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Military

CHAPTER 10

Moving the Force

The transportation system provides the key link between dispersed supply units and frequently moving supported units. It enables CSGs to move supplies, equipment, and personnel on the AirLand Battlefield in support of the corps commander's battle.

The biggest challenge is moving ammunition and bulk fuel from the corps rear area to the DSA or BSA if necessary. Habitual support relationships exist between truck units and ammunition and petroleum supply companies. Trucks transport thousands of tons of ammunition and hundreds of thousands of gallons of bulk fuel each day. Committed divisions may consume from 500,000 to 900,000 gallons of bulk fuel per day. Ammunition requirements may average 3,000 to 4,000 tons per division per day.

CONTENTS

CSG TRANSPORTATION SUPPORT ORGANIZATION

TRANSPORTATION SUPPORT OPERATIONS

AIRDROP SUPPORT OPERATIONS

SUPPORT OF TACTICAL OPERATIONS

TRANSPORTATION CONTROLS

AUTOMATED TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

NBC CONCERNS

CSG TRANSPORTATION SUPPORT ORGANIZATION

The COSCOM assigns a mix of light-medium, medium, and heavy truck companies and cargo transfer companies to its CSGs. Figure 10-1 depicts a typical CSG transportation support organization. Forward CSGs attach light-medium, medium, and HET truck companies to its CSBs. Based on requirements, the rear CSG may attach medium and/or heavy truck companies and cargo transfer companies to a transportation battalion. Attachment depends on the --

  • Scope and duration of supported operations.
  • Availability of HNS equivalent units.
  • Requirements to transport supplies, equipment, and units.
  • Distribution pattern.

LIGHT/MEDIUM TRUCK COMPANIES

Light/medium truck companies (TOE 55719L100/200) are in the force on the basis of one per division to accommodate that work load that is beyond the capability of the MSB's organic truck company. They are attached to the CSB located in the division area to transport supplies from the CSB supply company to MSB main supply points and FSB forward supply points to reinforce their support of corps forces in the DSA and BSAs. They also support maneuver brigade operations, moving troops or cargo as required.

TOE 55719L000 lists mission capabilities. FM 55-30 covers truck unit operations. The unit MTP lists critical tasks.

MEDUIM TRUCK COMPANIES

Based on organic equipment authorization, medium truck companies (TOE 55728L100-L300) move containerized or general cargo, bulk fuels, or refrigerated cargo. A medium truck team GC (TOE 55540H500) may augment truck unit capabilities.

Medium truck companies provide line haul transportation for delivery of cargo via direct haul or semitrailer relay. They transport stocks from CSAs to ASPS and ATPs. They also transport general supplies to DS supply companies. When possible, they throughput supplies as far forward as possible. They also provide express or rapid delivery of high-priority cargo. Whenever possible, they retrograde or return loads from forward areas to the corps rear area.

Based on routine habitual support requirements and the distribution pattern, at least two medium truck companies should employ near a CSA. They transport ammunition from the CSA to the ASPS and ATPs. Another medium truck company employs near the GS supply company. Medium truck companies (petroleum) provide dedicated support to the GS petroleum supply company.

HEAVY EQUIPMENT TRANSPORTER
COMPANIES

A reevaluation of the tactical advantage for the maneuver commander to relocate maneuver units resulted in development of TOE 55739L100. The combat HET company's primary role is to relocate tracked combat vehicles in support of a heavy maneuver force. Combat HET companies deploy in the early stages of theater buildup. Their evacuation role becomes secondary.

Relocating and transporting tracked vehicles to the battle on HETs provide a significant advantage over road marching tracked vehicles. Tracked vehicles arrive fully fueled, armed, and operational, with rested crews. Weapon systems arrive functional and less fuel is consumed.

The basis of allocation is four combat HET companies per corps. Four companies are needed to move an armor brigade with support slice in a single lift. Combat HET companies will normally be assigned to the transportation battalion. However, they maybe assigned to forward CSGs during initial deployment if the transportation battalion has not yet deployed. Spreading the HET companies across the corps defeats their mission to relocate a brigade task force in a single lift.

CARGO TRANSFER
COMPANIES

Cargo transfer companies (TOE 55817 L100-200) transship cargo at air, rail, and motor terminals. Unit personnel redocument transshipped cargo, as required. They have a limited capability for stuffing and unstuffing containers. TOE 55817L100-200 lists mission capabilities. Units under TOE 55817L200 can operate three separate terminals.

Cargo transfer units are sequenced early in the deployment flow. They initially operate at arrival airfields, sup porting combat units in the off-load and marshaling of unit equipment and unit supplies. As the operational area is expanded, cargo transfer units are echeloned forward to conduct cargo handling operations at forward mode transfer points and/or to augment division or corps logistics operations with attached cargo handling elements tailored to the mission.

TRAILER TRANSFER
DETACHMENT

Trailer transfer detachments (TOE 55540LE00 operate trailer transfer points, in conjunction with line haul operations. Detachment operations include --

  • Receiving, segregating, assembling, and dispatching loaded or empty semitrailers for convoys.
  • Maintaining fuel dispensing facilities to refuel operating equipment.
  • Servicing inspecting, and, if required, making emergency repairs to incoming vehicles.

HNS EQUIVALENT UNITS

WHNS terminal transfer companies can operate terminal transfer points in support of US forces within the corps area. Using HN transport for local hauls, such as moving cargo from a rail terminal to a rear storage site, frees US truck assets to support forward area operations. CSGs attach HN truck companies to CSBs and the transportation battalion. The CSG transportation branch coordinates requirements and use of HN truck lines and truck terminals with the CSG HNS branch and CMCC/MCT. The CMCC commits HN transportation resources.

CELLULAR LOGISTICS
TEAM

Theater dependent, the COSCOM can attach a US transportation HNS team (TOE 55510LA00) to a CSG. The terminal transfer CLT provides the liaison and interface between the CMCC and WHNS terminal transfer units. Figure 10-2 depicts this liaison and the coordination of mission taskings between the CMCC/MCT and HN transportation units. The CMCC/MCT tasks the HN battalion through the CLT. Personnel from the terminal transportation CLT collocate with the WHNS transportation battalion headquarters and HN terminal transfer companies. They serve as the HN battalion's logistics operations section and as staff on the HN terminal transfer company's operations section. Terminal transportation CLT personnel --

  • Maintain visibility of intransit US shipments and supplies.
  • Consolidate and forward transportation status reports from HN units to the group and CMCC.
  • Assist cargo documentation personnel in preparing US documentation.
  • Provide technical guidance on proper loading of US unique equipment.
  • Divert cargo when directed to by the CMCC.

TRANSPORTATION SUPPORT OPERATIONS

Transportation support operations focus on a continuous flow of loaded trucks or semitrailers from GSUs to DSUs or forward areas. Empty or return-loaded trucks and semitrailers move rearward to load up and move forward again to supported units. Trucks move cargo in line hauls, local hauls, or semitrailer relays. PLS equipment will enhance loading and off-loading operations. Support requirements necessitate express operations, area support operations, or container operations. Whenever possible, vehicles return loaded with retrograde items from forward areas.

BATTLEFIELD EMPLOYMENT

Figure 10-3 depicts a sample employment of transportation elements on a battlefield, to include those which manage and integrate ground, air, water, and rail movement. Depending on METT-T, the following transportation support elements operate in a CSG AO:

  • MRTs to regulate the movement of authorized traffic over road networks or at critical transportation nodes.
  • An MCT which collocates with each CSG headquarters to commit, monitor, and report on truck use in the CSG's AO. It coordinates transportation requirements beyond the CSG's organic capability.
  • A HET company or platoon to provide maneuver unit relocation. HETs move tracked combat vehicles from the assembly area to the tactical assembly area. Light-medium truck companies move the remainder of the maneuver force. The maneuver commander determines the sequence and priority of moves. The CMCC regulates the highways and issues clearances.
  • Habitually supporting truck units which operate in a direct support role, supporting the conventional nondivision DS ammunition unit in the division area.
  • Medium truck companies which provide corps-wide transport of critical GS supplies.
  • A cargo transfer company which operates near off-loading points and logistics facilities in the corps rear area.
  • A medium lift helicopter company and the airdrop supply company and airdrop repair and supply company which provide a means of support when ground LOCs are interrupted or when surface transportation will not meet required delivery date and time.

HABITUAL SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS

The CSG attaches medium truck units to CSBs to habitually support conventional ammunition companies or general supply companies. This parallels medium truck company (petroleum) support to the petroleum supply company.

This habitual support relationship enables forward CSGs to provide continuous, responsive GS distribution system support. It allows the corps commander to use logistics to weight the battle. It also allows the CMCC to focus on major corps redeployment, major changes in distribution patterns, and exception requirements out of sector. The COSCOM reallocates truck units from one CSG to another.

To support routine, recurring daily logistics support missions, the MCT preassigns a block of TMRs. This is considered to be a programed move. Refer to Figure 10-4. The truck company coordinates movement requirements with the supply company which it habitually, supports. The truck company then requests convoy clearance.

The CMCC, through its MCTs, commits the truck assets that have been identified for their habitual support relationship if there are higher priorities. Priorities for movement are established by corps OPLANs or fragmentary orders published by the corps G3. Based corps priorities and changes in the tactical situation, the MCT can rescind its TMRs and assign other missions to truck units. If the MCT/CMCC reduces the number of truck assets available to move supplies, transportation battalion and CSG/CSB transportation branch personnel need to reassess priorities of support against remaining truck assets.

OTHER SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS

Units submit movement requirements which are beyond their organic truck capabilities to the MCT serving their area. For other than habitual support requirements, the MCT transmits commitments to subordinate truck units through the CSG/CSB transportation branch or transportation battalion S3 section. Refer to Figure 10-4. The truck units request movement clearance through their transportation branch to the supporting MCT.

CSB transportation branch personnel keep CSG transportation branch staff informed of subordinate truck unit ability to support missions when the CMCC/MCT diverts truck assets for other than daily support missions. Based on local procedure, truck asset status should be reported to the supporting MCT or CMCC.

When the CSG/COSCOM forms a task force to support corps forces, such as corps FA, air defense, or corps engineer, supporting outside of the Army AO in support of a sister Service or an ally, corps truck assets move accompanying support, to include custom munitions and ASL. The CMCC establishes a responsive transportation network to maintain a LOC to support the task force for the duration of the support operation.

SURFACE TRANSPORTATION REQUEST

Units submit a transportation request to the supporting MCT They need to submit the request at least 48 hours prior to cargo or passenger availability date. For specialized HN equipment, allow a lead time of 72 hours.

The CMCC commits transportation assets based on corps priorities for movement established by the corps G3 and G4. MCTs issue TMRs for planned movement requirements based on the corps movement program or to meet unprogrammed movement requirements. They identify the transportation needed to fill the requirement and notify CSG/CSB transportation branch staff of the mission. CSB transportation branch personnel coordinate and task truck companies.

LINE-HAULS AND LOCAL-HAULS

Truck operations may be line-haul or local-haul. Local-haul is short distance operations which allows two or more round trips per a 10-hour shift. Line-haul constitutes operational distances allowing only one round trip per a 10-hour shift. Trailer transfer points are required to connect line-haul legs to throughput cargo long distances.

To reduce prime mover turnaround time, CSG transportation branch personnel recommend that truck tractors drop semitrailers at a destination when --

  • Sufficient semitrailers are available.
  • Turnaround times or tonnages are critical.
  • The tactical situation permits drop off of loaded semitrailers.

SEMITRAILER RELAYS

Truck tractors use a semitrailer relay technique to throughput supplies from the COMMZ into division areas. One or more trailer transfer points may need to be set up at intermediate points along the route of travel. CSG transportation branch personnel establish formal procedures to account for trailers in their AO and report status to the transportation support branch of the COSCOM support operations section.

EXPRESS OPERATIONS

Express operations provide faster delivery of critical, high-priority cargo than regular line haul operations. CSG transportation branch personnel recommend that subordinate truck units set up express operations to provide rapid movement of high-priority cargo. To ensure that critical supplies arrive within a given time frame, CSG transportation branch personnel request that the CMCC assign a higher movement priority for express hauls. They also need to request road clearance for movement of oversize loads.

CONTAINER OPERATIONS

Containers permit packaging small or loose cargo items into a single unit for security and ease of handling. They are managed in accordance with AR 56-1. Cargo may be loaded into a container in CONUS or in the COMMZ. With the exception of CCL ammunition loads on a PLS flatrack or retrograde shipments, containers are not stuffed at the corps level. Trucks move containers in either local- or line-hauls.

CSG transportation branch personnel synchronize and control container operations to ensure that containers are promptly offloaded and returned to the transportation system. They coordinate with the supporting MCT to determine inbound time and container weight and size. They estimate the requirements for and determine the availability of container handling equipment to download containers or MHE to unload containers. The CSG S4 ensures that sufficient portable ramps, cargo handling equipment, and MHE are available in subordinate units. Based on work load, the CSG support operations officer reallocates container handling equipment to meet operational requirements.

PALLETIZED LOAD SYSTEM

PLS enhances loading and off-loading operations. PLS cargo trucks have a hydraulic pick-up unit. This unit can load and unload flatracks of palletized or containerized cargo directly from the ground, PLS trucks pull a cargo trailer with a flatrack payload, Some PLS vehicles have an on-board material-handling crane. The crane loads and offloads standard palletized loads. The vehicle driver can perform all loading and unloading operations from inside the cab, often in less than one minute.

PLS vehicles were initially designed to help speed the loading and off-loading of heavy ammunition loads. However, they also transport containers, ribbon bridges, C2 shelters, evacuated items, and bulk cargo.

AIRLIFT RESUPPLY

Airlift supports either preplanned or immediate requirements to provide resupply. Airlift is routinely used to deliver low density, high dollar, high lethality munitions. FMs 55-40 and 100-27 describe preplanned and immediate airlift request flows. The corps and COSCOM FSOP prescribe request procedures.

Preplanned Airlift Resupply

Support operations staff officers project requirements for airlift resupply as part of developing the movement program. The CMCC consolidates airlift requirements and forwards them to the corps G4 for consideration to have airlift allocated for CSS air movement operations. The CMCC is the committal authority for aircraft allocated for CSS air movement operations.

If air resupply items process through one CONUS airport, a knowledgeable officer must remain at the airport to prioritize all of the 01 priorities for CSG and subordinate unit mission support equipment. That same individual recommends removal of equipment or supplies from loads because airloads were estimated or the USAF changed lift capabilities. The quantity removed needs to be reported to the unit whose equipment or supplies were removed. If an Army representative does not remain at the airport, the USAF will prioritize shipments.

Immediate Airlift Resupply

Unanticipated, urgent, or priority requirements may necessitate immediate airlift resupply. Requests are sent to the corps TOC. The corps TOC diverts or cancels preplanned missions or generates a standby capability.

Sling Loading

CSG OPLANs designate the units responsible for preparing loads for external transport. The plans designate the quantity of slings each unit should bring with them as well as sling return procedures and responsibilities.

AIRDROP SUPPORT OPERATIONS

Airdrop serves as the primary means of responding to immediate requests for ammunition, fuel, rations, water, blood, plasma, or other critical supplies when forces become isolated. Airdrop provides an alternative means of resupply when threat forces disrupt ground LOCs or the air battle makes air-landed supply operations impractical. CSGs coordinate airdrop support operations through the MCT. The CMCC validates Army use of USAF airlift and airdrop.

Airdrop services include both rigging loads for airdrop and maintaining the equipment needed for airdrop. Air delivery provides an expedient means to bypass contaminated areas. Requirements for airdrop related services increase significantly in an NBC environment.

SUPPORTING UNITS AND TEAMS

Airdrop Supply Company

A Quartermaster Airdrop Supply Company (TOE 10407L000) could be attached to the rear CSG's S&S battalion. Company personnel can rig 200 tons of supplies and equipment a day in support of special forces and division and nondivision units. Based on CMMC determinations, the company maintains a small stock of prerigged high-priority supplies, such as ammunition, medical supplies, and rations, with which to provide more timely response to emergency requests. Airdrop office personnel submit requests to the supporting MCT for trucks to move rigged loads to departure airfields. As required, airdrop operating platoon personnel help load supplies and equipment into aircraft for airdrop. They also assist in the recovery and evacuation of airdrop equipment. FM 10-400 describes unit operations

Airdrop Supply Team

An Airdrop Supply Team (TOE 10510LA) can be attached to the airdrop supply company to increase that company's mission capability by 25 percent. Team personnel can receive, store, and prepare 50 tons of selected supplies and equipment a day for airdrop. They can also provide personnel parachutes for 500 parachutists.

Light Airdrop Supply Company

Because most supplies can be airdropped in containers rather than by airdrop platforms, a Quartermaster Light Airdrop Supply Company (TOE 10443L000) will replace the airdrop supply company organized under TOE 10407L000. The light airdrop supply company can receive, store, and prepare 120 tons of selected supplies or equipment a day for airdrop. However, this company rigs only those supplies and equipment that can fit in single or double A-22 containers. Airdrop requests for items which cannot be rigged in A-22 containers are passed to a Quartermaster Heavy Airdrop Supply Company (TOE 10643L000) assigned to a TAACOM S&S battalion.

Airdrop Equipment Support Company
(Airborne Corps)

For the airborne corps, a Quartermaster Airdrop Equipment Support Company (Airborne Corps) is attached to the S&S battalion to provide deployment support to airborne elements. This company can provide 200 tons per day of follow-up supply for a 10-day period.

Airdrop Equipment Repair and Supply Company

An Airdrop Equipment Repair and Supply Company (TOE 10449L000) can be attached to the rear CSG's S&S battalion to support the airdrop supply company. This company requests, receives, stores, and issues airdrop equipment to support the airdrop supply company or an airborne division's airdrop equipment support company. Personnel perform DS and GS maintenance on airdrop equipment, cargo parachutes, and airdrop platforms. FM 10-400 describes unit operations.

Airdrop Equipment Repair
and Supply Team

An Airdrop Equipment Repair and Supply Team (TOE 10510LC) can increase the mission capability of the airdrop equipment repair and supply company by 25 percent.

Airdrop Equipment Repair and Supply Company
(Airborne Corps)

For the airborne corps, a Quartermaster Airdrop Equipment Repair and Supply Company (Airborne Corps) is attached to the S&S battalion to provide airdrop equipment supply and maintenance support. This company supports the airborne division airdrop equipment support company, the airborne corps airdrop equipment support company, and the light airdrop supply company.

Parachute Packing and Maintenance Team

A Parachute Packing and Maintenance Team (TOE 10510LE) can be attached to the S&S battalion to inspect, pack, and maintain personnel parachutes in support of one thousand parachutists. Team personnel can perform unit, DS, and GS maintenance on personnel parachutes.

RESPONSIBILITIES

The CSG's airdrop operations NCO provides technical assistance on airdrop, rigging, or maintenance of airdrop equipment. COSCOM transportation support branch staff officers have staff responsibility for airdrop services. FM 10-500-1 provides doctrinal guidance for staff officers on airdrop support operations in a theater of operations. It covers airdrop requests procedures, recovery and evacuation procedures, and planning considerations.

Supporting Unit Responsibilities

Personnel assigned to the QM airdrop supply company --

  • Rig supplies and equipment for airdrop. (FM 10-500 series manuals describe rigging procedures.)

  • Assist in loading supplies and equipment into the aircraft.
  • Release supplies and equipment from the aircraft in flight.
  • Provide technical assistance in the recovery and evacuation of airdrop equipment.

Supported Units' Responsibilities

Units requesting airdrop support assume the responsibility for securing, marking, and controlling the drop zone. Supported units also recover and evacuate airdrop equipment to the airdrop equipment repair and supply company for classification, repair, and return to stock.

AIRDROP RESUPPLY METHODS

Supplies can be airdropped to units until routine resupply occurs as a result of normal requisitioning and issue procedures. During the follow-up stage, supplies can be airdropped by the following resupply methods:

Preplanned Resupply

The airdrop support unit rigs supplies for scheduled airdrop. Supplies can be stored at the airdrop unit site or at the departure field until the preplanned delivery date.

On-Call Resupply

The airdrop support unit prerigs supplies or holds them in bulk until supplies are called for on short notice. Assigning load-unique numbers facilitates the request.

Emergency Resupply

Emergency resupply applies only to deployed Special Forces. It is used to deliver mission-essential equipment and supplies to restore the operational capability and survivability of Special Forces. An emergency resupply is airdropped when deployed Special Forces fail to make radio contact within a predetermined time or to maintain scheduled radio contacts.

REQUEST CHANNELS

FMs 100-27 and 10-400 describe the request channels for immediate and preplanned airdrop requests. Units send immediate airdrop requests through command channels to the corps TOC. The corps G3 determines if alternate delivery means could better meet the requirement. Once approved, the CMMC coordinates shipment of supplies to the airdrop supply unit that will rig them for airdrop. The CMCC coordinates movement of rigged loads to the departure airfield. The CMMC sends a request for aircraft support to the TA MCA or joint force commander's agent who validates the request. CSG transportation branch personnel notify the MCT when rigged supplies are ready for movement to the airfield. Preplanned airdrop differs in that nondivision units request airdrop from the MCT, since air assets have previously been validated and committed.

NBC CONCERNS

Airdrop equipment as well as contaminated supplies need to be decontaminated prior to shipment. Items which cannot be decontaminated must be marked with the standard NBC marker. If rigging takes place in a contaminated area, all supplies and airdrop items must be marked and the air crew notified of the contamination.

SUPPORT OF TACTICAL OPERATIONS

To support the supply system, transportation personnel need to compute transportation requirements. They need to analyze how those requirements change as CSG units support offensive, defensive, and retrograde operations. Table 10-1 lists areas/actions CSG transportation branch personnel should consider.

OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

Forward delivery results in large numbers of corps transporters in division areas as corps trucks deliver fuel to the MSB and FSB Class III points and ammunition to ATPs. Cargo vehicles, petroleum tankers, and ammunition carriers are thin-skinned vehicles, vulnerable to small arms fire. Small enemy ground or air forces can easily decimate corps transportation assets.

Extended supply lines increase delivery and turnaround time. CSGs should increase throughput of ammunition and petroleum. Despite breakdowns in communications, vehicles can continue to transport preplanned or preconfigured push packages. CSGs need to request helicopter airlift or airdrop of critical supplies to support units in areas not accessible by surface transport means.

DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS

Delivery and turnaround time decrease as truck units move stockpiles of supplies to successive fallback defensive positions. While fuel requirements decrease, ammunition expenditures increase. Trucks also need to transport increased quantities of barrier and fortification materials.

RETROGRADE OPERATIONS

Truck units evacuate all but the most essential supplies and equipment early. They move supplies and equipment to planned fallback points along withdrawal routes. The MCT coordinates with the CMCC to keep supply and evacuation routes open.

Nonessential CSG units move to the rear early. This provides more room for combat elements to delay and withdraw. CSGs coordinate with supporting MCTs to ensure that withdrawing CSG units keep out of the way of withdrawing or repositioning combat elements.

CSG transportation branch personnel monitor possible retrograde requirements from subordinate units. This includes reparable equipment at maintenance collecting points. They also ensure that subordinate companies submit transportation requests in a timely manner.

TRANSPORTATION CONTROLS

Centralized movements control and highway regulation prevent congestion and conflicting movements over ground LOCs. CSGs interface with transportationmovement control and highway regulation elements to accomplish their logistics missions and movement requirements.

CORPS MOVEMENT CONTROL CENTER

The CMCC (TOE 55604L000) determines and coordinates transportation movement requirements within the corps area. It receives movement data from the MCA on vehicle clearances for entry into the corps area. It transmits requirements which exceed corps transport capability to the MCA. It coordinates work load requirements that cross CSG boundaries, exceed another CSG's transportation assets, or are required for a specific operation. The CMCC also --

  • Prepares the corps movement program, based on movements requirements submitted by the CMMC.
  • Prepares movement plans and annexes in support of logistics or contingency plans.
  • Plans, routes, and schedules movements on road nets, according to priorities established by the corps G3/G4.

FMs 55-1 and 55-10 describe CMCC functions and organizational structure.

MOVEMENT CONTROL TEAMS

All MCTs (TOE 55580H7) within the COSCOM area of operations are assigned to the CMCC. An MCT collocates with each CSG support operations section to provide movements control support, The MCT work loads subordinate CSG transportation assets. Depending on the immediate situation, MCTs perform the following movement control functions:

  • Process movement requests and arrange transport of personnel and materiel in compliance with movement priorities.
  • Commit the transportation truck battalion and CSBs for truck support.
  • Maintain communications with transportation mode operators, shippers, receivers, and, if applicable, HN movement control elements.
  • Keep status data on the location of supported units, transportation requirements, and general transportation movements situation in their area.
  • Recommend truck terminal sites.
  • Monitor and report on the use and disposition of controlled vehicles and containers.
  • Maintain surveillance of accountable containers and chassis for other services.

MOVEMENT REGULATION TEAMS

The COSCOM assigns or attaches MRTs (TOE 55580H7LH) to the CMCC. MRTs report on road and convoy status. MRTs also relay instructions to convoy commanders concerning route changes, halts, and convoy diversion. Because MRTs operate remote from their headquarters, they must be equipped with reliable long range communications capability with the CMCC.

If MP assets are not available, MRTs perform traffic control measures. If HNs perform highway regulation, MRTs may provide liaison to the HN.

MOVEMENT SUPPORT STATUS REPORTS

In order to report on movement support capability and the impact of transportation shortages, CSG and battalion transportation branch staff need to be kept informed of changes in subordinate truck unit mission support capability. Changes in movement or lift capability result from intransit losses, redirection of truck assets by the CMCC, additional contracted support, and HN and allied support agreements.

CSG and battalion transportation branch staffs need to track the status of --

  • Main supply routes and alternate routes and of reasons for delays on these routes.
  • HETs, PLS vehicles, and petroleum tankers, (committed, available, or not operational).

  • Trailers (on hand, loaded, short, and deadlined due to maintenance).
  • Containers (commercial and MILVANs).
  • Terminal operations and reasons for bottlenecks.
  • Rail or barge supplemental support capability, if applicable.

AUTOMATED TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Figure 10-5 depicts the corps automated transportation management system and its interface with SAAS and SARSS automated supply systems. The interface between DAMMS-R and CSSCS enables CSG transportation branch staff to monitor transportation activities of subordinate units.

AUTOMATED MOVEMENT
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

DAMMS-R software supports the operational and management functions of the transportation system. It interacts with supply and deployment systems to provide information essential to wartime movement control and physical distribution. DAMMS-R automates the following functions:

  • Shipment management -- provides in-transit visibility and traces, holds, diverts, and/or expedites shipments.
  • Mode operations -- tasks commitments and management assets.
  • MCT operations -- automates interfaces with shippers and transshippers.
  • Addressing -- locates units on the battlefield and assist with surface distribution plans.
  • Highway regulation -- schedules, routes, and deconflicts movements.
  • Operational movement programming -- allocates assets against command priorities.
  • Convoy planning -- plans convoy movements and submits movement bid.

Truck companies, cargo transfer platoons, and freight consolidation and distribution teams process and transmit DAMMS-R movement data to MCTs or MRTs on a microcomputer device. MCTs and MRTs will then transmit DAMMS-R movement requirements and control data to the CMCC on their TACCS or ACCS common hardware devices.

The transportation battalion and CSBs use the DAMMS-R interface to monitor vehicle requirements, availability, and commitments.

The CMCC processes movements requirements and control data on its TACCS device. It uses DAMMS-R programs to develop movement plans, assess the adequacy of transportation resources, and monitor the status of movements.

Movements officers use the DAMMS-R interface with SAAS-3 and SAAS-4 to obtain data on forecasted or pending ammunition transportation requirements. They use the DAMMS-R interface with SARSS-2A and 2B at the CMMC to obtain transportation forecasts and data on supply movement requirements.

AUTOMATED AIRLOAD PLANNING SYSTEM

AALPS automates load planning in the three stages of air movement:

  • During contingency planning, AALPS permits the movements staffs to build and save preplanned force packages in a database. It assists them in determining airlift requirements for the force packages and producing reports.
  • During deployment planning, the planners are able to tailor and prioritize force packages based on mission requirements. AALPS enables planners to determine precise airlift requirements with a significant reduction in man-hours.
  • In the execution phase, movements personnel automatically make real-time adjustments to the loads through the use of interactive graphics, AALPS produces cargo manifests acceptable for loading aboard US Air Force cargo aircraft.

NBC CONCERNS

CSG transportation branch personnel plan for operations in an NBC environment. They coordinate with NBC staff in the CSG S2/S3 section to assess the impact of NBC attacks on transportation operations. They provide advice and assistance on ways to continue support while containing the spread of contamination.

IMPACT ON OPERATIONS

Nuclear Attack

As a result of a nuclear attack, --

  • EMP disrupts communications.
  • Fallen trees block routes.
  • Radioactivity makes areas impassible.
  • Movement control elements may be destroyed

Countermeasures include --

  • Having a subordinate CP assume C2 for a higher headquarters.
  • Planning alternate routes.
  • Diverting cargo.
  • Extending MCT support areas.

Chemical Attack

Chemical attacks decrease the availability of transporters until decontamination can be performed. With approval of the receiving unit, trucks deliver contaminated cargo or leave cargo at a location for decontamination.

CONTAMINATED ROUTE INTELLIGENCE

CSG transportation branch personnel need current information on NBC incidents to inform subordinate units about contaminated routes. They analyze whether organic vehicles need to drive around nonpersistent agents. CSG transportation branch movement specialists maintain current road net data. The sector RAOC, S2/S3 officers, NBC reconnaissance elements, and MPs provide information on contaminated routes.

CONTAMINATED CARGO

Contaminated units may accept similarly contaminated cargo. Receiving unit commanders and the CSG support operations officer coordinate delivery of contaminated cargo. The CMCC determines the route. MRTs monitor the movement of contaminated convoys.

Contamination In-Transit

If contamination occurs while vehicles are in transit, vehicle operators need to contact the MCT that assigned the mission. If this communication is not possible, operators contact any MCT for disposition instruction. MCTs contact the CSG support operations officer to determine if the cargo should be delivered to the requesting unit. If the MCT knows that the receiving unit is contaminated, it contacts the unit to determine if trucks can deliver contaminated cargo of critical stocks.

Containment Controls

CSG transportation branch personnel recommend the following measures to help contain contamination:

  • Avoid moving contaminated cargo over clean routes.
  • Reroute trucks to bypass contaminated areas.
  • Reconfigure cargo to separate clean from dirty cargo.
  • Decontaminate cargo.
  • Arrange to airlift critical supplies.

Decontamination Responsibility

Detailed decontamination remains a unit responsibility. Supported units need to assist in decontamination. The CSG support operations officer needs to coordinate deliberate decontamination for vehicles supporting out-of-sector. FM 3-5 prescribes NBC decontamination policy and procedures.

Transfer Points

To reduce the number of uncontaminated vehicles entering contaminated areas, CSGs establish transfer points where cargo can be transloaded onto contaminated vehicles. Setting up such transfer points may require two sets of MHE -- one clean and one contaminated.

The decision to set up transfer points where contaminated and uncontaminated cargo haulers remain separate depends on the critical need for the cargo. It also depends on the availability of bypass routes or airlift assets. Nonpersistent chemical agents preclude the need to reroute cargo, set up transfer points, or decontaminate vehicles and cargo.



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