TRAINING THE FIELD ARTILLERY SURVEYOR, MOS 82C
The purpose of this appendix is to help the survey officer or chief surveyor conduct a more effective training program. It suggests a program for training the survey platoon and/or section. There is no single "best" method of training. What is important is that the training approach used should be determined in advance and planned in detail.
The key to effective performance on the battlefield is a training program based on planning, conduct (execution), and evaluation.
a. Planning. Planning is the keystone to interesting, worthwhile, and effective training. The planning must ensure that each member of the survey section understands his role in accomplishing the survey mission of his unit, whether the unit is a battalion, TAB, or div arty.
b. Conduct. Conduct is the action phase of the training program. In this phase, the individual surveyor, survey party, or survey section participates in classroom instruction, operation of survey instruments, field exercises, and practice Army training and evaluation programs (ARTEPs).
c. Evaluation. Evaluation is controlled feedback. The survey officer or chief surveyor must examine the entire learning process to ensure that the members of the survey section can successfully accomplish the survey methods, techniques, and procedures that they have been taught. The survey officer or chief surveyor conducting the training must receive controlled feedback after the conduct of an exercise so that success can be reinforced and mistakes can be identified and corrected.
a. The survey officer is responsible for developing a training program, for conducting training, and for keeping abreast of training doctrine. The survey officer uses FMs 25-100 and 25-101 as a guide for planning, conducting, and evaluating a training program. He uses Soldier Training Publication (STP) 6-82C14-SM-TG, and applicable ARTEPs to determine individual and team qualifications. The trainer's guide (STP 6-82C14-SM-TG) lists the critical tasks of MOS 82C, identifies the tasks to be performed at each skill level, and indicates for each task where the soldier is to be trained. Used together, these documents become the foundation for the training program.
*b. Supervised on-the-job training (SOJT) may also be used to train surveyors in the unit. Correspondence subcourses are excellent for individual and common educational needs, combined study, and joint discussions and critiques. Available subcourses and instructions for requesting correspondence course material are included in DA Pam 351-20.
c. The trainer should ensure that every member of the survey section has a copy of the soldier's manual applicable to his grade. This document outlines performance standards and gives the soldier a "road map" for progression.
The trainer must ensure that the individual surveyor is trained to perform his required tasks. If the individual surveyor has not attended a service school for his initial survey training, he must be trained in the unit through various methods, such as one-on-one instruction, Army correspondence course lessons, unit school, SOJT, or a combination of these methods. A unit evaluation of individual knowledge, primarily through the use of the self-development test (SDT), will determine if the individual surveyor is knowledgeable in his skill level and can perform effectively as a member of a survey party.
When the individual surveyors have attained the desired level of proficiency, party or section training can be started with the goal of molding an efficient working team capable of performing its mission. First, each survey party should complete miniature field exercises involving position area survey, target area survey, and connection survey until the party performs surveys efficiently and with minimum supervision. The survey parties, operating together as a survey section, should complete miniature field exercises until the section can operate efficiently and with minimum supervision. One type of miniature field exercise is depicted in Figure C-1. The miniature problem shows each member of the survey party how his job relates to the party function as a whole. It facilitates supervision; provides savings in motor vehicle maintenance, fuel, and time; and requires no special training area. Full-scale survey operations should be conducted with an ARTEP as often as necessary to gain and maintain the required collective proficiency. Figure C-2 depicts a miniature field exercise for use by the TAB survey section. Figure C-3 is an example of a miniature exercise for the div arty survey section.
a. Before the start of a field exercise, the survey officer or chief surveyor should draw up the survey plan based on assumed or real guidance from the commander. If at all possible, the survey of target area bases, targets, attached radars, and CEWI sites that normally would be located in the unit zone of operation should be completed before the exercise ends.
b. Even though short distances are involved in a miniature exercise, the SEDME-MR will be exercised adequately.
c. For the purpose of the exercise, true or assumed control may be used. When assumed control is used, the party or section should practice conversion to common control.
d. Priority should be given to establishing the essential survey control in the fastest manner possible on the basis of guidance from the commander. After this survey is completed, the party or section could receive additional training in miniature triangulation schemes.
e. The survey of the battery OLs, attached radars, CEWI sites, and target area bases must be to the accuracy required for cannon battalion survey.
The following basic training facilities are desirable for the conduct of comprehensive training:
- TOE of the unit survey section or party.
- Beseler Cue/See projectors.
- Movie projector (16-mm) with screen.
- Outside training area with survey control.
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