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     An effective unit marksmanship program reflects the priority, emphasis, and interest of commanders and trainers. This chapter provides a proven rifle marksmanship training strategy as guidance in establishing and conducting an effective training program. The strategy consists of the progressive individual training periods taught during initial entry training (IET). It progresses into advanced skills and concludes with advanced reading material. Refresher training need only be conducted on periods that are deemed necessary.
     The proficiency attained by a soldier depends on proper training and application of the basic marksmanship fundamentals. During initial marksmanship training, emphasis is on learning the firing fundamentals, which are taught in four phases-preliminary rifle instruction, downrange feedback, field firing, and advanced firing exercises. This prepares soldiers for advanced optic and laser training for combat-type collective exercises and real world deployments.


This section details the effective and proven method of training the soldier in preliminary rifle marksmanship. The following marksmanship training guide contains the current tasks that are trained in basic rifle marksmanship programs, during basic combat training at Army training centers (ATCs), and during infantry one-station unit training (OSUT). It provides a basis for structuring unit sustainment programs. The unit normally performs a diagnostic test of the tasks and only conducts training on specific periods for soldiers who must improve their basic firing skills. Training is usually conducted in a shorter time frame than at IET.


The procedures and methods used in the Army basic rifle marksmanship program are based on the concept that soldiers must become skilled marksmen. FM 25-100 stresses marksmanship as a paramount soldier skill. The basic firing skills and exercises outlined in this manual must be part of every unit's marksmanship training program. Unit commanders must focus their basic and advanced marksmanship training programs to support their respective mission-essential task list (METL).


Training strategy is the overall concept for integrating resources into a program to train the individual and collective skills needed to perform a unit's wartime mission. Training strategies for basic rifle marksmanship are implemented in TRADOC institutions (IET, Noncommissioned Officers Education System [NCOES], Infantry Officer Basic Course [IOBC]) and in units. The overall training strategy is multifaceted and includes supporting strategies that use resources such as publications, ranges, ammunition, training aids and devices, simulators, and simulations. These strategies focus on developing the critical soldier and leader skills required for success in combat.

Two primary components form the training strategy: initial training and sustainment training. Both may include individual and collective skills. Initial training must be taught correctly the first time. A task taught correctly and learned well is retained longer and skills can be sustained. However, an individual or unit eventually loses skill proficiency. This learning decay depends on many factors such as the difficulty and complexity of the task. Personnel turnover is a main factor in decay of collective skills, since the loss of critical team members requires retraining to regain proficiency. If a long period elapses between initial and sustainment sessions or training doctrine is altered retraining may be required.

a.   Initial Training. The training strategy for basic rifle marksmanship begins in IET and continues in the unit. (An example of this overall process is illustrated in Figure 1-1 and provides a concept of the flow of unit sustainment training.) IET provides field units soldiers who have been trained and who have demonstrated proficiency to standard in basic rifle marksmanship. The soldier graduating from these courses has been trained to maintain the rifle and hit a point target. He has learned to apply the four marksmanship fundamentals, and other skills needed to engage a target.

(1)   Once the soldier understands the weapon and has demonstrated skill in zeroing, additional live-fire training exercises are conducted before qualification. Target types and scenarios of increasing difficulty must be mastered to develop proficiency.

(2)   IET culminates in the soldier's proficiency assessment, which is conducted on the standard record fire range or approved alternates, followed by instruction on advanced firing techniques to include a night fire with either iron sights (unassisted) or night vision goggles (assisted). This evaluation also provides an overview of training effectiveness.

b.   Sustainment Training. Training continues in units using the basic skills taught in IET. Additional skills, such as area fire, are trained and integrated into collective training exercises, which include platoon and squad live-fire situation training exercises (STXs).

(1)   The strategy for sustaining the basic marksmanship skills taught in IET is periodic preliminary rifle instruction, followed by instructional and qualification range firing. A unit must set up a year-round program to sustain skills. Key elements include training of trainers, refresher training of nonfiring skills, and use of the Weaponeer, Engagement Skills Trainer (EST), location of misses and hits (LOMAH), or other devices for remedial training. Additional skills trained in the unit include semiautomatic and automatic area fires, night fire, MOPP firing, firing using aiming devices, and moving target training techniques.

(2)   General marksmanship knowledge and weapon proficiency are perishable skills. Marksmanship training should be conducted for short periods throughout the year. Most units have a readiness requirement that all soldiers must zero their rifles within a certain time after unit assignment. Soldiers must confirm the battle sight zeros of their assigned rifles before conducting a qualification firing. Units should conduct preliminary training and practice firing throughout the year due to personnel turnover. A year-round marksmanship sustainment program is needed for the unit to maintain the individual and collective firing proficiency requirements to accomplish its mission.

Figure 1-1. Unit marksmanship sustainment strategy.

Figure 1-1.  Unit marksmanship sustainment strategy.


The procedures and techniques for implementing the Army rifle marksmanship training program are based on all soldiers understanding common firing principles, being proficient marksmen, and being confident in applying their firing skills in combat. This depends on understanding the rifle and applying marksmanship fundamentals. Unit leaders accomplish proficiency through supervised practice by qualified instructors/trainers and thorough objective performance assessments. During preliminary rifle instruction (PRI), instructors/trainers emphasize initial learning by reviewing, reinforcing, and practicing the basics. Soldiers must master weapon maintenance, function checks, and firing fundamentals before progressing to advanced skills and firing exercises under tactical conditions. Soldier skills are developed in five phases:

  • PHASE I. Basic Rifle Marksmanship (BRM) Preliminary Rifle Instruction (PRI).

Introduction to BRM and mechanical training (4 hours)


Disassembly and assembly


Identify parts


Function check


Load/unload magazine


Ammunition types and care


Load/unload weapon


Correct malfunctions (SPORTS)


Adjust front and rear sights


Peer coaching


Eight cycles of function and trouble shooting


Marksmanship Fundamentals I (6 hours)


The four fundamentals


Basic firing positions


Range and safety procedures


Dominant eye training


Demonstrate the integrated act of shooting during dry fire exercises


Marksmanship Fundamentals II (6 hours)


Demonstrate the integrated act of shooting using the Weaponeer.

  • PHASE II. BRM Downrange Feedback Range Firing.

Grouping procedures (6 hours)


Zeroing procedures (8 hours)


Downrange feedback (6 hours)

  • PHASE III. BRM Field Firing on Train-Fire Ranges.

Field Fire I (single timed targets at 75, 175 and 300 meters) (3 hours)


Field Fire II (single and multiple timed targets at 75, 175 and 300 meters)


(3 hours)


Practice Record Fire (4 hours)


Practice Record Fire II (4 hours)


Record Fire (3 hours)

  • PHASE IV. Advanced Rifle Marksmanship.

Alternate firing positions


Burst fire


Quick fire


Nuclear, biological, chemical (NBC) fire


Moving targets


Squad designated marksman


Unassisted night record fire


Assisted night record fire infrared (IR)


Assisted night record fire (thermal)


Short range marksmanship

  • PHASE V. Advanced Optics, Lasers, and Iron Sights.

Backup iron sight (BIS)


M68 close combat optic (CCO)


AN/PAQ-4C IR aiming laser


AN/PEQ-2A target pointer illuminator/aiming light (TPIAL)


Thermal weapon sight (TWS)


AN/PVS-4 night vision sight

Soldiers progress through these phases of rifle marksmanship training and sustainment. These phases start with basic rifle marksmanship and progress into advanced rifle marksmanship. Once these phases are mastered the soldier progresses into advanced optics, and lasers. After all phases of rifle marksmanship are accomplished the final stage is to conduct collective training during unit live-fire training exercises. An effective marksmanship program can be measured by the unit's ability to put effective fire on target. When the soldier is trained in all phases of rifle marksmanship a solid sustainment program is the key to mission readiness.


An effective unit marksmanship program reflects the priority, emphasis, and interest of commanders and trainers. This section proposes a rifle marksmanship training strategy as guidance in establishing and conducting an effective training program. The strategy consists of the individual and leader refresher training for maintaining the basic skills learned during IET. It progresses to training advanced and collective skills under near-combat conditions during live-fire STXs.


Marksmanship proficiency is critical and basic to soldiering and is required for any unit deployed to a wartime theater. All commanders should develop a mission-essential task list (METL) and organize a training program that devotes adequate time to marksmanship. The unit's combat mission must be considered when establishing training priorities. This not only applies to the tasks selected for the unit's METL but also the conditions under which the tasks are to be performed. If a unit may be employed in an urban environment, the effects of range, gravity, and wind may not be too important, but automatic or burst fire, quick fire, and assault fire would be. The reverse may be true of a unit that expects to engage the enemy at long ranges with rifle fire.


To conduct an effective marksmanship program, the unit commander must determine the current marksmanship proficiency of all assigned personnel. To check the effectiveness of a unit's marksmanship program, constant evaluation is required. Observing and accurately recording performance reveals the status of rifle and magazine maintenance, the quality of the rifle's zero, and the ability of each soldier to hit targets. This also allows the commander to identify soldiers who need special assistance in order to reach required standards, and to recognize soldiers who exceed these standards. Based on this evaluation, marksmanship training programs can be developed and executed.

a.   This assessment is continuous, and the program is modified as required. Spot checks of individual marksmanship performance, such as interviews and evaluations of soldiers, provide valuable information as to whether the soldier knows how to zero, to use NVDs, and to perform other marksmanship tasks.

b.   In addition to spot checks and direct observation of training, assessment includes a review of past training, which provides valuable information for developing a training plan. The assessment should include how record fire was conducted, what course of fire was used, how often the unit conducted collective NBC or night fire, and so on. The results are reviewed to determine unit weaknesses and which individuals require special attention.

c.   Based on the commander's evaluation, goals, and missions, training events are identified that should be conducted quarterly, semiannually, or annually. Rifle marksmanship programs must be continuous. While the unit may only qualify its soldiers annually or semiannually, test results show that sustainment training is required at least quarterly to maintain marksmanship skills.


Knowledgeable instructors or cadre are the key to marksmanship performance. All commanders must be aware of maintaining expertise in marksmanship instruction/training.

a.   Instructor-Trainer Selection. Institutional and unit instructor-trainers are selected and assigned from the most highly qualified soldiers. These soldiers must have an impressive background in rifle marksmanship; be proficient in applying these fundamentals; know the importance of marksmanship training; and have a competent and professional attitude. The commander must ensure that selected instructor-trainers can effectively train other soldiers. Local instructor-trainer training courses and marksmanship certification programs must be established to ensure that instructor-trainer skills are developed.

b.   Cadre-Trainer. Cadre-trainer refers to a marksmanship instructor-trainer that has more experience and expertise than the firer does. He trains soldiers in the effective use of the rifle by maintaining strict discipline on the firing line, insisting on compliance with range procedures and program objectives, and enforcing safety regulations. A good instructor-trainer must understand the training phases and techniques for developing marksmanship skills, and he must possess the following qualifications.

(1)   Knowledge. The main qualifications for an effective instructor-trainer are thorough knowledge of the rifle, proficiency in firing, and a thorough understanding of this manual and supporting manuals.

(2)   Patience. The instructor-trainer must relate to the soldier calmly, persistently, and patiently.

(3)   Understanding. The instructor-trainer can enhance success and understanding by emphasizing close observance of rules and instructions.

(4)   Consideration. Most soldiers enjoy firing regardless of their performance and begin with great enthusiasm. The instructor-trainer can enhance this enthusiasm by being considerate of his soldiers' feelings and by encouraging firing abilities throughout training, which can also make teaching a rewarding experience.

(5)   Respect. An experienced cadre is assigned the duties of instructor-trainer, which classifies him as a technical expert and authority. A good instructor-trainer is alert for mistakes and patiently makes needed corrections.

(6)   Encouragement. The instructor-trainer can encourage his soldiers by convincing them to achieve good firing performance through practice. His job is to impart knowledge and to assist the soldier so he can gain the practical experience needed to become a good firer.


Knowledgeable small-unit leaders are the key to marksmanship training. This manual and other training publications provide the unit instructor with the required information for developing a good train-the-trainer program.

(1)   The commander should identify unit personnel who have had assignments as marksmanship instructors. These individuals should be used to train other unit cadre by conducting preliminary rifle instruction and live-fire exercises for their soldiers.

(2)   Assistance and expertise from outside the unit may also be available such as the Army Marksmanship Unit at Fort Benning, Georgia. A suggested train-the-trainer program is outlined below:

  • Conduct marksmanship diagnostic test.
  • Review operation and function, immediate action, and safety of rifle and ammunition.
  • Conduct PRI; review four fundamentals.
  • Review coaching techniques and device usage.
  • Establish grouping and zeroing procedures.
  • Review effects of wind and gravity when firing out to 300 meters (out to 600 meters for advanced rifle marksmanship).
  • Conduct range operations.
  • Conduct qualification/record firing.
  • Diagnose firing problems.


The instructor-trainer helps the firer master the fundamentals of rifle marksmanship. He ensures that the firer consistently applies what he has learned. Then, with practice, the firer soon acquires good firing skills. When training the beginner, the instructor-trainer could confront problems such as fear, nervousness, forgetfulness, failure to understand, and a lack of coordination or determination. An expert firer is often unaware that arrogance and carelessness complicate problems. With all types of firers, the instructor-trainer must ensure that firers are aware of their firing errors, understand the causes, and apply remedies. Sometimes errors are not evident. The instructor-trainer must isolate errors, explain them, and help the firer concentrate on correcting them.

a.   Observing the Firer. The instructor-trainer observes the firer during drills and in the act of firing to pinpoint errors. If there is no indication of probable error, then the firer's position, breath control, shot anticipation, and trigger squeeze are closely observed.

b.   Questioning the Firer. The firer is asked to detect his errors and to explain his firing procedure to include position, aiming, breath control, and trigger squeeze.

c.   Analyzing the Shot Group. This is an important step in detecting and correcting errors. When analyzing a target, the instructor-trainer critiques and correlates observations of the firer to probable errors in performance, according to the shape and size of shot groups. A poor shot group is usually caused by more than one observable error.


The certification program sustains the trainers' expertise and develops methods of training. The program standardizes procedures for certifying marksmanship trainers. Trainers' technical expertise must be continuously refreshed, updated, and closely managed.

a.   Training Base. The training base can expect the same personnel changes as any other organization. Soldiers assigned as marksmanship trainers will have varying experience and knowledge of training procedures and methods. Therefore, the trainer certification program must be an ongoing process that is tailored to address these variables. As a minimum, formal records should document program progression for each trainer. All marksmanship trainers must complete the three phases of training using the progression steps, and they must be updated on a quarterly basis. One of the goals of the program is for the trainer to know the training mission.

b.   Certification Program Outline. All trainers must attend, then conduct, all phases of the train-the-trainer program. Demonstrating the ability to train soldiers, to diagnose and correct problems, and to achieve standards certifies trainers. Those trainers who fail to attend or fail any phase of the diagnostic examination will be assigned to subsequent training. The personnel designated to present instruction must complete the phases of the program in the sequence described.

(1)   Phase I, Program Orientation. During this phase, the trainer must accomplish the following tasks and be certified by the chain of command.

  • Be briefed on the concept of the certification program.
  • Be briefed on the unit's marksmanship training strategy.
  • Review the unit's marksmanship training outlines.
  • Review issued reference material.
  • Visit training sites and firing ranges.

(2)   Phase II, Preliminary Marksmanship Training. During Phase II, the trainer must demonstrate his ability to master the fundamentals of marksmanship. Phase II should be completed within two weeks after Phase I. The following fundamentals must be reviewed by the chain of command. The results of this review are recorded and maintained on a trainer's progression sheet, which is designed in accordance with the unit's SOP.

  • Characteristics.
  • Capabilities.
  • Disassembly.
  • Clean, lubricate, and inspect.
  • Assembly.
  • Range determination and estimation.
  • Classes of fire.
  • Application of fire.
  • Fire commands.
  • Loading.
  • Unloading.
  • Immediate actions and remedial actions.
  • Sight manipulations.
  • Scanning techniques.

(3)   Phase III, Basic Marksmanship Training. During this phase, the trainer must set up and conduct firing on the various ranges. He must explain the targets and the zeroing and scoring procedures. The trainer must explain the purpose of transition firing, field zero procedures, range layout, and the conduct of training on the transition range. This briefing to the chain of command validates the trainer's knowledge necessary to conduct training. The results of this interview are recorded on the trainer's progression sheet.

(4)   Phase IV, Advanced Marksmanship Training. This is the final phase of the train-the-trainer program and tests the trainer. The trainer must set up a range and conduct training of at least one person. If ammunition is available, the trainer conducts a firing exercise. If ammunition is not available, the testing is based on the quality of training given.


Although marksmanship is a continuous training requirement, units normally conduct a refresher program before qualification. Soldiers must be well rounded in marksmanship fundamentals and have preparatory marksmanship training before qualification. This applies to qualification for the entire unit or for newly assigned personnel. All trainers must understand that rifle marksmanship is not a series of exercises to be trained in a planned sequence. The unit must prepare for training by:

  • Issuing soldiers a serviceable weapon.
  • Maintaining and replacing bad magazines.
  • Issuing and assigning each soldier his own rifle that only he zeros and fires.
  • Considering available or required resources early such as targets, ranges, ammunition, training aids, devices, and publications.

a.   Before the soldier can fire, he must know how to adjust rifle sights and should understand ballistics to include the effects of wind and gravity on a bullet strike. A refresher training program can prevent frustration and loss of confidence in the soldier, and also prevent wasting ammunition and training time. This program is conducted for all soldiers so they can meet the standards outlined in this manual and supporting manuals.


Many individual marksmanship tasks, such as operation and function checks, immediate action, target detection, and dry fire, do not require live firing.

b.   Feedback (precise knowledge of bullet strike) must be included in all live-fire training. The feedback is not adequate when bullets from previous firings cannot be identified such as previous shot groups on a zero target that are not triangulated and clearly marked.

c.   The initial live fire should be a grouping exercise, which allows soldiers to apply marksmanship fundamentals to obtain tight, consistent shot groups. Following a successful grouping exercise, zeroing is quick and simple using only a few rounds.

d.   After zeroing, downrange feedback should be conducted. A series of scaled-silhouette targets provide unlimited situations for training on the 25-meter range if modified field-fire or KD ranges are not available. The timed-fire scaled-silhouette target can add to successful record fire performance since it represents targets at six different ranges, requires quick response, and allows precise feedback. It is another way to confirm zero and requires the application of the four fundamentals. This exercise can benefit units that have access only to 25-meter ranges.

e.   Field-fire training is a transitional phase that stresses focusing on a certain area. Soldiers must detect the target as soon as it comes up and quickly fire with only hit-or-miss feedback; this is an important combat skill. Soldiers who are exposed to the field-fire range before they have refined their basic firing skills cannot benefit from the exercise. For example, if most 175- and 300-meter targets are missed, additional feedback or PRI training should be conducted.

f.   The Army standard record fire course involves an element of surprise in that the soldier should not be familiar with the lane in which he qualifies. He must scan the sector and apply detection skills and range estimation skills. However, practice can be repeated on the record fire course when available. This course provides the best opportunity for practicing target detection skills and for engaging targets at ranges from 50 to 300 meters.

g.   For inadequate firers, remedial training is conducted to include the use of the Weaponeer device. Soldiers proficient in marksmanship skills can assist in the remedial training effort.


Unit live-fire exercises are planned, prepared, and performed as outlined in the mission training plan for the infantry platoon and squad. The soldier performs marksmanship tasks under realistic combat conditions within the framework of these exercises. Table 1-1 shows training devices a commander can use instead of standard live-fire and the exercises these devices may be used with. (See Appendix A for details on these training devices.)

Table 1-1. Training devices and exercises.

Table 1-1. Training devices and exercises.

a.   During training, the fundamentals must apply to combat as well as to the range. Too often soldiers disregard the fundamentals while under the pressure of combat. Therefore, it is imperative the soldier receives feedback regarding his firing results and his use of the fundamentals during collective live-fire exercises. This training should also discuss target acquisition, area fire, quick fire, assuming firing positions, responding to oral fire commands, and safety. Dry fire or MILES rehearsals at crawl, walk, and run paces are required to learn SOPs and proper procedures.

b.   Enough evaluators must be present during training to observe each soldier to provide performance feedback. The evaluator must know the scenario, the location of targets, the friendly plan, and SOPs. He must watch to determine if the soldier identifies targets in his sector and successfully engages them. The evaluator must also know the fundamentals of marksmanship to detect soldiers' mistakes and review them during the after-action review (AAR).


Through the active and aggressive leadership of the chain of command, a perpetual base of expertise is established and maintained. The unit's esprit de corps is significantly raised through the trainers' desire to improve and demonstrate they are the best. The goal of a progressive train-the-trainer program is to achieve a high state of combat readiness. The following is an example of a commander's evaluation guide. Commanders can use this guide not only to assess their unit's marksmanship proficiency, but to assess the leaders of their units and their ability to effectively implement a marksmanship program. They can also use it to develop the NCOs into subject matter experts within the unit.


Have you clearly stated the priority of rifle (small-arms) proficiency in your unit? What is it? Do the staff and subordinates support this priority? Is it based on your METL and an understanding of FM 25-100?



Have you clearly stated the intent of record fire? Are leaders accurately evaluating firing performance, based on accurately recorded data and results?



Have you clearly stated that weapons qualification or record fire is one of the commander's opportunities to assess several skills relating to small-arms readiness?



What qualification course will be used to evaluate your unit's marksmanship readiness (small arms)?

a.   Is the standard combat course, 300 yard KD; 25-meter scaled target or 300-meter qualification course used?

b.   How will it be conducted? Will the prescribed procedures be followed?

c.   Who will collect the data?


Have you clearly stated the purpose and intent of PRI?

a.   What skills will PRI address?

b.   Will PRI be performance-oriented? Are tasks integrated?



Do soldiers maintain their assigned weapons and magazines IAW the technical manual? Do they have a manual?



Do soldiers conduct serviceability checks of weapons and magazines before training? Were maintenance deficiencies corrected?



Do soldiers demonstrate an understanding of the weapon's operation, functioning, and capabilities?



Can your soldiers correctly apply immediate-action procedures to reduce weapon stoppages and then quickly continue to fire? Have they demonstrated this during dry fire?



Are your soldiers firing their assigned weapons?

a.   How often are weapons reassigned between individuals?

b.   What is the value of a recorded zero?


Can your soldiers precisely and consistently apply the four fundamentals of rifle marksmanship? To what standard have they demonstrated their mastery?

  • During dry fire?
  • During live fire?
  • During firing on the 25-meter course?
  • During KD firing?


Can your soldiers accurately battle sight zero their assigned rifle to standards?

a.   Do they understand sight adjustment procedures?

b.   Do they record their rifle's zero? How is it done? Why?

c.   Do they record the date the specific soldier last zeroed his specific rifle? What is the specific sight setting? Are these linked? How do you check this?



Do your soldiers demonstrate their knowledge of the effects of wind and gravity while firing out to 300 meters? What feedback was provided? How?



Can your soldiers scan a designated area or sector of fire and detect all targets out to 300 meters? If not, why?



Can your soldiers quickly engage timed single and multiple targets from both supported and unsupported firing positions out to 300 meters? If not, which targets were not engaged? Which were missed? Why?



During individual and collective training, do soldiers demonstrate their ability to manage allocated ammunition and to engage all targets? Do they fire several rounds at one target? Which targets? Why?



Based on an analysis of individual qualification scores, what is the distribution?

a.   Are most soldiers just meeting the minimum acceptable performance (marksman)?

b.   Are most soldiers distributed in the upper half of the performance spectrum (sharpshooter, expert)?

c.   What is the hit distribution during collective LFXs?


Do your soldiers demonstrate proficiency during night-fire, target detection and acquisition, and night fire engagement techniques? Use of night vision devices?



Do your soldiers demonstrate individual marksmanship proficiency during MOPP firing conditions? During collective exercises?



Do your soldiers demonstrate proficiency in moving target engagements? Do they demonstrate proficiency collectively at the multipurpose range complex by hitting moving targets? If not, do you conduct moving target training?



Do you integrate marksmanship skills into tactical exercises and unit live-fire exercises? If so, do you conduct suppressive fire, rapid-semiautomatic fire, and automatic or burst fire. What tasks in the mission training plan are evaluated?



Based on your on-site observations and analysis of training and firing performance, what skills or tasks show a readiness deficiency?

a.   What skills need training emphasis? Individual emphasis? Leader emphasis?

b.   What are your performance goals?


Who has trained or will train the trainers?

a.   What is the subject matter expertise of the cadre?

b.   Are they actually training the critical skills?

c.   Have they addressed the non-firing skills first?

d.   What aids and devices are being used?


What administrative constraints or training distracters can you overcome for the junior officer and NCO? At what level are the resources necessary to train marksmanship controlled (time, aids, weapons, ammunition, ranges)? Do the sergeants do the job they are charged with?

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