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APPENDIX B

ORDERS AND ANNEXES


Orders and annexes are critical components to TF engineer C2. The use of digital battle-command information systems greatly speeds the battle-command process. This annex highlights techniques and battle-command products the engineer company needs to produce, whether digital or conventional. The TF engineer, through the TF commander, exercises functional control over engineer operations within the TF's sector by including critical instructions in the TF order and the engineer annex. The supporting engineer company commander also issues orders to exercise unit control over engineer forces under his command. The TF engineer synchronizes and coordinates engineer support within the TF.

TASK-FORCE OPERATIONS ORDER

* Figure B-1 is a sample format of a TF OPORD. Bulletized comments are included in paragraphs requiring engineer input.*

ENGINEER ANNEX

The engineer annex contains information not included in the base order that is critical to the engineer plan or required for subordinate engineer planning. It does not include instructions or orders directly to engineer units. More importantly, the engineer annex covers critical aspects of the entire engineer plan, not just parts that pertain to the engineer company. The engineer annex is not a replacement for the engineer company order. For example, it does not give subunit orders and service-support instructions to the engineer company; those orders and instructions are contained in the engineer company order. The engineer annex should meet the following general criteria:

  • Includes critical information derived from the EBA process.
  • Contains all critical information and tasks not covered elsewhere in the order.
  • Does not contain items covered in SOPs unless the mission requires a change to the SOP.
  • Avoids qualified directives and is clear, complete, brief, and timely.
  • Contains information and tasks directed to the TF, not the engineer company.
  • Includes only information and instructions that have been fully coordinated in other parts of the OPORD or with the TF commander and his staff.

The engineer annex includes any combination of written instructions, matrixes, or overlays necessary to convey the details of the engineer plan. The engineer annex provides a standard format for both offensive and defensive operations. This format standardizes the organization of information included as written instructions. The actual content depends on the type of TF operation and the SOEO. The format tailors the five-paragraph order to convey critical information.

The engineer annex may also include matrixes and overlays, as necessary, to convey the plan. Matrixes may be used as part of the body of the annex or as separate appendixes. Matrixes are used to quickly convey or summarize information that does not need explanation, such as logistics allocations, obstacle-group priorities and restrictions, or task summary (execution matrix). Finally, overlays are used to give information or instructions and to expedite integration into the overall combined-arms plan. At the TF level, information included on overlays may include but is not limited to--

  • All existing and proposed friendly obstacles and control measures (obstacle belts and groups, restrictions, and lanes; directed or reserve targets; and situational obstacles, including associated NAIs/targeted areas of interest [TAIs], and decision points [DPs]).
  • Known and plotted enemy obstacles (must also be on the SITEMP).
  • Logistics locations and routes, as they apply to engineer operations.
  • NBC-contaminated areas.

* Figure B-2* is a sample format of a written engineer annex. Figure B-3 provides a sample matrix and overlay

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ENGINEER UNIT ORDERS

The engineer company commander uses a unit order to exercise unit control over engineer units remaining under his command. At the outset of an operation, the company commander uses his order to effect the necessary task organization of engineers in the TF, assign initial missions, and establish sustainment integration with the TF HHC or engineer battalion. Once the task organization is effective and during combat operations, the engineer company commander directs subsequent unit orders only to those engineers under his command. Orders, missions, and instructions to engineers in command relationships are included as tasks to the company teams in the TF order. The TF engineer issues WOs to all engineers supporting the TF to facilitate parallel planning. WOs to engineers supporting maneuver company teams are for planning only and are not executive.

TASK-FORCE ENGINEER WARNING ORDER

The purpose of a WO is to help an engineer company initiate planning and preparations for an upcoming operation. *A WO is critical to foster parallel planning. All information (terrain, enemy engineer capabilities, templated/confirmed obstacles, and so forth) that would be useful to subordinate leaders attached to a maneuver unit should be included. This allows a subordinate leader to assist a maneuver commander during his OPORD development.*

There is no prescribed format for a WO. It may be either written or oral but should include the following information:

  • Heading. A WO must always begin with the words "Warning Order" to ensure that recipients understand the information is for use only as a basis for planning and will be followed by orders. The addressees should also be listed in the heading. The TF engineer's WO to the unit should address all engineer units supporting the TF.
  • Situation. This section includes a brief description of friendly and enemy situations and critical events. It may also include probable missions for the TF and specified or implied tasks, and it may assign tentative tasks for planning to the engineer company.
  • Attachments and detachments. This section gives tentative and known changes to the task organization. However, it must be clear that changes in task organization are for planning and will not be effective until after an order is received from the TF.
  • Earliest time of move. This section states the earliest possible time that units must be ready to move. For units under the engineer company commander's command, actual movement times may be given, if known. The earliest time of move is critical to synchronizing sustainment operations to support future missions.
  • Nature and time of operation. This section provides recipients with as much information about the TF plan as possible to foster parallel planning and preparation and to set priorities. Depending on the maturity of the planning process, this section may include a concept of engineer operations or a tentative SOEO. *Orders for preliminary action may also be included, assigning engineer tasks (such as tactical/technical reconnaissance), establishing Class IV/V supply points, and moving to linkup points. These orders are normally qualified as B/P or O/O, with execution orders given once the plan is complete.*
  • Time and place of orders group. Engineer units are told when and where to receive the entire order and who will attend. Units should identify the composition of the orders group in their SOP.
  • *A&L information. This includes in-structions and warning information on changes in unit logistics operations and support to be received from maneuver sustainment systems as required by future operations. This information may also direct movement to assembly areas and provide instructions for sustainment after movement.*
  • Acknowledgment. An acknowledgment of receipt is always required to make sure it is received by all addressees.

ENGINEER COMPANY OPERATIONS ORDER

The OPORD format shown in *Figure B-4* is primarily for an engineer company in a heavy division engineer brigade supporting an armored or mechanized infantry TF. In Figure B-4, those items that are in bold print depict the OPORD format. Those items in italics are examples, and the rest of the text offers explanation, description, or advice on how to use the OPORD format.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR OVERLAYS

As part of the company's OPORD, the commander issues the platoon leaders company operations overlays. As a minimum, the following graphics must be included and issued to the platoon leaders as part of the OPORD:

  • The supported maneuver unit's operations graphics (black).
  • The enemy SITEMP (red).
  • The engineer company operations graphics (blue).
  • The friendly scheme-of-obstacle overlay (green).
  • The supported unit's indirect-target overlay supporting the SOEO.
  • Critical CSS graphics from the supported unit's CSS plan.

As a technique, the commander may want to issue each platoon leader one overlay that contains a composite of all the graphics mentioned above. This usually makes it easier for the platoon leader to post. However, the commander may issue separate overlays. Regardless, the graphics are depicted using the colors shown above to allow the platoon leaders to distinguish the information presented on multiple overlays.

SUPPORTED UNIT'S OPERATIONS GRAPHICS

The supported unit's operations graphics should contain all of the supported unit's maneuver and fire-control measures, to include the supported unit's indirect fire-support plan. They may contain adjacent maneuver-unit graphics pertinent to the operation.

ENEMY SITUATION TEMPLATE

*A SITEMP depicts assumed threat dispositions based on threat doctrine and the effects of a battlefield, if the threat should adopt a particular COA. In effect, it is a doctrinal template depicting a particular operation modified to account for the effects of a battlefield environment. Normally, a SITEMP depicts threat units two levels below a friendly force's as well as the expected locations of HVTs.*

The enemy SITEMP must include known and templated enemy employment of tactical, protective, and situational obstacles (offense and defense). It should also include direct- and indirect-fire ranges and sectors.

The graphics must distinguish between plotted enemy positions and obstacles and confirmed locations (plotted locations are depicted using dashed lines; confirmed intelligence is depicted using solid lines).

ENGINEER COMPANY OPERATIONS GRAPHICS

Engineer company operations graphics include any graphic-control measures needed to augment the supported unit's maneuver graphics to simplify C2 of engineer company-specific tasks and missions. This includes company CSS graphics that simplify the execution of the company's CSS plan, responsiveness to platoon needs, and C2 of company CSS assets. It also includes locations for company LOGPAC points, company-level casualty collection points (CCPs), company-controlled emergency Class I, III, and V materials, company trains and company field trains, company UMCP, and so forth.

Engineer company operations graphics use a different color than the supported unit's graphics to prevent subordinates from using company-level graphics on a higher headquarters' radio net.

FRIENDLY SCHEME-OF-OBSTACLE OVERLAY

The friendly scheme-of-obstacle overlay contains obstacle-control measures (zones, belts, and groups) that apply to the supported unit (for example, at the TF level, the obstacle overlay shows the obstacle groups [directed, situational, and reserve]). At TF level, including the obstacle belts (with effect, if known) is optional. NOTE: Enemy obstacles are detailed on the SITEMP unless integrated into the friendly obstacle plan.

The friendly scheme-of-obstacle overlay includes the associated NAIs, DPs, and TAIs for situational obstacles. The overlay shows the location and type of obstacle for obstacles assigned as specified tasks by the higher headquarters. It also clearly shows lane requirements and obstacle restrictions.

SUPPORTED UNIT'S COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT GRAPHICS

*The supported unit's CSS graphics contain TF locations for combat trains, field trains, UMCP, aid stations, AXPs, and CCPs (actual and planned). They also identify TF and brigade primary, alternate, and dirty MSRs.*

GUIDELINES FOR THE COMPANY

EXECUTION MATRIX

Figure 2-3 contains a sample company execution matrix. The matrix contains the following information:

  • Mission and intent. As written in the OPORD.
  • Engineer unit call sign and frequency. Identifies the subunit headquarters into which engineer assets are task-organized and their command or support relationship to supported units (if any).
  • Supported unit call sign and frequency. Identifies the maneuver unit that the engineer subunit is supporting. Also gives the call sign and frequency of the maneuver units that engineer subunits are supporting.
  • *Task organization. Graphically de-picts the task organization of each subunit. * Shows special equipment task-organized to that subunit if in addition to the platoon's assigned equipment (also shows the supported unit's mobility, countermobility, survivability equipment [plows and rollers] and shows from which platoon special equipment came to ease in linkups).
  • Execution matrix. Shows the information from the phases of the maneuver plan. It does not simply refer to the phases as "Phase 1 or Phase 2." Instead, it refers to the phases using graphic-control measures, maneuver events, or a combination of both. The execution matrix lists the critical missions that each platoon executes during that phase of the operation, including O/O and B/P tasks. The matrix organizes the subunit instruction boxes with the task abbreviated in the upper left and an orientation for where that task will occur (best guess) in the lower right. Orientation is given by referencing graphic-control measures (or grid coordinates). It shows the engineer company's main effort for each phase by "double boxing" the appropriate subunit instruction box. This identifies that the task in this "double box" is the most critical engineer task in that phase and that the subunit executing the task is the engineer company's main effort.

SOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR PREPARING OPORDS

Information is taken from several sources to prepare OPORDs (see Table B-1). These sources include the following:

  • Higher headquarters' operations OPORD or operations plan (OPLAN). The higher headquarters' OPORD or OPLAN provides much of the information needed to prepare the engineer company's OPORD. Examples include information about the enemy situation, the mission of adjacent units, and the administrative/logistical support available.
  • The supported commander's guidance, intent, and concept. Guidance normally comes orally at TF level. The commander's guidance should provide information concerning priorities for support, constraints (tasks that must be accomplished), and restrictions (tasks that cannot be performed). If guidance is not given, the engineer commander should ask for it. An understanding of the commander's intent one and two levels up is important to the engineer commander's ability to develop a plan that supports the maneuver plan. Normally, the second-level-up intent is in the higher headquarters' OPORD.
  • Staff estimates/annexes. The supported unit's staff officers should complete an estimate and either write an annex or provide input to paragraphs in the supported unit's base OPORD. Normally, the following staff officers prepare the following estimates/annexes:
    • S1. Personnel loss and support.
    • S2. Enemy situation and terrain and weather analysis.
    • S4. Logistics, supply, maintenance.
    • FSO. Fire support.
    • Signal officer. Signal.

ENGINEER COMPANY FRAGMENTARY ORDER

The engineer company commander will frequently need to modify his OPORD through the use of FRAGOs to make changes in engineer operations that allow the TF to take advantage of tactical opportunities. The engineer company commander issues FRAGOs only to engineer units under his command. Changes in instructions to engineers supporting company teams in command relationships are conveyed through input into the TF FRAGO. A FRAGO does not have a specified format, but an abbreviated OPORD format is usually used. The key to issuing a FRAGO is to maximize the use of the current OPORD by specifying only information and instructions that have changed. The engineer company commander will rarely be afforded the opportunity to issue FRAGOs to his subordinate leaders face-to-face. He will normally issue FRAGOs over the radio. The engineer company commander may use his XO or 1SG to issue the FRAGO in person to subordinates. A FRAGO usually contains the following elements:

  • Changes to task organization. Any changes to unit task organizations made necessary by the modification to the order.
  • Situation. Includes a brief statement of current enemy and friendly situations which usually gives the reason for the FRAGO. It may also update subordinates on the current status of brigade-level engineer missions.
  • *Concept. Gives changes to the concept of operations and the corresponding changes to subunit tasks. Must also include any changes in the engineer company commander's intent.*
  • Coordinating instructions. Includes changes to "Service Support" and "Command and Signal" paragraphs of the current OPORD made necessary by the change in the SOEO.



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