operational Domain
Commander's Responsibility
NCO Responsibility
Unit Responsibility
Relationship Between Institution and Unit
Operational Training and Major Exercises
The Self-Development Domain
The Role of MACOMS, Corps, Divisions, USAR Regional Commands and ARNG Area Commands in Training
Reserve Component Training

Chapter 2

Battle Focused Training

Principle of Training
Commanders are Responsible for Training
NCOs Train Individuals, Crews, and Small Teams
Train as a Combined Arms and Joint Team
Train for Combat Proficiency
Train to Standard Using Appropriate Doctrine
Train to Adapt
Train to Maintain and Sustain
Train Using Multiechelon Techniques
Train to Sustain Proficiency
Train and Develop Leaders
Commanders and Training
Develop and Communicate a Clear Vision
Train One Echelon Below and Evaluate Two Echelons Below
Require Subordinates to Understand and Perform Their Roles in Training
Train All Elements to be Proficient on Their Mission Essential Tasks
Develop Subordinates
Involve Themselves Personally in Planning, Preparing, Executing, and Assessing Training
Demand Training Standards are Achieved
Ensure Proper Task and Event Discipline
Foster a Command Climate That is Conducive to Good Training
Eliminate Training Distractions
Top-Down/Bottom-Up Approach to Training
Battle Focus
Army Training Management Cycle

Chapter 3
Mission Essential Task List Development

METL Development Process
Inputs to METL Development
      Wartime Operational Plans
      Enduring Combat Capabilities
      Operational Environment
      Directed Missions
      External Guidance
Commander's Analysis
Reserve Component METL Development
Echelon Above Division/Echelon Above Corps (EAD/EAC) METL Development
TDA METL Development
METL Development for Directed Missions
Joint METL (JMETL) Development
METL Development Fundamentals
METL Linked Training Strategy
Training Objectives
Battle Tasks

Chapter 4

Planning Process
Training Plans
Long-range Planning
Command Training Guidance (CTG)
Long-range Planning Calendar
Training and Time Management
Training Events
Live, Virtual, and Constructive (L-V-C) Training
Training Resources
Short-range Planning
Short-range Training Guidance
Short-range Planning Calendar
Training Events
Multiechelon Training
Training Resources
Train the Trainers
Short-range Training Briefings
Near-term Planning
Training Meetings
Training Schedules
CS and CSS Training
Garrison Training

Chapter 5

Execution of Training
Preparation for Training
Conduct of Training
Recovery from Training
Role of Commanders and Senior Leaders
Role of Noncommissioned Officers

Chapter 6

Organizational Assessment
Evaluation of Training
After Action Review
The Role of Senior Commanders and Leaders


Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes FM 25-100, 15 November 1988.



The U. S. Army exists for one reason-to serve the Nation. From the earliest days of its creation, the Army has embodied and defended the American way of life and its constitutional system of government. It will continue to answer the call to fight and win our Nation's wars, whenever and wherever they may occur. That is the Army's non-negotiable contract with the American people.

The Army will do whatever the Nation asks it to do, from decisively winning wars to promoting and keeping the peace. To this end, the Army must be strategically responsive and ready to be dominant at every point across the full spectrum of military operations.

Today, the Army must meet the challenge of a wider range of threats and a more complex set of operating environments while incorporating new and diverse technology. The Army meets these challenges through its core competencies: Shape the Security Environment, Prompt Response, Mobilize the Army, Forcible Entry Operations, Sustained Land Dominance and Support Civil Authorities. We must maintain combat readiness as our primary focus while transitioning to a more agile, versatile, lethal, and survivable Army.

Doctrine represents a professional army's collective thinking about how it intends to fight, train, equip, and modernize. When the first edition of FM 25-100, Training the Force, was published in 1988, it represented a revolution in the way the Army trains. The doctrine articulated by FMs 25-100, Training the Force, and 25-101, Battle Focused Training, has served the Army well. These enduring principles of training remain sound; much of the content of these manuals remains valid for both today and well into the future. FM 7-0 updates FM 25-100 to our current operational environment and will soon be followed by FM 7-1, which will update FM 25-101.

FM 7-0 is the Army's capstone training doctrine and is applicable to all units, at all levels, and in all components. While the examples in this manual are principally focused at division and below, FM 7-0 provides the essential fundamentals for all individual, leader, and unit training.

Training for warfighting is our number one priority in peace and in war. Warfighting readiness is derived from tactical and technical competence and confidence. Competence relates to the ability to fight our doctrine through tactical and technical execution. Confidence is the individual and collective belief that we can do all things better than the adversary and the unit possesses the trust and will to accomplish the mission.

FM 7-0 provides the training and leader development methodology that forms the foundation for developing competent and confident soldiers and units that will win decisively in any environment. Training is the means to achieve tactical and technical competence for specific tasks, conditions, and standards. Leader Development is the deliberate, continuous, sequential, and progressive process, based on Army values, that develops soldiers and civilians into competent and confident leaders capable of decisive action.

Closing the gap between training, leader development, and battlefield performance has always been the critical challenge for any army. Overcoming this challenge requires achieving the correct balance between training management and training execution. Training management focuses leaders on the science of training in terms of resource efficiencies (such as people, time, and ammunition) measured against tasks and standards. Training execution focuses leaders on the art of leadership to develop trust, will, and teamwork under varying conditions-intangibles that must be developed to win decisively in combat. Leaders integrate this science and art to identify the right tasks, conditions, and standards in training, foster unit will and spirit, and then adapt to the battlefield to win decisively.

FM 7-0 provides the Training Management Cycle and the necessary guidelines on how to plan, execute, and assess training and leader development. Understanding "How the Army Trains the Army" to fight is key to successful joint, interagency, multinational (JIM), and combined arms operations. Effective training leads to units that execute the Army's core competencies and capabilities.

All leaders are trainers! This manual is designed for leaders at every level and in every type of organization in the Army.

The proponent for this publication is U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). Send comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 to Commander, HQ TRADOC, ATTN: ATTG-ZA, Fort Monroe, Virginia 23651-5000.

Direct e-mail questions to the following address:

Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.


Chapter 1

How the Army Trains

  • Develop trust soldier-to-soldier, leader to led, unit-to-unit in the Army and grow the warfighting confidence of the force.
  • Train for decisive warfighting.
  • Train soldiers now, and grow leaders for the next conflict.
  • Ensure that our soldiers are physically and mentally prepared to dominate the next battlefield-no soldier goes into harm's way untrained.
  • Our soldiers must be comfortable and confident in the elements-fieldcraft, fieldcraft, fieldcraft.

General Eric Shinseki



1-1. Every soldier, noncommissioned officer (NCO), warrant officer, and officer has one primary mission-to be trained and ready to fight and win our Nation's wars. Success in battle does not happen by accident; it is a direct result of tough, realistic, and challenging training. The Army exists to deter war, or if deterrence fails, to reestablish peace through victory in combat wherever U.S. interests are challenged. To accomplish this, the Army's forces must be able to perform their assigned strategic, operational, and tactical missions. For deterrence to be effective, potential enemies must know with certainty that the Army has the credible, demonstrable capability to mobilize, deploy, fight, sustain, and win any conflict. Training is the process that melds human and materiel resources into these required capabilities. The Army has an obligation to the American people to ensure its soldiers go into battle with the assurance of success and survival. This is an obligation that only rigorous and realistic training, conducted to standard, can fulfill.

1-2. We train the way we fight because our historical experiences show the direct correlation between realistic training and success on the battlefield. Today's leaders must apply the lessons of history in planning training for tomorrow's battles. We can trace the connection between training and success in battle to our Army's earliest experiences during the American Revolution. General Washington had long sensed the need for uniform training and organization and, during the winter of 1777-1778 while camped at Valley Forge, he secured the appointment of Von Steuben, a Prussian, as inspector general in charge of training. Von Steuben clearly understood the difference between the American citizen-soldier and the European professional. He noted early that American soldiers had to be told why they did things before they would do them well, and he applied this philosophy in his training. It helped the Continental soldiers understand and endure the rigorous and demanding training he put them through. After Valley Forge, Continentals would fight on equal terms with British Regulars. Von Steuben began the tradition of effective unit level training that today still develops leaders and forges battle-ready units for the Army.

1-3. Over two centuries later, the correlation between tough, realistic training and success on the battlefield remains the same. During Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation Anaconda in Afghanistan, the U.S. Army deployed a trained and ready force on short notice to a contemporary battlefield fighting against a coalition of rebel forces on difficult terrain.

1-4. These units trained to their wartime mission, and developed company grade officers, NCOs, and soldiers who knew their jobs and were confident they could act boldly and decisively. Their confidence, and technical and tactical competence gave them the ability to adapt to the mission and harsh environment with resounding success. Airmobile infantry quickly perfected methods of routing rebel forces from heavily fortified caves. Special forces teams rode horses with their host nation counterparts-learning to call in tactical air support with devastating accuracy while on the move. Staffs quickly learned how to integrate Special Operations Forces (SOF) and conventional force operations. Engineer units cleared mine fields that were as old as many of their soldiers involved in the clearing process. Again, American soldiers had met the enemy and decisively defeated them.

1-5. The Army's battle-focused training was validated. These soldiers trained as they planned to fight and won. Their success was due to the Army's emphasis on battle focused training which emphasized training essential warfighting tasks to standard and building cohesive combined arms teams able to adapt to the mission. Army units today train, alert, and deploy prepared for combat. Their battle focused training experience gives them the flexibility to continue training and adapting to the mission as it evolves.



1-6. In an era of complex national security requirements, the Army's strategic responsibilities now embrace a wider range of missions that present even greater challenges in our training environment. To "train the way we fight," commanders and leaders at all levels must conduct training with respect to a wide variety of operational missions across the full spectrum of operations. These operations may include combined arms, joint, multinational, and interagency considerations, and span the entire breadth of terrain and environmental possibilities. Commanders must strive to set the daily training conditions as closely as possible to those expected for actual operations.

1-7. The operational missions of the Army include not only war, but also military operations other than war (MOOTW). Operations may be conducted as major combat operations, a small-scale contingency, or a peacetime military engagement. Offensive and defensive operations normally dominate military operations in war along with some small-scale contingencies. Stability operations and support operations dominate in MOOTW. Commanders at all echelons may combine different types of operations simultaneously and sequentially to accomplish missions in war and MOOTW. Throughout this document, we will emphasize the primary function of the Army-to fight and win our Nation's wars. Implicit in the emphasis is the mounting importance of MOOTW. These missions also require training; future conflict will likely involve a mix of combat and MOOTW, often concurrently. The range of possible missions complicates training. Army forces cannot train for every possible mission; they train for war and prepare for specific missions as time and circumstances permit. The nature of world crises requires Army forces to simultaneously train, deploy, and execute. Therefore, at Army level, warfighting will encompass the full spectrum of operations that the Army may be called upon to execute. Warfighting in units is refined and focused on assigned wartime missions or directed change of missions.

1-8. Contingency operations in the 1990s normally followed a sequence of alert, train, deployment, extended build-up, and shaping operations followed by a period of decisive operations. To be truly responsive and meet our commitments, Army forces must be deployable and capable of rapidly concentrating combat power in an operational area with minimal additional training. Our forces today use a train, alert, deploy sequence. We cannot count on the time or opportunity to correct or make up training deficiencies after deployment. Maintaining forces that are ready now, places increased emphasis on training and the priority of training. This concept is a key link between operational and training doctrine.

1-9. Units train to be ready for war based on the requirements of a precise and specific mission; in the process, they develop a foundation of combat skills, which can be refined based on the requirements of the assigned mission. Upon alert, commanders assess and refine from this foundation of skills. In the train, alert, deploy process commanders use whatever time the alert cycle provides to continue to refine mission-focused training. Training continues during time available between alert notification and deployment, between deployment and employment, and even during employment as units adapt to the specific battlefield environment and assimilate combat replacements.

1-10. Resources for training are not unconstrained and compete with other missions and activities. Time is the inelastic resource, there is not enough and it cannot be increased. We cannot do everything; we must forge and sustain trained and ready forces. Training for the warfight, training to maintain near-term readiness is the priority; compliance training and non-mission activities are of lower priority. If training cannot be conducted, readiness reports are the vehicle to inform the Army's leadership of the risks being assumed.

1-11. The key to winning on the battlefield is the understanding of "how we fight" and the demonstrated confidence, competence, and initiative of our soldiers and leaders. Training is the means to achieve the tactical and technical proficiency that soldiers, leaders, and units must have to enable them to accomplish their missions. Training focuses on fighting and winning battles. The proficiency derived from this training is the same required for many MOOTW tasks. The ability to integrate and synchronize all available assets to defeat any enemy tactically gives our Army great credibility and respect that enhances our ability to accomplish all missions to include MOOTW.

1-12. Responsibility for success on the future battlefield rests on the shoulders of today's Army leaders at all levels. To ensure this success, all leaders must focus training on warfighting skills, and make that training the priority.



1-13. The purpose of joint training is to prepare the Army to execute missions as a part of a joint force in the conduct of joint military operations and across the full spectrum of conflict. Employing Army forces at the right place and time allows combatant commanders to conduct decisive land operations along with air, sea, and space-based operations. The Army provides to a joint force commander (JFC) trained and ready forces that expand the commander's range of military options. Army commanders tailor and train forces to react quickly to any crisis.

1-14. Commanders of major Army headquarters may serve as the joint force land component commander (JFLCC), a combined forces commander (CFC), or as the joint task force commander (JTFC). To perform these assignments organizations conduct joint training.

1-15. Joint training uses joint doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures, and the training involves more than one Service component. However, two or more Services training together using their respective service doctrine, tactics, techniques, and procedures are Service-sponsored interoperability training. Although, not classified as joint training, Service sponsored interoperability is a vital component of joint proficiency and readiness.

1-16. Multinational training is based on applicable multinational, joint and/or service doctrine and is designed to prepare organizations for combined operations with allied nations.

1-17. Interagency training is based on applicable standard operating procedures; and, is designed to prepare the Army to operate in conjunction with government agencies.

1-18. The Army training doctrine contained in this manual provides Army commanders the tools to develop experienced leaders and adaptive organizations prepared to exercise command and control of joint and multinational forces, and to provide interagency unity of effort.



1-19. Training is a team effort and the entire Army-Department of the Army, major Army commands (MACOMs), the institutional training base, units, the combat training centers (CTC), each individual soldier and the civilian work force-has a role that contributes to force readiness. Department of the Army and MACOMs are responsible for resourcing the Army to train. The institutional Army including schools, training centers, and NCO academies, for example, train soldiers and leaders to take their place in units in the Army by teaching the doctrine and tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP). Units, leaders, and individuals train to standard on their assigned missions, first as an organic unit and then as an integrated component of a team. Operational deployments, and major training opportunities such as major training exercises, CTCs, CTC-like training, and external evaluations (EXEVAL) provide rigorous, realistic, and stressful training and operational experience under actual or simulated combat and operational conditions to enhance unit readiness and produce bold, innovative leaders. Simultaneously, individual soldiers, NCOs, warrant officers, officers, and the civilian work force are responsible for training themselves through personal self-development. Training is a continuous, lifelong endeavor that produces competent, confident, disciplined, and adaptive soldiers and leaders with the warrior ethos in our Army. Commanders have the ultimate responsibility to train soldiers and develop leaders who can adjust to change with confidence and exploit new situations, technology, and developments to their advantage. The result of this Army-wide team effort is a training and leader development system that is unrivaled in the world. Effective training produces the force-soldiers, leaders, and units-that can successfully execute any assigned mission.

1-20. The Army Training and Leader Development Model (figure 1-1) centers on developing trained and ready units led by competent and confident leaders. The model identifies an important interaction that trains soldiers now and develops leaders for the future. Leader Development is a lifelong learning process. The three core domains that shape the critical learning experiences throughout a soldier's and leader's career are the operational, institutional, and self-development domains. Together, these domains interact using feedback and assessment from various sources and methods to maximize warfighting readiness. Each domain has specific, measurable actions that must occur to develop our leaders. The operational domain includes home station training, combat training center rotations, joint training exercises, and operational deployments that satisfy national objectives. Each of these actions provides foundational experiences for soldiers, leaders, and unit development. The institutional domain focuses on educating and training soldiers and leaders on the key knowledge, skills, and attributes required to operate in any environment. It includes individual, unit and joint schools, and advanced education. The self-development domain, both structured and informal, focuses on taking those actions necessary to reduce or eliminate the gap between operational and institutional experiences. Throughout this lifelong learning and experience process, there is formal and informal assessment and feedback of performance to prepare leaders for their next level of responsibility. Assessment is the method used to determine the proficiency and potential of leaders against a known standard. Feedback must be clear, formative guidance directly related to the outcome of training events measured against standards.

Figure 1-1. Army Training and Leader Development Model

Figure 1-1. Army Training and Leader Development Model


1-21. The importance of training the technical skills to develop competent soldiers and leaders must be directly linked to creating confident soldiers, leaders, and units with the will and warrior spirit to dominate in any environment. The operational, institutional, and self-development domains are influenced by and adapted based on the overall strategic context of the Army. Joint, interagency, and multinational training, education, and individual assignment experiences shape the competence and confidence of leaders and units.

1-22. All of these interrelated activities take place within the Army's culture or shared set of beliefs, values, and assumptions that define for us what is most important. Our culture is ingrained in our new soldiers and reinforced daily to all of us in order to provide a positive framework for everything we do. A detailed discussion of Army culture will be addressed in FM 6-22, Leadership, and the updated version of DA PAM 350-58, Leader Development for America's Army.



1-23. The Army is a profession, the Profession of Arms. Warfighting in defense of U. S. values and interests is the core competency of this profession. As a profession, the development of each member becomes the foundation, involving a lifelong devotion to duty both while in uniform and upon return to the civilian life. Professional development involves more than mastering technical skills. What is uniquely distinct to the military profession is its emphasis on not only what is to be accomplished, but how it is accomplished and with the full realization that the profession of arms may require of its members, the supreme sacrifice. Professional development extends to inculcating the Army values of Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Integrity, Honor, and Personal Courage in every soldier to create a warrior ethos based on camaraderie and service to our Nation. Professional education provides the foundation involving a variety of training domains ranging from institutional schooling, self-study, and operational experience to personal interaction with superiors, peers, and subordinates. All of these interactions are essential in developing and understanding training and leader development for warfighting.

1-24. Competent and confident leaders are a prerequisite to the successful training of ready units. It is important to understand that leader training and leader development are integral parts of unit readiness. Leaders are inherently soldiers first and should be technically and tactically proficient in basic soldier skills. They are also adaptive, capable of sensing their environment, adjusting the plan when appropriate, and properly applying the proficiency acquired through training.

1-25. Leader training is an expansion of these skills that qualifies them to lead other soldiers. As such, the doctrine and principles of training leader tasks is the same as that for any other task set forth in FM 7-0 and requires the same level of attention of senior commanders. Leader training occurs in the institutional Army, the unit, the combat training centers, and through self-development. Leader training is just one portion of leader development.

1-26. Leader development is the deliberate, continuous, sequential, and progressive process, grounded in Army values, that grows soldiers and civilians into competent and confident leaders capable of decisive action. Leader development is achieved through the lifelong synthesis of the knowledge, skills, and experiences gained through institutional training and education, organizational training, operational experience, and self-development. Commanders play the key role in leader development that ideally produces tactically and technically competent, confident, and adaptive leaders who act with boldness and initiative in dynamic, complex situations to execute mission-type orders achieving the commander's intent.



1-27. The institutional Army (schools and training centers) is the foundation for lifelong learning. The institution is a key enabler for unit readiness. It develops competent, confident, disciplined, and adaptive leaders and soldiers able to succeed in situations of great uncertainty. The institution provides the framework to develop future leadership characteristics that produce critical thinkers capable of full spectrum visualization, systems understanding, and mental agility. Institutional training and education enhances military knowledge, individual potential, initiative, and competence in warfighting skills. It infuses an ethos of service to the Nation and the Army, and provides the educational, intellectual, and experiential foundation for success on the battlefield. The institution teaches Army doctrine and provides the experiences that train leaders and soldiers. It trains them to adapt to uncertainty and be creative and innovative problem solvers as members of lethal units and battle staffs in combined arms, and JIM operations. Institutions provide training on common tasks and a selected portion of occupation-related critical tasks, and continue to provide lifelong, through mutual reach, access to training materials for individual soldier or unit use. The elements of institutional training and education include-



1-28. This training provides the basic skills, knowledge, and task proficiency to become a soldier and subsequently to succeed as members of a small Army unit, contribute to unit mission accomplishment, and survive on the battlefield. IMT is the foundation training given to all personnel upon entering the Army. It provides an ordered transition from being a civilian to becoming a soldier, motivation to become a dedicated and productive member of the Army, and qualification on basic critical soldier skills and knowledge. IMT instills an appreciation for the Army in a democratic society, inspires the Army warrior ethos, and establishes Army values of loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity, and personal courage. Newly commissioned officers will be competent and confident small unit leaders trained in fieldcraft. Warrant officers will be technically proficient in the systems associated with their functional specialty. Enlisted soldiers will be qualified in the critical military occupational specialty tasks and standards defined by their branch proponent. The soldierization and professional development process continues under the leadership of NCOs when these new soldiers arrive in their first unit.



1-29. PME develops Army leaders. Officer, warrant officer, and NCO training and education is a continuous, career-long, learning process that integrates structured programs of instruction-resident at the institution and non-resident via distributed learning at home station. PME is progressive and sequential, provides a doctrinal foundation, and builds on previous training, education and operational experiences. PME provides hands-on technical, tactical, and leader training focused to ensure leaders are prepared for success in their next assignment and higher-level responsibility.

  • Officer Education System (OES). Army officers must lead and fight; be tactically and technically competent; possess leader skills; understand how the Army operates as a service, as well as a component of a joint, multinational, or interagency organization; demonstrate confidence, integrity, critical judgment, and responsibility; operate in a complex, uncertain, and rapidly changing environment; build effective teams amid continuous organizational and technological change; and solve problems creatively. OES develops officers who are self-aware and adaptive to lead Army units to mission success.
  • Warrant Officer Education System (WOES). Warrant officers are the Army's technical experts. WOES develops a corps of highly specialized experts and trainers who are fully competent and proficient operators, maintainers, administrators, and managers of the Army's equipment, support activities, and technical systems.
  • NCO Education System (NCOES). NCOES trains NCOs to lead and train soldiers, crews, and subordinate leaders who work and fight under their leadership. NCOES provides hands-on technical, tactical, and leader training focused to ensure that NCOs are prepared for success in their next assignment and higher-level responsibility.
  • Functional Training. In addition to the preceding PME courses, there are functional courses available in both resident and non-resident distributed learning modes that enhance functional skills for specific duty positions. Examples are Battalion S2, Battalion Motor Officer, First Sergeant, Battle Staff NCO, and Airborne courses.



1-30. Soldier and leader training and development continue in the unit. Using the institutional foundation, training in organizations and units focuses and hones individual and team skills and knowledge.



1-31. The unit commander is responsible for the wartime readiness of all elements in the formation. The commander is, therefore, the primary trainer of the organization, responsible for ensuring that all training is conducted in accordance with the unit's mission essential task list (METL) to the Army standard. This is the commander's number one priority. The command climate must reflect this priority. The commander analyzes the unit's wartime mission and develops the unit's METL. Using appropriate doctrine and mission training plans (MTPs), the commander plans training and briefs the training plan to the senior commander. The senior commander is responsible for resourcing, ensuring stability and predictability, protecting training from interference, and executing and assessing training. Commanders ensure MTP standards are met during all training. If they are not, the unit must retrain until the tasks are performed to standard. Train to standard, not to time.

1-32. Key to effective unit training is the commander's involvement and presence in planning, preparing, executing, and assessing unit training to standard. Commanders ensure MTP standards are met during all training. If a squad, platoon, or company fails to meet established standards for identified METL tasks, the unit must retrain until the tasks are performed to standard. Training to standard on METL tasks is more important than completion of an event such as an EXEVAL. Focus on sustaining METL proficiency-this is the critical factor commanders must adhere to when training small units.



1-33. A great strength of the U.S. Army is its professional NCO Corps who take pride in being responsible for the individual training of soldiers, crews, and small teams. They ensure the continuation of the soldierization process of new soldiers when they arrive in the unit. Within the unit, the NCO support channel (leadership chain) parallels and complements the chain of command. It is a channel of communication and supervision from the command sergeant major (CSM) to first sergeant and then to other NCOs and enlisted personnel. In addition, NCOs train soldiers to the non-negotiable standards published in MTPs and soldiers training publications (STP). Commanders will define responsibilities and authority of their NCOs to their staffs and subordinates.



1-34. Unit training consists of three components: collective training that is derived directly from METL and MTPs, leader development that is embedded in the collective training tasks and in discrete individual leader focused training, and individual training that establishes, improves, and sustains individual soldier proficiency in tasks directly related to the unit METL. Commanders conduct unit training to prepare soldiers and leaders for unit missions. All units concentrate on improving and sustaining unit task proficiency.



1-35. The goal of unit training is to develop and sustain the capability to deploy rapidly, and to fight and win as part of a combined arms team in a variety of operational and organizational environments. Training in both the institution and the unit works together toward achieving this goal. Institutions provide foundational training and education and, when combined with individual unit experience, provide soldiers and leaders what they need to succeed in each subsequent level of service throughout their careers, appropriate to new and increasing levels of responsibility. The institutions also provide reach-back capability for functional and duty position-related training or reference materials throughout a soldier's service. Unit commanders, through subordinate leaders, build on the foundation provided by Army schools to continue developing the skills and knowledge required for mission success, as articulated in the unit's METL. Unit commanders are responsible for sustaining small unit leader and individual soldier skills to support the unit's mission. Institutions are responsible to stay abreast of requirements and developments in the field to ensure the foundations they set prepare soldiers for duty in their units.



1-36. Leader, individual soldier, and unit training and development continue during operational missions and major training events. These events enhance leader development and combat readiness. They improve leader skills and judgment while increasing unit collective proficiency through realistic and challenging training and real-time operational missions.

1-37. Major training events such as situational training exercises (STX), EXEVALs, and deployment exercises provide feedback to assist commanders in assessing the effectiveness of their leader, individual soldier, unit, and maintenance training programs. Units and individuals establish and sustain their tactical and technical training proficiency. Leaders learn to solve tactical problems, and to give appropriate and meaningful orders. They get feedback on the quality of their decisions and obtain an understanding of impact that the frictions of the battlefield have on their decisions. Adaptive leaders are tactically and technically competent, confident in their abilities, and routinely demonstrate initiative within the framework of their commander's intent. Major training events provide experiences that contribute to developing leader, soldier, and unit adaptiveness.

1-38. The CTC Program, consisting of the National Training Center (NTC), Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC), Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Battle Command Training Program (BCTP), and other CTC-like training provides highly realistic and stressful joint and combined arms training based on current doctrine. Commanders fight with the equipment they would expect to take to war, arrayed against a free-thinking, opportunistic opposing force (OPFOR) with an equal chance to win, monitored by a dedicated, well-trained, and experienced observer/controller team. Consequences of tactical decisions are fully played out in scenarios where the outcome is not assured. Doctrine-based after action reviews (AAR) identify strengths and shortcomings in unit planning, preparation, and execution, and guide leaders to accept responsibility for shortcomings and produce a fix. The CTC Program is the Army's premier training and leader development experience. It provides the following tangible benefits to the Army:

  • Produces bold, innovative leaders through stressful tactical and operational exercises.
  • Embeds doctrine throughout the Army.
  • Provides feedback to assist the commander in assessing unit readiness.
  • Provides feedback to Army, JIM participants.
  • Provides a deployable capability to export observer/controllers, instrumentation, and the AAR process to units at locations other than a CTC.
  • Provides a data source for lessons learned and trends to improve doctrine, training, leader development, organization, materiel, and soldier considerations.

1-39. Operational missions-whether they are combat operations, such as in Afghanistan, or stability operations, such as in Bosnia-continue training and leader development. Operational missions validate the fundamentals of leadership, planning, and training. Unit and individual proficiency is evaluated, and leaders are trained and developed. AARs are conducted, strengths are maintained, and weaknesses are corrected. These missions provide significant experience for our leaders, soldiers, and units. The experiences from these missions feed back to the institution to support doctrine development, and other leader, soldier, and unit training.



1-40. Learning is a lifelong process. Institutional, organizational, and operational training alone cannot provide the insight, intuition, imagination, and judgment needed in combat. The gravity of our profession requires comprehensive self-study and training. In no other profession is the cost of being unprepared so high. Soldiers and leaders at all levels continually study our profession in preparation to fight and win our Nation's wars. This requires commanders at all levels to create an environment that encourages subordinates to establish personal and professional development goals. Further refinement of those interests should occur through personal mentoring by commanders and first line leaders. Application of battle-focused officer and NCO professional development programs are essential to leader development. Exploiting reach-back, distributed learning, and continuing education technologies support these programs.

1-41. Self-development is continuous and should be emphasized in both institutional and operational assignments. Successful self-development requires a team effort. Self-development starts with an assessment of individual strengths, weaknesses, potential, and developmental needs. Commanders and leaders provide feedback to enable subordinates to determine the reasons for their strengths and weaknesses. Together, they prioritize self-development goals and determine courses of action to improve performance. Self-development is-

  • A planned process involving the leader and the subordinate being developed. It enhances previously acquired skills, knowledge, behaviors, and experience; contributes to personal development; and highlights the potential for progressively more complex and higher-level assignments. Self-development focuses on maximizing individual strengths, minimizing weaknesses, and achieving individual development goals.
  • Initial self-development is very structured and generally narrow in focus. The focus broadens as individuals understand their strengths and weaknesses, determine their individual needs, and become more experienced. Each soldier's knowledge and perspective increases with experience, institutional training, and operational assignments. It is accelerated and broadened by specific, goal-oriented self-development actions.



1-42. These commands, whether oriented along operational, functional, or specialty missions, have unique responsibilities for managing and supporting training. Their most important contribution to training is to establish stability in the training environment by maintaining focus on warfighting tasks, identifying and providing resources, protecting planned training, and providing feedback that produces good training and develops good trainers and leaders.

1-43. The corps' and divisions' fundamental basis for organization and operations is combined arms operations. They conduct these operations increasingly in JIM environments. Corps commanders' training focus is on warfighting, to include joint operations, and training division commanders and corps separate commands and brigades.

1-44. Corps and division commanders must integrate SOF into their training plans. This provides opportunities to explore new combinations of concepts, people, organizations, and technology that expand their capabilities and enhance interoperability and leverage other service capabilities.

1-45. Warfighting is the corps' and division's top priority. Corps and division commanders have a pivotal role in the Army Training Management System as the guidance and decisions they provide brigade and battalion commanders directly affect the planning and execution of training at the company level.

1-46. The MACOMs, corps, and divisions ensure that competencies are trained to standard. When commanders do this they make their greatest contribution to leader development and unit readiness.



1-47. The Army consists of the active component (AC) and the Reserve Components (RC). The AC is a federal force of full-time soldiers and Department of the Army civilians. The RC consists of the ARNG, the USAR, and their civilian support personnel. Each component is established under different statutes and has unique and discrete characteristics, but all share the same doctrine and training process, and train to the same standard. Availability of training support system (TSS) capabilities, however, varies between components. All train to the same standard; however, the RC trains at lower echelons. The number of tasks trained will usually differ as a result of the training time available; the conditions may vary based on the RC unique environment.

1-48. The RC represent a large portion of the Army's deterrence and warfighting power. They are an integral part of the force. However, available training time has a significant impact on RC training. RC units have a limited number of available training days. Geographic dispersion of units also impacts RC training. An average reserve battalion is spread over a 150- to 300-mile radius. Additionally, most reserve units travel an average of 150 miles to the nearest training area. Individual soldiers often travel an average of 40 miles to their training sites.

1-49. RC units recruit many of their own soldiers. Since these new recruits may be assigned to the RC unit prior to completion of IMT, the RC may have fewer military occupational specialty (MOS) qualified personnel assigned than their AC counterparts. Additionally, even though doctrine requires trained leaders to train units and soldiers, RC leaders may be unable to attend professional military education until after assigned to their units. Priority of training for RC units will go to individual duty military occupational specialty qualification (DMOSQ) and professional development to produce qualified soldiers and leaders.

1-50. RC units have premobilization readiness and postmobilization training requirements. Premobilization readiness plans must be developed and approved for the current fiscal and training year. Similarly, postmobilization plans must be developed and approved for units with deployment missions. For example, the RC focuses premobilization training for infantry, armor and cavalry units on platoon and lower level maneuver and collective tasks and drills. Postmobilization training focuses on platoon gunnery, company team, and higher-level collective tasks. IMT and professional military education requirements for individual reserve officers and soldiers approximate that of the active Army with training provided by the institution. In sum, RC units focus on fewer tasks done to standard during premobilization training.



1-51. Army training has one purpose-to produce competent, confident, adaptive soldiers, leaders and units, trained and ready to fight and win our Nation's battles. The Army training and leader development model integrates institutional, operational, and individual self-development into a training management system. The commander is responsible for unit training and integrates the institutional, operational, as well as individual self-development resources to train combat ready units. Commanders are responsible for the wartime readiness of every aspect of their unit, while NCOs train individual soldiers, crews, and teams. All training focuses on the METL and all factors involved in training lead to unit readiness. Training is the Army's number one priority. Training is WHAT we do, not SOMETHING we do.


Chapter 2

Battle Focused Training

The key to fighting and winning is an understanding of "how we train to fight" at every echelon. Training programs must result in demonstrated tactical and technical competence, confidence, and initiative in our soldiers and their leaders. Training will remain the Army's top priority because it is the cornerstone of combat readiness!

General Carl E. Vuono

Commanders train their units to be combat ready. Training is their number one priority. Commanders achieve this using tough, realistic, and challenging training. At every echelon, commanders must train their unit to the Army standard. Battle focus enables the commander to train units for success on the battlefield. Using the Army Training Management Cycle, the commander continuously plans, executes, and assesses the state of training in the unit. This cycle provides the framework for commanders to develop their unit's METL, establish training priorities, and allocate resources.

Commanders and leaders at all echelons use the Principles of Training discussed in this chapter to develop and execute effective training. As commanders train their units on METL tasks, senior commanders reinforce training by approving and protecting training priorities and providing resources.



2-1. There are 10 Principles of Training.

Figure 2-1. Principles of Training

Figure 2-1. Principles of Training



2-2. Commanders are responsible for the training and performance of their soldiers and units. They are the primary training managers and trainers for their organization, are actively engaged in the training process, and adhere to the 10 principles of training in figure 2-1. To accomplish their training responsibility, commanders must-

  • Be present at training to maximum extent possible.
  • Base training on mission requirements.
  • Train to applicable Army standards.
  • Assess current levels of proficiency.
  • Provide the required resources.
  • Develop and execute training plans that result in proficient individuals, leaders, and units.

2-3. Commanders delegate authority to NCOs in the support channel as the primary trainers of individuals, crews, and small teams. Commanders hold NCOs responsible for conducting standards-based, performance-oriented, battle-focused training and provide feedback on individual, crew, and team proficiency.



2-4. NCOs continue the soldierization process of newly assigned enlisted soldiers, and begin their professional development. NCOs are responsible for conducting standards-based, performance-oriented, battle-focused training. They-

  • Identify specific individual, crew, and small team tasks that support the unit's collective mission essential tasks.
  • Plan, prepare, rehearse, and execute training.
  • Evaluate training and conduct AARs to provide feedback to the commander on individual, crew, and small team proficiency.

2-5. Senior NCOs coach junior NCOs to master a wide range of individual tasks.



2-6. The Army provides a JFC with trained and ready forces that expand the command's range of military options in full spectrum operations. Army commanders tailor and train forces to react quickly to any crisis. Army forces provide a JFC the capability to-

  • Seize areas previously denied by the enemy.
  • Dominate land operations.
  • Provide support to civil authorities.

2-7. Army forces seldom operate unilaterally. Joint interdependence from the individual, crew, and small team to the operational level requires training to develop experienced, adaptive leaders, soldiers, and organizations prepared to operate with joint, and multinational forces and to provide interagency unity of effort.

2-8. The fundamental basis for the organization and operation of Army forces is combined arms. Combined arms is the integrated application of several arms to achieve an effect on the enemy that is greater than if each arm was used against the enemy separately or in sequence. Integration involves arrangement of battlefield actions in time, space, and purpose to produce maximum relative effects of combat power at a decisive place and time. Through force tailored organizations, commanders and their staffs integrate and synchronize the battlefield operating systems (BOS) to achieve combined arms effects and accomplish the mission.

2-9. Today's Army doctrine requires teamwork at all echelons. Well-trained Army combined arms teams can readily perform in JIM environments. When committed to battle, each unit must be prepared to execute operations without additional training or lengthy adjustment periods. Leaders must regularly practice of habitually associated combat arms, combat support, and combat service support capabilities. Teams can only achieve combined arms proficiency and cohesiveness when they train together. Similarly, peacetime relationships must mirror wartime task organization to the greatest extent possible.

2-10. Commanders are responsible for training all warfighting systems. The full integration of the combined arms team is attained through the task organization approach to training management. Task organizing is a temporary grouping of forces designed to accomplish a particular mission. This approach acknowledges that the maneuver commander integrates and synchronizes the BOS. In short, the maneuver commander, assisted by higher echelon leaders, forges the combined arms team. An example of a task-organized brigade and its warfighting systems is depicted at figure 2-2.

Figure 2-2. Brigade Combat Team

Figure 2-2. Brigade Combat Team


2-11. The commander of the task-organized force must develop a training plan that addresses two complementary challenges. The commander's training plan must achieve combined arms proficiency and ensure functional training proficiency of the combat arms, combat support, and combat service support units of the task force. Combined arms proficiency requires effective integration of BOS functions. Effective integration of BOS results in synchronization. Functional BOS proficiency is fundamental for effective BOS integration. The commander's training plan must integrate combined arms and functional training events.

2-12. Combined arms training is standards based. The independent training of functional tasks and combined arms tasks to standard will not guarantee the desired effects of applying combat power at a decisive place and time. The standard for effective combined arms training requires a sequenced and continuous execution of functional tasks and combined arms tasks to standard in order to achieve ".integrated relative combat power at a decisive place and time."

2-13. The role of commanders and NCOs in combined arms training cannot be overemphasized. Commanders have training responsibilities that encompass both BOS functional task proficiency and special staff officer combined arms task proficiency. Likewise, NCOs have similar training responsibilities to ensure BOS related individual and crew functional task proficiency, as well as, individual and staff section related combined arms task proficiency. Combined arms training requires commanders' and NCOs' active involvement in all phases of training.

2-14. Functional proficiency requires expertise in a particular BOS function, its capabilities, and its requirements. Organizations that provide elements of a specific BOS function, such as corps support command and divisional air defense artillery battalion, must train to maintain their functional proficiency. Integration involves expertise in coordination among functional troop unit commanders and staffs, and other functional commanders and staffs.

2-15. The combined arms training challenge is the same for all echelons of command. The complexity, however, increases at each higher echelon of command. The tempo, scope, and scale of operations at higher command echelons increase coordination requirements for planning and executing staff, joint, multinational, and interagency training. Commanders, at every echelon, focus combined arms training on specific integration and synchronization tasks based on their METL. Figure 2-3 illustrates the scope and scale of the combined arms training challenge.

Figure 2-3. Combined Arms Training-Scope and Scale

Figure 2-3. Combined Arms Training-Scope and Scale



2-16. The goal of all training is to achieve the standard. This develops and sustains combat capable warfighting organizations. To achieve this, units must train to standard under realistic conditions. Achieving standards requires hard work by commanders, staff officers, unit leaders, and soldiers. Within the confines of safety and common sense, commanders and leaders must be willing to accept less than perfect results initially and demand realism in training. They must integrate such realistic conditions as imperfect intelligence; reduced communications; smoke; noise; rules of engagement; simulated nuclear, biological, and chemical environments; battlefield debris; loss of key leaders; civilians on the battlefield; JIM requirements; and varying extremes in weather. They must seize every opportunity to move soldiers out of the classroom into the field; fire weapons; maneuver as a combined arms team; and incorporate protective measures against enemy actions. Although CTCs provide the most realistic and challenging training experience in the Army, they must not be viewed as an "end point" in the unit-training life cycle. Rather, they provide a "go to war experience" by which commanders can assess their METL proficiency and determine the effectiveness of their training program.

  • Realistic. Tough, realistic, and intellectually and physically challenging training excites and motivates soldiers and leaders. Realistic training builds competence and confidence by developing and honing skills, and inspires excellence by fostering initiative, enthusiasm, and eagerness to learn. Successful completion of each training phase increases the capability and motivation of individuals and units for more sophisticated and challenging achievement. This is the commanders' continuous quest.
  • Performance-Oriented. Units become proficient in the performance of critical tasks and missions by practicing the tasks and missions. Soldiers learn best by doing, using an experiential, hands-on approach. Commanders and subordinate leaders plan training that will provide these opportunities. All training assets and resources, to include training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations (TADSS), must be included in the unit's training strategy.



2-17. Training must be done to the Army standard and conform to Army doctrine. If mission tasks involve emerging doctrine or non-standard tasks, commanders establish the tasks, conditions and standards using mission orders and guidance, lessons learned from similar operations, and their professional judgment. The next higher commander approves the creation of the standards for these tasks. FM 3-0 provides the doctrinal foundations; supporting doctrinal manuals describe common TTP that permit commanders and organizations to adjust rapidly to changing situations. Doctrine provides a basis for a common vocabulary across the force. In units, new soldiers will have little time to learn non-standard procedures. Therefore, units must train to the Army standard contained in the MTP and STPs, while applying Army doctrine and current regulatory guidance. When serving as a joint headquarters and conducting joint training Army organizations use joint doctrine and TTP. Joint doctrine establishes the fundamentals of joint operations and provides guidance on how best to employ joint forces. This linkage between operational and training doctrine is critical to successful training.



2-18. Commanders train and develop adaptive leaders and units, and prepare their subordinates to operate in positions of increased responsibility. Repetitive, standards-based training provides relevant experience. Commanders intensify training experiences by varying training conditions. Training experiences coupled with timely feedback builds competence. Leaders build unit, staff and soldier confidence when they consistently demonstrate competence. Competence, confidence, and discipline promote initiative and enable leaders to adapt to changing situations and conditions. They improvise with the resources at hand, exploit opportunities and accomplish their assigned mission in the absence of orders. Commanders at every echelon integrate training events in their training plans to develop and train imaginative, adaptive leaders and units.



2-19. Soldier and equipment maintenance is a vital part of every training program. Soldiers and leaders are responsible for maintaining all assigned equipment and supplies in a high state of readiness to support training or operational missions. Units must be capable of fighting for sustained periods of time with the equipment they are issued. Soldiers must become experts in both the operation and maintenance of their equipment. This link between training and sustainment is vital to mission success.



2-20. Multiechelon training is the most effective and efficient way of sustaining proficiency on mission essential tasks with limited time and resources. Commanders use multiechelon training to-

  • Train leaders, battle staffs, units, and individuals at each echelon of the organization simultaneously.
  • Maximize use of allocated resources and available time.
  • Reduce the effects of personnel turbulence.

2-21. Large-scale training events provide an excellent opportunity for valuable individual, leader, crew, and small unit training. Multiechelon training can occur when an entire organization is training on one single METL task or when different echelons of an organization conduct training on related METL tasks simultaneously. (See chapter 4 for detailed discussion on multiechelon training.) All multiechelon training techniques-

  • Require detailed planning and coordination by commanders and leaders at each echelon.
  • Maintain battle focus by linking individual and collective battle tasks with unit METL tasks, within large-scale training event METL tasks.
  • Habitually train at least two echelons simultaneously on selected METL tasks.



2-22. Once individuals and units have trained to a required level of proficiency, leaders must structure individual and collective training plans to retrain critical tasks at the minimum frequency necessary to sustain proficiency. Sustainment training is the key to maintaining unit proficiency through personnel turbulence and operational deployments. MTP and individual training plans are tools to help achieve and sustain collective and individual proficiency. Sustainment training must occur often enough to train new soldiers and minimize skill decay. Army units train to accomplish their missions by frequent sustainment training on critical tasks. Infrequent "peaking" of training for an event (CTC rotation, for example) does not sustain wartime proficiency. Battle focused training is training on wartime tasks. Many of the METL tasks that a unit trains on for its wartime mission are the same as required for a stability operation or support operation that they might execute.

2-23. Sustainment training enables units to operate in a Band of Excellence (figure 2-4) through appropriate repetition of critical tasks. The Band of Excellence is the range of proficiency within which a unit is capable of executing its wartime METL tasks. For RC units the Band of Excellence is the range of proficiency within which a unit is capable of executing its premobilization tasks. Training to sustain proficiency in the Band of Excellence includes training leaders, battle staffs, and small lethal units. The solid black line shows the results of an effective unit training strategy that sustains training proficiency over time, maintaining it within the Band of Excellence. The dotted black line shows an ineffective training strategy that often causes the unit to fall outside the Band of Excellence, thus requiring significant additional training before the unit is capable of executing its wartime METL tasks. Personnel turbulence and availability of resources pose a continuous challenge to maintaining METL proficiency within the Band of Excellence.

Figure 2-4. Band of Excellence

Figure 2-4. Band of Excellence


2-24. The Army provides combat ready forces on short notice to combatant commanders. Units transition from training locations to operational theaters using the train-alert-deploy sequence. Commanders recognize that crises rarely allow sufficient time to correct training deficiencies between alert and deployment. They strive to ensure their units are prepared to accomplish their METL tasks before alert and refine mission specific training in the time available afterwards. Accordingly, applying the principles of training, a commander conducts training to sustain proficiency on METL tasks within the Band of Excellence to ensure mission readiness. Mission specific training can be conducted as organizations are alerted and deployed based on time available.

2-25. RC units require postmobilization training to achieve proficiency at level organized. Postmobilization training time can be minimized by focusing on MOS qualification, and crew, squad, section and platoon proficiency for combat arms, and company, battery, and troop proficiency for CS/CSS units during premobilization training.



2-26. Commanders have a duty and execute a vital role in leader training and leader development. They teach subordinates how to fight and how to train. They mentor, guide, listen to, and "think with" subordinates. They train leaders to plan training in detail, prepare for training thoroughly, execute training aggressively, and evaluate short-term training proficiency in terms of desired long-term results. Training and developing leaders is an embedded component of every training event. Nothing is more important to the Army than building confident, competent, adaptive leaders for tomorrow.



2-27. Effective training is the number one priority of commanders. The commander is the primary trainer and responsible for the wartime readiness of their formation. In wartime, training continues with a priority second only to combat or to the support of combat operations. Commanders and senior leaders must extract the greatest training value from every training opportunity. Effective training requires the commander's continuous personal time and energy to accomplish the following-



2-28. The senior leader's training vision provides the direction, purpose, and motivation necessary to prepare individuals and organizations to win in battle. It is based on a comprehensive understanding of-

  • Mission, doctrine, and history.
  • Enemy/threat capabilities.
  • Operational environment.
  • Organizational and personnel strengths and weaknesses.
  • Training environment.



2-29. Commanders are responsible for training their own unit and one echelon below. Commanders evaluate units two echelons below. For example, brigade commanders train battalions and evaluate companies; battalion commanders train companies and evaluate platoons.



2-30. Since good training results from leader involvement, one of the commander's principal roles in training is to teach subordinate trainers how to train and how to fight. The commander provides the continuing leadership that focuses on the organization's wartime mission. The commander assigns officers the primary responsibility for collective training and NCOs the primary responsibility for individual, crew, and small team training. The commander, as the primary trainer, uses multiechelon techniques to meld leader, battle staff, and individual training requirements into collective training events, while recognizing the overlap in training responsibilities (figure 2-5). Commanders teach, coach, and mentor subordinates throughout.

Figure 2-5.  Overlapping Training Responsibilities

Figure 2-5. Overlapping Training Responsibilities



2-31. Commanders must integrate and train to Army standard all BOS, within and supporting their command, on their selected mission essential tasks. An important requirement for all leaders is to project training plans far enough into the future and to coordinate resources with sufficient lead time.



2-32. Competent and confident leaders build cohesive organizations with a strong chain of command, high morale, and good discipline. Therefore, commanders create leader development programs that develop warfighter professionalism-skills and knowledge. They develop their subordinates' confidence and empower them to make independent, situational-based decisions on the battlefield. Commanders assist subordinates with a self-development program and share experienced insights that encourage subordinates to study and learn their profession. They train leaders to plan training in detail, prepare for training thoroughly, execute aggressively, and evaluate short-term training proficiency in terms of desired long-term results. Effective leader development programs will continuously influence the Army as junior leaders progress to higher levels of responsibility.



2-33. The senior commander resources training and protects subordinate commanders' training time. They are actively involved in planning for future training. They create a sense of stability throughout the organization by protecting approved training plans from training distracters. Senior commanders protect the time of subordinate commanders allowing them to be present at training as much as possible. Subordinate commanders are responsible for executing the approved training to standard. Senior commanders are present during the conduct of training as much as possible and provide experienced feedback to all participants.



2-34. Leaders anticipate that some tasks will not be performed to standard. Therefore, they design time into training events to allow additional training on tasks not performed to standard. It is more important to train to standard on a limited number of critical tasks, rather than attempting and failing to achieve the standard on too many tasks, rationalizing that corrective action will occur during some later training period. Soldiers will remember the enforced standard, not the one that was discussed.



2-35. Senior leaders ensure junior leaders plan the correct task-to-time ratio. Too many tasks guarantee nothing will get trained to standard and no time is allocated for retraining. Too many events result in improper preparation and recovery.



2-36. Commanders create a climate that rewards subordinates who are bold and innovative trainers. They challenge the organization and each individual to train to full potential. Patience and coaching are essential ingredients to ultimate achievement of the Army standard.



2-37. The commander who has planned and resourced a training event is responsible to ensure participation by the maximum number of soldiers. Administrative support burdens cannot be ignored, however, they can be managed using an effective time management system. Senior commanders must support subordinate commanders' efforts to train effectively by eliminating training distracters and reinforcing the requirement for all assigned personnel to be present during training.



2-38. The top-down/bottom-up approach to training is a team effort in which senior leaders provide training focus, direction and resources, and junior leaders provide feedback on unit training proficiency, identify specific unit training needs, and execute training to standard in accordance with the approved plan. It is a team effort that maintains training focus, establishes training priorities, and enables effective communication between command echelons.

2-39. Guidance, based on wartime mission and priorities, flows from the top-down and results in subordinate units' identification of specific collective and individual tasks that support the higher unit's mission. Input from the bottom up is essential because it identifies training needs to achieve task proficiency on identified collective and individual tasks. Leaders at all echelons communicate with each other about requirements, and planning, preparing, executing, and evaluating training.

2-40. Senior leaders centralize planning to provide a consistent training focus from the top to the bottom of the organization. However, they decentralize execution to ensure that the conduct of mission related training sustains strengths and overcomes the weaknesses unique to each unit. Decentralized execution promotes subordinate leaders' initiative to train their units, but does not mean senior leaders give up their responsibilities to supervise training, develop leaders, and provide feedback.



2-41. Battle focus is a concept used to derive peacetime training requirements from assigned and anticipated missions. The priority of training in units is to train to standard on the wartime mission. Battle focus guides the planning, preparation, execution, and assessment of each organization's training program to ensure its members train as they are going to fight. Battle focus is critical throughout the entire training process and is used by commanders to allocate resources for training based on wartime and operational mission requirements. Battle focus enables commanders and staffs at all echelons to structure a training program that copes with non-mission related requirements while focusing on mission essential training activities. It is recognition that a unit cannot attain proficiency to standard on every task whether due to time or other resource constraints. However, commanders can achieve a successful training program by consciously focusing on a reduced number of critical tasks that are essential to mission accomplishment.

2-42. A critical aspect of the battle focus concept is to understand the responsibility for, and the linkage between, the collective mission essential tasks and the individual tasks that support them. The diagram at figure 2-6 depicts the relationships and the proper sequence to derive optimum training benefit from each training opportunity.

Figure 2-6. Integration of Collective and Individual Training

Figure 2-6. Integration of Collective and Individual Training


2-43. The commander and the CSM or 1SG must jointly coordinate the collective mission essential tasks and individual training tasks on which the unit will concentrate its efforts during a given period. The CSM or 1SG must select the specific individual tasks that support each collective task to be trained. Although NCOs have the primary role in training and sustaining individual soldier skills, officers at every echelon remain responsible for training to established standards during both individual and collective training. Battle focus is applied to all missions across the full spectrum of operations.



2-44. The foundation of the training process is the Army Training Management Cycle (figure 2-7). In the METL development process (chapter 3), training must be related to the organization's wartime operational plans and focus on METL tasks. The availability of resources does not affect METL development. The METL is an unconstrained statement of the tasks required to accomplish wartime missions. Resources for training, however, are constrained and compete with other missions and requirements. Leaders develop the long-range, short-range, and near-term training plans (chapter 4) to utilize effectively available resources to train for proficiency on METL tasks. After training plans are developed, units execute training by preparing, conducting, and recovering from training (chapter 5). The process continues with training evaluations that provide bottom-up input to organizational assessment. Organizational assessments provide necessary feedback to the senior commander that assist in preparing the training assessment (chapter 6).

Figure 2-7. Army Training Management Cycle

Figure 2-7. Army Training Management Cycle


Chapter 3

Mission Essential Task List Development

Army Mission Essential Tasks

Army Mission Essential Tasks

FM 1, The Army and FM 3-0, Operations

Army Training Management Cycle - Develop METL



3-1. A mission essential task is a collective task in which an organization has to be proficient to accomplish an appropriate portion of its wartime operational mission. Army organizations, whether they are AC or RC, Modification Table of Organization and Equipment (MTOE) or Table of Distribution and Allowances (TDA), cannot achieve and sustain proficiency on every possible training task. The commander must identify those tasks that are essential to accomplishing the organization's wartime operational mission. Battle-focused METL identifies those tasks that are essential to the accomplishment of the unit's wartime operational mission and provides the foundation for the unit's training program.

3-2. All company level and above units develop a METL that is approved by its designated wartime commander. Detachments, organized with a commander and under a distinct MTOE or TDA, also develop a METL. Explosive ordnance detachments, transportation port operation cargo detachments and preventive medicine medical detachments are examples of these type units.



3-3. The METL development process reduces the number of tasks the organization must train and focuses the organization's training efforts on the most important collective training tasks required to accomplish the mission.

3-4. METL development is the catalyst that keeps Army training focused on wartime operational missions. Applying the METL development-

  • Focuses the unit's training on essential tasks.
  • Provides a forum for professional discussion and leader development among senior, subordinate and adjacent (peer) commanders concerning the linkage between mission and training.
  • Enables subordinate commanders and key NCOs to crosswalk collective, leader and individual tasks to the mission.
  • Leads to "buy-in" and commitment of unit leaders to the organization's training plan.

3-5. Figure 3-1 depicts the process that commanders use to identify and select mission essential tasks.

Figure 3-1. METL Development Process

Figure 3-1. METL Development Process

Inputs to METL Development


3-6. There are five primary inputs to METL development.

Wartime Operational Plans


3-7. The most critical inputs to METL development are the organization's wartime operational and contingency plans. The missions and related information provided in these plans are key to determining essential training tasks.

Enduring Combat Capabilities


3-8. The fundamental reason for the organization and operation of Army forces is to generate effects of combined arms in order to contribute to successful execution of wartime operational missions. To do this, Army commanders form combat, CS, and CSS forces into cohesive teams through training for combat proficiency. Enduring combat capabilities are the unique contribution each unit makes to ensure the Army successfully accomplishes any mission anytime anywhere.

Operational Environment


3-9. The operational environment has six dimensions; Threat, Political, Unified Action, Land Combat Operations, Information, and Technology (see FM 3-0). Each dimension affects how Army forces combine, sequence, and conduct military operations. Commanders tailor forces, employ diverse capabilities, and support different missions to succeed in this complex environment.

Directed Missions


3-10. Army organizations are frequently directed to conduct a mission other than its assigned wartime operational mission. These missions range from major combat operations to providing humanitarian assistance or other types of stability and support operations.

External Guidance


3-11. External guidance serves as an additional source of training tasks that relate to an organization's wartime operational mission. Some examples are-

  • Higher headquarters directives.
  • MTP.
  • Force integration plans.
  • Army Universal Task List (AUTL).
  • Universal Joint Task List (UJTL).

3-12. In some cases, external guidance identifies tasks that make up the mission (for example, MTPs). In others, they specify additional tasks that relate to the mission (for example, mobilization plans, directed stability operations or support operations). Figure 3-2 is an example of brigade tasks derived from the five primary inputs to the unit's METL.

Figure 3-2. Example of Brigade Tasks Derived from
Wartime Operational Plans and External Guidance


3-13. In similar type organizations, METL may vary significantly because of different missions or geographical locations. For example, a power projection organization may identify strategic deployment requirements as critical deployment tasks while a forward-deployed organization may identify tactical deployment requirements (such as rapid assembly and tactical road marches) as critical deployment tasks. Geography may also influence the selection of different mission essential tasks for units with missions in tropical, cold, or desert environments.



3-14. The commander's analysis of wartime operational plans, and others primary input to the METL, identify those tasks critical for wartime mission accomplishment. Higher commanders provide guidance to help their subordinate commanders focus this analysis. Commanders coordinate the results of their analysis with subordinate and adjacent commanders. The higher commander approves the METL. This process provides the means to coordinate, link, and integrate a wartime operational mission focused METL throughout the organization.

3-15. To illustrate the METL development process, the following brigade wartime mission statement forms the start point for determining the most important training tasks:

At C-day, H-hour, Brigade deploys: On order, conducts combat operations assigned by higher headquarters.

3-16. The commander reviews the wartime operational mission statement and other primary input to the METL, and identifies all of the training tasks. Together, these five sources provide the total list of possible training tasks. This analysis results in the list at figure 3-2. The commander then narrows down the list of all derived tasks to those tasks critical for mission accomplishment. These tasks become the brigade's METL. Figure 3-3 shows an example of a brigade METL.

Figure 3-3. Example of Brigade METL

Figure 3-3. Example of Brigade METL



3-17. The METL development process is the same for AC and RC organizations. RC METL development recognizes that RC units have less than 20 percent of the training time available to their AC counterparts. Therefore, battle focus is essential so that RC commanders can concentrate their time on the most critical wartime training requirements. RC units often operate under a chain of command different from their wartime chain of command. The associate AC chain of command assigns missions, provides wartime mission guidance, and approves METLs. The state adjutant general or regional support groups review and coordinate RC METLs. They resource training and ensure that mission training tasks are executed and evaluated. Continental U.S. Armies (CONUSAs) approve the METL for selected RC units (ARNG divisions, enhanced separate brigades, roundout units, reinforcing aviation units, and force support package units with latest arrival dates less than D+30). The peacetime chain of command approves the remainder of RC unit METLs.



3-18. In a similar manner, commanders of EAD/EAC organizations must use the battle focus concept and METL development process to focus their training. Figure 3-4 shows an example of a corps support battalion METL.

Figure 3-4. Example of Corps Support Battalion (EAD) METL

Figure 3-4. Example of Corps Support Battalion (EAD) METL



3-19. Battle focus is equally applicable to TDA organizations. Senior leaders of TDA organizations derive METL from critical peacetime or wartime missions. Mission essential tasks may be either critical training tasks or operational activities. In short, they represent the tasks required to accomplish the TDA organization's mission. Figure 3-5 shows an example of a garrison support unit METL.

Figure 3-5. Example of Garrison Support Unit (TDA) METL

Figure 3-5. Example of Garrison Support Unit (TDA) METL



3-20. When an organization is directed to conduct a mission other than its assigned wartime operational mission (such as a stability operation or support operation), the training management cycle still applies. Directed missions can span the full spectrum of operations. For MTOE organizations, directed missions could range from major combat operations to providing humanitarian assistance or other types of stability operations and support operations. For TDA organizations, directed missions can range from mobilization to installation force protection operations.

3-21. Using their wartime METL as the foundation, commanders who are directed to change their mission conduct a mission analysis, identify METL tasks, and assess training proficiency for the directed mission. The mission analysis of the newly assigned mission could change the unit's METL, training focus, and the strategy to achieve proficiency for METL tasks. Figure 3-6 shows an example of tasks supporting a directed mission involving a stability operation.

Figure 3-6. Examples of METL Tasks to Support a Directed Mission to Conduct Stability Operation

Figure 3-6. Examples of METL Tasks to Support a Directed Mission to
Conduct Stability Operation


3-22. In cases where mission tasks involve emerging doctrine or non-standard tasks, commanders establish tasks, conditions, and standards using mission orders and guidance, lessons learned from similar operations, and their professional judgment. Senior commanders approve the established standards for these tasks as part of the normal METL approval process. If time permits prior to deployment, units should execute a mission rehearsal exercise (MRE) with all participating units.

3-23. Upon redeployment from a directed mission, commanders conduct a mission analysis consistent with the training management cycle to reestablish proficiency in the unit's wartime operational METL. Senior commanders must take into account the additional time this reintegration process may take. Battle focus guides the planning, preparation, execution, and assessment of each organization's training program to ensure its members train as they will fight.



3-24. Army organizations often provide Army forces within joint force formations. The missions and JMETL of such formations are derived from the Universal Joint Task List by the joint force commander and service component commanders, and are approved by the combatant commander.

3-25. A selected Army headquarters may be designated as a JTF headquarters, joint forces land component headquarters (JFLC) or Army Forces (ARFOR) headquarters. This requires the designated Army headquarters to develop a JMETL. The Army headquarters commander crosswalks the JMETL with the current Army headquarters and subordinate unit METLs. Joint training manuals provide an overview of the joint training system (JTS), and assists in-

  • Developing joint training requirements.
  • Planning joint training.
  • Executing joint training.
  • Assessing joint proficiency.



3-26. The following fundamentals apply to METL development-

  • The METL is derived from the organization's wartime plans and related tasks in external guidance.
  • Mission essential tasks must apply to the entire organization. METL does not include tasks assigned solely to subordinate organizations.
  • Each organization's METL must support and complement the METL of higher headquarters.
  • The availability of resources does not affect METL development. The METL is an unconstrained statement of the tasks required to accomplish wartime missions.
  • Commanders direct operations and integrate the BOS through plans and orders. The BOS are used to systematically ensure that interdependent organizational tasks necessary to generate, sustain, and apply combat power are directed toward accomplishing the overall mission. The BOS are the physical means (soldiers, organizations, and equipment) used to accomplish the mission. The BOS are-
    • Intelligence. The intelligence system plans, directs, collects, processes, produces, and disseminates intelligence on the threat and the environment; performs intelligence preparation of the battlefield; and other intelligence tasks. Intelligence is developed as part of a continuous process and is fundamental to Army operations.
    • Maneuver. Commanders maneuver forces to create the conditions for tactical and operational success. Maneuver involves movement to achieve positions of advantage with respect to enemy forces. Through maneuver, friendly forces gain the ability to destroy enemy forces or hinder enemy movement by direct and indirect application of firepower or threat of its application.
    • Fire Support. Fire support consists of fires that directly support land, maritime, amphibious, and special operations forces in engaging enemy forces, combat formations, and facilities in pursuit of tactical and operational objectives. Fire support integrates and synchronizes fires and effects to delay, disrupt, or destroy enemy forces, systems, and facilities. The fire support system includes the collective and coordinated use of target acquisition data, indirect fire weapons, fixed-winged aircraft, electronic warfare, and other lethal and non-lethal means to attack targets.
    • Air Defense. Air defense protects the force from air and missile attack and aerial surveillance. It prevents enemies from interdicting friendly forces while freeing commanders to synchronize maneuver and fire power. The weapons of mass destruction and proliferation of missile technology increase the importance of the air defense systems.
    • Mobility/Counter-mobility/Survivability. Mobility operations preserve the freedom of maneuver for friendly forces. Mobility missions include breaching obstacles, increasing battlefield circulation, improving or building roads, providing bridge and raft support, and identifying routes around contaminated areas. Counter-mobility denies mobility to enemy forces. Survivability operations protect friendly forces from the effects of enemy weapon systems and from natural occurrences. Nuclear, biological, and chemical defense measures are essential survivability tasks.
    • Combat Service Support. Combat service support (CSS) provides the physical means with which forces operate, from the production base and replacement centers in the continental United States to soldiers engaged in close combat. CSS includes many technical specialties and functional activities. It includes maximizing the use of host nation infrastructure and contracted support.
    • Command and Control. Command and control (C2) has two components-the commander and the C2 system. The C2 system supports the commander's ability to make informed decisions, delegate authority, and synchronize the BOS. Moreover, the C2 system supports the commander's ability to adjust plans for future operations, even while focusing on current operations. Reliable communications are central to C2 systems. Staffs work within the commander's intent to direct units and control resource allocations. Through C2, commanders initiate and integrate all BOS toward a common goal-mission accomplishment.

    3-27. Staff elements at each headquarters develop a METL to address mission essential tasks in their areas of responsibility. Figure 3-7 shows a sample Brigade Staff METL. In addition to staff METLs, organizations may develop a METL for each separate command post (for example tactical, main, and rear). The organization's commander or chief of staff approves the staff METL.

Figure 3-7. Examples of Brigade Staff METL

Figure 3-7. Example of Brigade Staff METL


3-28. Organizations that conduct daily support functions also prepare a METL. The METL for these support organizations must address the differences between peacetime and wartime operating conditions. For example, a CSS unit may operate during peacetime from a permanent facility with some major supplies provided via contract transportation and automation systems operated using commercial telephone systems. A wartime environment, however, may require support missions to be accomplished under austere conditions on an active battlefield.

3-29. The METL for units habitually task organized must be coordinated during the development process. This requirement reinforces the training fundamental that combined arms teams will train as they fight. A key component of the senior commander's METL approval process is determining if each subordinate organization has properly coordinated its METL. A support organization's METL must identify these wartime requirements and include them in their training plans.



3-30. The METL provides the foundation for the organization's training plans. The METL is stabilized once approved. The commander is responsible for developing a training strategy that will maintain unit proficiency for all tasks designated as mission essential.

3-31. Commanders involve subordinate commanders and their CSM/1SG in METL development to create a team approach to battle focused training. Subordinate participation develops a common understanding of the organization's critical wartime requirements so METLs throughout the organization are mutually supporting. Subordinate commanders can subsequently apply insights gained during preparation of the next higher headquarters' METL to the development of their own METL. The CSM/1SG and key NCOs must understand the organization's collective METL so that they can integrate individual tasks into each collective mission essential task during METL based training.

3-32. After the commander designates the collective mission essential tasks required to accomplish the organization's wartime operational mission, the CSM/1SG, in conjunction with key NCOs, develop a supporting individual task list for each mission essential task. Soldier training publications and MTPs are major source documents for selecting appropriate individual tasks.

3-33. There should be no attempt to prioritize tasks within the METL. All METL tasks are equally essential to ensure mission accomplishment. However, all tasks may not require equal training time or resources. The commander allocates training resources to ensure the organization's METL proficiency remains within the Band of Excellence.

3-34. Commanders realize when allocating training time and resources that there are some non-mission related requirements that are critical to the health, welfare, individual readiness, and cohesiveness of a well trained unit. Commanders must carefully select, in conjunction with the CSM/1SG, which non-mission related requirements are critical to the unit. They emphasize the priority of METL training and find opportunities to include non-mission related requirements in the training plan.

3-35. Commanders develop effective training strategies when they crosswalk collective, leader and individual tasks to each METL task with subordinate commanders, CSMs/1SGs, and other key officer and NCO leaders.



3-26. After mission essential tasks are selected, commanders identify supporting training objectives for each task. The resulting training objective consists of-

  • Task. A clearly defined and measurable activity accomplished by organizations and individuals.
  • Condition(s). The circumstances and environment in which a task is to be performed.
  • Standard. The minimum acceptable proficiency required in the performance of a particular training task.

3-37. The conditions and standards for many major collective training tasks are identified in applicable MTPs. Figure 3-8 shows an example of a brigade training objective.

Figure 3-8. Examples of Training Objectives for a Brigade Mission Essential Task List

Figure 3-8. Example of Training Objective for a Brigade Mission Essential Task


3-38. The following are documents that will assist commanders and staffs in developing collective and individual training objectives-

  • MTP.
  • Soldiers manuals.
  • Soldier training publications.
  • DA Pam 350-38.
  • Deployment or mobilization plans.
  • AUTL.
  • UJTL.
  • Army, MACOM, and local regulations.
  • Local standing operating procedures (SOP).



3-39. After review and approval of subordinate organizations' METL, the senior commander selects battle tasks. A battle task is a staff or subordinate organization mission essential task that is so critical that its accomplishment will determine the success of the next higher organization's mission essential task. Battle tasks are selected for each METL task. Battle tasks allow the senior commander to define the training tasks that-

  • Integrate the BOS.
  • Receive the highest priority for resources such as ammunition, training areas and facilities (to include live and virtual simulators and constructive simulations), materiel, and funds.
  • Receive emphasis during evaluations directed by senior headquarters.

3-40. Figure 3-9 shows an example of a division's major subordinate command and separate battalion battle tasks that support the division METL.

Figure 3-9.  Example List of Division MSC and Separate Battalion Battle Tasks That Support a Mission Essential Task

Figure 3-9. Example List of Division MSC and Separate Battalion Battle Tasks That
Support a Mission Essential Task


3-41. Figure 3-10 depicts the relationship between wartime missions, METL, and battle tasks. This diagram illustrates how battle focus provides a common direction for the entire organization and the foundation for the subsequent development of relevant training plans.

Figure 3-10. Relationships between Mission, METL, and Battle Task

Figure 3-10. Relationships between Mission, METL, and Battle Task


Chapter 4


We cannot train without planning and we cannot teach without preparation.

General George C. Marshall




4-1. Planning is an extension of the battle focus concept that links organizational METL with the subsequent preparation, execution, and evaluation of training. A relatively centralized process, planning develops mutually supporting METL based training at all echelons within an organization. The planning process ensures continuous coordination from long-range planning, through short-range and near-term planning, and ultimately leads to training execution. The commander's assessment provides direction and focus to the planning process. (Commander's assessment is discussed in chapter 6.) Figure 4-1 depicts the training planning process used to develop battle focused training programs.

Figure 4-1.  Training Planning Process

Figure 4-1. Training Planning Process


4-2. The commander applies two principal inputs at the start of the planning process-the METL and the training assessment. Commanders identify tasks that support the METL. The training assessment compares the organization's current level of training proficiency with the desired level of warfighting proficiency. This desired level is defined in MTPs and other doctrinal literature. Commanders may make conscious decisions, based on their training assessment, to defer training for some tasks in which they are currently well trained.

4-3. Leaders determine current training proficiency levels by analyzing all available training evaluations. However, each evaluation applies only to a portion of the total proficiency of an organization at a specific time. Therefore, commanders must use all available evaluation data to develop an assessment of the organization's overall capability to accomplish each mission essential task. In addition to past training evaluations, other information about future events influences the assessment. For example, the projected personnel turnover rates or the fielding of new equipment could significantly affect the commander's assessment of training proficiency status during the upcoming training period. Commanders update the training assessment at the beginning of each long-range and short-range planning cycle and after a major training event or deployment.

4-4. The commander uses the broad experience and knowledge of key subordinates to help determine the organization's current proficiency. Although subordinates provide their evaluation as input for consideration, only the commander can assess the unit's training proficiency. For example, a division commander may direct that the assistant division commanders, key staff members, and subordinate commanders evaluate the training proficiency of the division's ability to execute mission essential tasks and supporting battle tasks. The division CSM and subordinate CSMs evaluate proficiency on individual tasks that support collective tasks. The participants review available collective and individual evaluation information, relying heavily on personal observations. They then compare the organization's current task proficiency with the Army standard. The commander uses subordinate input in making the final determination of the organization's current proficiency on each task (figure 4-2). Commanders assess current METL task proficiency by rating each task as-

  • "T" (trained)-The unit is trained and has demonstrated its proficiency in accomplishing the task to wartime standards.
  • "P" (needs practice)-The unit needs to practice the task. Performance has demonstrated that the unit does not achieve the standard without some difficulty or has failed to perform some task steps to standard.
  • "U" (untrained)-The unit cannot demonstrate an ability to achieve wartime proficiency.

Figure 4-2. Extract from Commander's Training Assessment

Figure 4-2. Extract from Commander's Training Assessment


4-5. The training requirement is the training necessary to achieve and sustain METL task proficiency within the Band of Excellence.

4-6. The commander, assisted by staff, develops a strategy to accomplish each training requirement. This includes improving proficiency on some tasks and sustaining performance on others. Through the training strategy, the commander establishes training priorities by determining the minimum frequency each mission essential task will be performed during the upcoming planning period. The strategy also includes broad guidance that links the METL with upcoming major training events. The initial training assessment includes the commander's guidance that starts the detailed planning process.

4-7. The training assessment of each separate mission essential task enables the commander to develop the commander's training vision. This is a broad concept for training the organization to achieve and sustain wartime proficiency. The key elements that shape a commander's training vision are a thorough understanding of training and operations doctrine, assessment of METL proficiency levels, and knowledge of potential enemy capabilities. The commander's training vision is supported by organizational goals that provide a common direction for all the commander's programs and systems.

4-8. Senior commanders involve their staffs and subordinate commanders in goal development to ensure common understanding and create an organizational team approach. Examples of organizational goals include-

  • Establish and support a command climate conducive to developing a high level of individual, leader, and collective warfighting proficiency.
  • Conduct force integration while continuously maintaining the short-term readiness of the organization.
  • Develop and integrate the standard operating procedures required to employ combined arms teams that can fight and win on the battlefield.
  • Recruit and retain high-quality soldiers and leaders.

4-9. Through the training planning process, the commander's guidance (training vision, goals, and priorities) is melded together with the METL and the training assessment into manageable training plans.



4-10. Figure 4-3 compares the three types of training plans-

  • Long-range.
  • Short-range.
  • Near-term.

Figure 4-3. Comparison of Long-Range, Short-Range, and Near-Term Training Plans

Figure 4-3. Comparison of Long-Range, Short-Range, and Near-Term Training Plans


4-11. Properly developed training plans will-

  • Maintain a consistent battle focus. Each headquarters in the organization involves its subordinate headquarters in the development of training plans. Based on the higher headquarters' plans, subordinate commanders prepare plans that have a battle focus that is consistent throughout the organization.
  • Be coordinated with habitually task organized supporting organizations. Brigade combat team and battalion task force commanders plan for coordinated combined arms training of their wartime task organizations. Commanders of habitually task-organized units actively participate in this process and develop complementary training plans. Corps and division commanders require integrated training plans and monitor coordination efforts during the planning process.
  • Focus on the correct time horizon. Long-range training plans in the AC extend out at least one year. The RC long-range plans consider a minimum of two years. Short-range training plans in the AC normally focus on an upcoming quarter (three months) while RC short-range training plans typically use a one-year planning horizon. Near-term planning for the AC starts approximately eight weeks prior to the execution of training with the RC starting approximately four months prior.
  • Be concerned with future proficiency. Training plans must focus on raising or sustaining the proficiency of mission essential tasks to the Army standard.
  • Incorporate risk management into all training plans. The nature of the military profession is inherently dangerous. Commanders must train their units to tough standards under the most realistic conditions possible. Application of the risk management process will not detract from this training goal, but will enhance execution of highly effective, realistic training. Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing, and controlling risks arising from operational factors and making decisions that balance risk costs with mission training benefits. Leaders and soldiers at all echelons use risk management to conserve combat power and resources. Leaders and staffs continuously identify hazards and assess both accident and tactical risks. They then develop and coordinate control measures to mitigate or eliminate hazards. Risk management is a continuous process for each mission or training event. It must be integral to military decisions, tied into each training plan, and become a continuous part of preparation for training.
  • Establish organizational stability. Changes disrupt training and frustrate subordinate leaders and soldiers. Planning allows organizations to anticipate and incorporate change in a coordinated manner. Stability and predictability are the result of locking in training plans. Senior commanders are responsible to protect subordinate units from change.
  • Make the most efficient use of resources. The planning process allocates limited time and other resources for training that contributes most to achieving and sustaining wartime proficiency levels.



4-12. Senior commanders publish their training guidance document sufficiently in advance to provide adequate planning time for both their wartime units and supporting peacetime organizations. Guidance at these senior command echelons is critical to the development and integration of a large number of subordinate AC and RC long-range training plans. Therefore, long lead times are the norm. The long-range planning cycles for MACOM, corps, AC and RC divisions and subordinate headquarters are at figures 4-4 and 4-5. Each headquarters follows these time lines to allow subordinates adequate time to prepare their plans.

Figure 4-4. Active Component Long-Range Planning Cycle

Figure 4-4. Active Component Long-Range Planning Cycle

Figure 4-5. Reserve Component Long-Range Planning Cycle